NFC Championship Game

The NFC Championship Game is the annual championship game of the National Football Conference and one of the two semi-final playoff games of the National Football League, the largest professional American football league in the United States. The game is played on the penultimate Sunday in January by the two remaining playoff teams, following the NFC postseason's first two rounds; the NFC champion advances to face the winner of the AFC Championship Game in the Super Bowl. The game was established as part of the 1970 merger between the NFL and the American Football League, with the merged league realigning into two conferences. Since 1984, each winner of the NFC Championship Game has received the George Halas Trophy, named after the founder and longtime owner of the Chicago Bears, George Halas; the first NFC Championship Game was played following the 1970 regular season after the merger between the NFL and the American Football League. The game is considered the successor to the original NFL Championship, its game results are listed with that of its predecessor in the annual NFL Record and Fact Book.

Since the pre-merger NFL consisted of six more teams than the AFL, a realignment was done as part of the merger to create two conferences with an equal number of teams: The NFL's Baltimore Colts, the Cleveland Browns, the Pittsburgh Steelers joined the ten former AFL teams to form the AFC. Every NFC team has played in an NFC Championship at least once; the Seattle Seahawks, who have been members in both the AFC and the NFC, hold the distinction of appearing in both conference title games. Only the Detroit Lions have yet to host an NFC Championship Game; the San Francisco 49ers have the most appearances in the NFC Championship Game at 16, have hosted the most at 10. The Dallas Cowboys have won the most NFC Championships at 8; the Los Angeles Rams and the Minnesota Vikings are the only two NFC teams to appear in at least one NFC Championship game in every decade since 1970. At the end of each regular season, a series of playoff games involving the top six teams in the NFC are conducted. In the current NFL playoff structure, this consists of the four division champions and two wild card teams.

The two teams remaining following the Wild Card round and the divisional round play in the NFC Championship game. The site of the game was determined on a rotating basis. Since the 1975–76 season, the site of the NFC Championship has been based on playoff seeding based on the regular season won-loss record, with the highest surviving seed hosting the game. A wild card team can only host the game if both participants are wild cards, in which case the fifth seed would host the sixth seed; such an instance has never occurred in the NFL. Beginning with the 1984–85 NFL playoffs, the winner of the NFC Championship Game has received the George Halas Trophy, named after the longtime owner and coach of the Chicago Bears, a charter member of the NFL; the original design consisted of a wooden base with a sculpted NFC logo in the front and a sculpture of various football players in the back. It, the Lamar Hunt Trophy, awarded to the AFC champion, were redesigned for the 2010–11 NFL playoffs by Tiffany & Co. at the request of the NFL in an attempt to make both awards more significant.

The trophies are now a new, silver design with the outline of a hollow football positioned on a small base to more resemble the Vince Lombardi Trophy, awarded to the winner of the Super Bowl. The George Halas Trophy should not be confused with the Newspaper Enterprise Association's George S. Halas Trophy, awarded to the NFL's defensive player of the year from 1966 to 1996 or the Pro Football Writers Association's George S. Halas Courage Award. Numbers in parentheses in the winning team column are NFC Championships won by that team. Bold indicates. Numbers in parentheses in the city and stadium column is the number of times that metropolitan area and stadium has hosted a NFC Championship, respectively.^ a: Overtime ^ b: Includes appearances during their first tenure in Los Angeles, where they went 1–6 in NFC Championship Games. Including their only appearance in the AFC Championship Game, they hold a combined 3–1 record between both Conference Championship Games. Most victories: 8 – Dallas Cowboys Most losses: 9** – San Francisco 49ers Most appearances: 16 – San Francisco 49ers Most consecutive appearances: 4 Dallas Cowboys Philadelphia Eagles Most consecutive victories: 2 – Dallas Cowboys Minnesota Vikings Washington Redskins San Francisco 49ers Green Bay Packers Seattle Seahawks Most victories without a loss: 5** – New York Giants Most appearances without a win: 1 – Detroit Lions Most consecutive appearances without a win: 6 – Minnesota Vikings Most defensive shutouts: 2**.

