Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad
The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad was a U. S. Class 1 railroad that connected Buffalo, New York, Hoboken, New Jersey, a distance of about 400 miles. Incorporated in 1853, the DL&W was profitable during the first two decades of the twentieth century, but its margins were hurt by declining traffic in coal and competition from trucks. In 1960, the DL&W merged with rival Erie Railroad to form the Erie Lackawanna Railroad; the Leggett's Gap Railroad stayed dormant for many years. It was chartered on March 14, 1849, organized January 2, 1850. On April 14, 1851, its name was changed to the Western Railroad; the line, running north from Scranton, Pennsylvania, to Great Bend, just south of the New York state line, opened on December 20, 1851. From Great Bend the L&W obtained trackage rights north and west over the New York and Erie Rail Road to Owego, New York, where it leased the Cayuga and Susquehanna Railroad to Ithaca on Cayuga Lake; the C&S was a re-organized and re-built Ithaca and Owego Railroad, which had opened on April 1, 1834, was the oldest part of the DL&W system.
The whole system was built to 6 ft broad gauge, the same as the New York and Erie, although the original I&O was built to standard gauge and converted to wide gauge when re-built as the C&S. The Delaware and Cobb's Gap Railroad was chartered December 4, 1850, to build a line from Scranton east to the Delaware River. Before it opened, the Delaware and Cobb's Gap and Lackawanna and Western were consolidated by the Lackawanna Steel Company into one company, the Delaware and Western Railroad, on March 11, 1853. On the New Jersey side of the Delaware River, the Warren Railroad was chartered February 12, 1851, to continue from the bridge over the river southeast to Hampton on the Central Railroad of New Jersey; that section got its name from Warren County, the county through which it would run. The rest of the line, now known as the Southern Division, opened on May 27, 1856, including the New Jersey section. A third rail was added to the standard gauge Central Railroad of New Jersey east of Hampton to allow the DL&W to run east to Elizabeth via trackage rights.
On December 10, 1868, the DL&W bought the Essex Railroad. This line ran east-west across northern New Jersey, crossing the Warren Railroad at Washington and providing access to Jersey City without depending on the CNJ; the M&E tunnel under Bergen Hill opened in 1876 relieving it of its use of the New York, Lake Erie and Western Railway in Jersey City. Along with the M&E lease came several branch lines in New Jersey, including the Boonton Line, which bypassed Newark for through freight; the DL&W bought the Syracuse and New York Railroad in 1869 and leased the Oswego and Syracuse Railroad on February 13, 1869. This gave it a branch from Binghamton north and northwest via Syracuse to Oswego, a port on Lake Ontario; the Greene Railroad was organized in 1869, opened in 1870, was leased to the DL&W, providing a short branch off the Oswego line from Chenango Forks to Greene. In 1870 the DL&W leased the Utica and Susquehanna Valley Railway, continuing this branch north to Utica, with a branch from Richfield Junction to Richfield Springs.
The Valley Railroad was organized March 3, 1869, to connect the end of the original line at Great Bend, Pennsylvania to Binghamton, New York, avoiding reliance on the Erie. The new line opened October 1, 1871. By 1873, the DL&W controlled the Lackawanna and Bloomsburg Railroad, a branch from Scranton southwest to Northumberland. On March 15, 1876, the whole system was re-gauged to standard gauge in one day; the New York and Western Railroad was chartered August 26, 1880, opened September 17, 1882, to continue the DL&W from Binghamton west and northwest to Buffalo. The main line ran to the International Bridge to Ontario, a branch served downtown Buffalo. On December 1, 1903, the DL&W began operating the Erie and Central New York Railroad, a branch of the Oswego line from Cortland Junction east to Cincinnatus. By 1909, the DL&W controlled the Portland Railway; this line branched from the main line at Portland, Pennsylvania southwest to Nazareth, with a branch to Martins Creek. The DL&W built a Beaux-Arts terminal in Hoboken in 1907, another Beaux-Arts passenger station in Scranton the following year.
A new terminal was constructed on the waterfront in Buffalo in 1917. The Lackawanna Railroad of New Jersey, chartered on February 7, 1908, to build the Lackawanna Cut-Off, opened on December 24, 1911; this provided a low-grade cutoff in northwestern New Jersey. The cutoff included the Delaware River Viaduct and the Paulinskill Viaduct, as well as three concrete towers at Port Morris and Greendell in New Jersey and Slateford Junction in Pennsylvania. From 1912 to 1915, the Summit-Hallstead Cutoff was built to revamp a winding and hilly system between Clarks Summit and Hallstead, Pennsylvania; this rerouting provided another quicker low-grade line between Binghamton. The Summit Cut-Off included Martins Creek Viaduct; the Lackawanna's cutoffs had no at-grade crossings with roads or highways, allowing high-speed service. The most profitable commodity shipped by the railroad was anthracite coal. In 1890 and during 1920–1940, the DL&W shipped upwards of 14% of the state of Penn
Buffalo Common Council
The Buffalo Common Council is the legislative branch of the city of Buffalo, New York government. It is a representative assembly, with one elected member from each of nine districts: Niagara, Masten, Lovejoy, North and South. In the past, the Common Council had as many as five at-large members and a Council President who were elected citywide; each council seat is elected for a four-year term, with elections occurring during off-years, between mid-term elections and presidential elections. From Buffalo's incorporation in 1832 the common council existed under New York State charters. In the early years of the common council the Buffalo Mayor, the head of the executive branch of the Buffalo government was the President of the common council, head of the legislative branch. From 1832-1854 all Mayors were Common Council President. Eli Cook was the first mayor who did not serve as Common Council President for his whole term as mayor. From 1832-1913, no mayor served as Common Council President. In 1914, New York State charters established a Council that consisted of five members – a Mayor and four Council Members.