Territorial Force

The Territorial Force was a part-time volunteer component of the British Army, created in 1908 to augment British land forces without resorting to conscription. The new organisation consolidated the 19th-century Volunteer Force and yeomanry into a unified auxiliary, commanded by the War Office and administered by local County Territorial Associations; the Territorial Force was designed to reinforce the regular army in expeditionary operations abroad, but because of political opposition it was assigned to home defence. Members could not be compelled to serve overseas. In the first two months of the First World War, territorials volunteered for foreign service in significant numbers, allowing territorial units to be deployed abroad, they saw their first action on the Western Front during the initial German offensive of 1914, the force filled the gap between the near destruction of the regular army that year and the arrival of the New Army in 1915. Territorial units were deployed to Gallipoli in 1915 and, following the failure of that campaign, provided the bulk of the British contribution to allied forces in the Sinai and Palestine Campaign.

By the war's end, the Territorial Force had fielded twenty-three infantry divisions and two mounted divisions on foreign soil. It was reconstituted in 1921 as the Territorial Army; the force experienced problems throughout its existence. On establishment, fewer than 40 per cent of the men in the previous auxiliary institutions transferred into it, it was under strength until the outbreak of the First World War, it was not considered to be an effective military force by the regular army and was denigrated by the proponents of conscription. Lord Kitchener chose to concentrate the Territorial Force on home defence and raise the New Army to reinforce the British Expeditionary Force in France, a decision which disappointed the territorials; the need to replace heavy losses suffered by the BEF before the New Army was ready forced Kitchener to deploy territorial units overseas, compromising the force's ability to defend the homeland. To replace foreign-service units, the Territorial Force was doubled in size by creating a second line which mirrored the organisation of the original, first-line units.

Second-line units assumed responsibility for home defence and provided replacement drafts to the first line. The second line was poorly equipped and armed; the provision of replacements to the first line compromised the second line's home defence capabilities until a third line was raised to take over responsibility for territorial recruitment and training. The second line's duties were further complicated by the expectation confirmed, that it too would be deployed overseas. Territorial units were deployed overseas to free up regular units from non-combat duties. On the Western Front, individual battalions were attached to regular army formations and sent into action, the territorials were credited with playing a key role in stopping the German offensive; the first complete territorial division to be deployed to a combat zone arrived in France in March 1915. Territorial divisions began participating in offensive operations on the Western Front from June 1915 and at Gallipoli that year; because of the way it was constituted and recruited, the Territorial Force possessed an identity, distinct from the regular army and the New Army.

This became diluted as heavy casualties were replaced with conscripted recruits following the introduction of compulsory service in early 1916. The Territorial Force was further eroded as a separate institution when County Territorial Associations were relieved of most of their administrative responsibilities. By the war's end, there was little to distinguish between regular and New Army formations; the British Army of the late 19th century was a small, professional organisation designed to garrison the empire and maintain order at home, with no capacity to provide an expeditionary force in a major war. It was augmented in its home duties by three part-time volunteer institutions, the militia, the Volunteer Force and the yeomanry. Battalions of the militia and Volunteer Force had been linked with regular army regiments since 1872, the militia was used as a source of recruitment into the regular army; the terms of service for all three auxiliaries made service overseas voluntary. The Second Boer War exposed weaknesses in the ability of the regular army to counter guerrilla warfare which required additional manpower to overcome.

The only reinforcements available were the auxiliaries – nearly 46,000 militiamen served in South Africa and another 74,000 were enlisted into the regular army. The war placed a significant strain on the regular forces. Against a background of invasion scares in the press, George Wyndham, Under-Secretary of State for War, conceded in Parliament in February 1900 that instead of augmenting the regular army's defence of the British coast, the auxiliary forces were the main defence; the questionable performance of the volunteers, caused by poor standards of efficiency and training, led to doubts in both government and the regular army about the auxiliary's ability to meet such a challenge. The war exposed the difficulty in relying on auxiliary forces which were not liable for service overseas as a source of reinforcements for the regular army in times of crisis. In 1903, the Director of General Mobilisation and Military Intelligence reported an excess of home defence forces which could not be relied up


Fennada-Filmi was a Finnish film production company, in operation from 1950 to 1982. It was one of the largest companies in its field in Finland from 1950s to 1970s. Mauno Mäkelä was the head of the company during its entire run. Fennada-Filmi had its foundation in the company Fenno-Filmi, founded in 1942 and produced 15 movies between 1944–1950; when Mauno Mäkelä was named the CEO of the company in 1949, arrangements began to combine productions of Fenno-Filmi and Adams Filmi. New company Fennada-Filmi went active in the summer of 1950, only the distributing duties remained for Adams Filmi. Mäkelä continued as the managing production manager of the new company; the final film for Fenno-Filmi, Hallin Janne by Roland af Hällström, was finished in the summer of 1950. At the same time, shooting began for Fennada-Filmi's first production Ratavartijan kaunis Inkeri, directed by Hannu Leminen. In 1952, Lasse Pöysti joined the company as a director, made a total of eight films during the next years. Director Ville Salminen switched from Suomen Filmiteollisuus to Fennada-Filmi in 1953, the next year Aarne Tarkas joined in as well.

In 1955, Hällström directed Fennada-Filmi's first commercial success, Ryysyrannan Jooseppi which received three Jussi Awards. When Hällström died the next year, Mauno Mäkelä hired Matti Kassila as his replacement. Kassila's first Fennada-Filmi production was Elokuu. Although the film received critical acclaim and won six Jussi Awards, it was not a commercial success. However, Kassila's next two films, Kuriton sukupolvi and Syntipukki – both remakes of the 1930s Finnish films – did well at the box office. Since the beginning, Fennada-Filmi had suffered from lack of new ideas and resorted to remakes, while keeping up the fast production pace. In 1961, two successful films premiered, Ritva Arvelo's Kultainen vasikka and Matti Kassila's Kaasua, komisario Palmu!, a sequel to Kassila's Komisario Palmun erehdys. That film had been produced by Suomen Filmiteollisuus, but Mauno Mäkelä managed to get the rights to the sequel. Robert Balser, an American animator, established Fennada-Filmi's animation department.

The fate of Fennada-Filmi was at stake with the actors' strike in 1963, a plan was made to sell the company to the Finnish Broadcasting Company. This, proved to be a controversial move, the deal was cancelled. Throughout the mid-1960s, new films went into production only infrequently. In the fall of 1966, shooting began for a film adaptation of a Väinö Linna's Täällä Pohjantähden alla. Directed by Edvin Laine, the film was a commercial success; the sequel Akseli and Elina did well when it was released in 1970. Only five more films were released by Fennada-Filmi, with Laine's Ruskan jälkeen being the final one. In 1982, the Finnish Broadcasting Company bought the company. Justus järjestää kaiken Kaasua, komisario Palmu! Kultainen vasikka Tähdet kertovat, komisario Palmu Hermoprässi Sissit Hopeaa rajan takaa Täällä alkaa seikkailu Rakkaus alkaa aamuyöstä Täällä Pohjantähden alla Vodkaa, komisario Palmu Kesyttömät veljekset Akseli and Elina Aatamin puvussa... ja vähän Eevankin Pohjantähti Meiltähän tämä käy Luottamus Ruskan jälkeen – Fennada-Filmi Mäkelä, Mauno.

Kerrankin hyvä kotimainen: elokuvatuottajan muistelmat. Porvoo, Juva: WSOY. ISBN 951-0-20956-2. Uusitalo, Kari. Suomen kansallisfilmografia 4–8. Helsinki: VAPK, Suomen elokuva-arkisto