From 1913-1927, the Council was composed of the Mayor, Commissioner of Finance and Accounts, Commissioner of Public Works, Commissioner of Parks and Public Buildings, Commissioner of Public Affairs and the Mayor was the Chairman of the Board. In 1926, the Kenefick Commission was appointed to form a new city charter after New York State authorized its cities to write their own charters in 1924. Since 1927, no Mayor has presided over the common council. A 1983 downsizing eliminated two at-large members. A 2002 downsizing eliminated the remaining three at-large members and the elected Common Council President; the size of the council's membership has been shrinking in tandem with the decrease in population. The Democratic Party is the dominant party in Buffalo politics; as of October 2015, the current membership is as follows:Rev. Darius G. Pridgen - Common Council President - Ellicott District Richard A. Fontana - Lovejoy District David Franczyk - Fillmore District Joseph Golombek, Jr. - North District Christopher P. Scanlon - President Pro Tempore, South District Joel Feroleto - Delaware District David A. Rivera - Majority Leader, Niagara District Rasheed Wyatt - University District Ulysees O. Wingo, Sr. - Masten DistrictAccording to the web site of the City of Buffalo, there is a Majority Leader and a Minority Leader if there are members from more than one political party.
In practice, there is a majority leader when all members of the council are from the same political party. Mr. Scanlon was appointed by a majority of the Council on May 16, 2012, to fill the vacancy created when Michael P. Kearns won a seat on the New York State Assembly in a special election to fill a vacancy there. Mr. Scanlon secured his seat by winning in a subsequent general election; the term of all Common Council members expires in January 2020. Budget Committee Buffalo Urban Renewal Agency Civil Service Committee Claims Committee Community Development Committee Education Committee Finance Committee Joint Schools Construction Board Legislative Committee Minority Business Enterprise Committee Police Oversight Rules Committee Transportation Committee Water Front Committee Legislative Branch - The Common Council City of Buffalo website - leadership History of the Common Council The Buffalo Common Council- Through the Years Buffalo Common Council Proceedings: Online Editions Digitized versions of Council Proceedings
New York State Route 5
New York State Route 5 is a state highway that extends for 370.80 miles across the state of New York in the United States. It begins at the Pennsylvania state line in the Chautauqua County town of Ripley and passes through Buffalo, Utica and several other smaller cities and communities on its way to downtown Albany in Albany County, where it terminates at U. S. Route 9, here routed along the service roads for Interstate 787. Prior to the construction of the New York State Thruway, it was one of two main east–west highways traversing upstate New York, the other being US 20. West of New York, NY 5 continues as Pennsylvania Route 5 to Erie. NY 5 overlaps with US 20 twice along its routing; the second, a 68-mile overlap through western and central New York, is the second-longest concurrency in the state, stretching from Avon east to the city of Auburn in Cayuga County. The concurrency is known locally as "Routes 5 and 20"; as the route proceeds across the state, it directly or indirectly meets every major north–south highway in upstate New York, including all three north–south Interstate Highways.
NY 5 was assigned in 1924 as a true cross-state highway, extending from the Pennsylvania state line in the west to the Massachusetts state line in the east by way of modern US 20. At the time, modern NY 5 between Buffalo and Albany was designated as New York State Route 5A. By 1926, NY 5 was moved onto the routing of NY 5A while the old routing of NY 5 became NY 7, it was truncated in 1927 to Athol Springs in the west and Albany in the east following the assignment of US 20, again in 1930 to downtown Buffalo. NY 5 was reextended to the Pennsylvania state line c. 1932 by way of its old routing to Athol Springs, an old alignment of US 20, a lakeside spur route of US 20, assigned in 1930. Only local realignments have occurred since. Although it is no longer used for long distance travel, NY 5 is still regionally important. NY 5 is named Main Street in Buffalo, Erie Boulevard and West Genesee Street in Syracuse, State Street in Schenectady, Central Avenue in Albany, the state capital, it is a major local road in many other locations along its path.
NY 5 runs concurrent to US 20 twice between its endpoints: for three miles between Silver Creek and Irving and for 68 miles across western and central New York. At 67.6 miles in length, the eastern overlap between US 20 and NY 5 is the longest surface-road concurrency in New York state, behind only the concurrency of I-86 and NY 17 in the Southern Tier. Maintenance of the majority of NY 5's 371 miles is performed by the New York State Department of Transportation. However, locally owned and maintained sections exist in six cities; the city-maintained sections of NY 5 are in Buffalo from NY 16 north to the city line. At the New York–Pennsylvania border in Ripley, PA 5 becomes NY 5 upon entering New York, it closely follows the shore of Lake Erie through all of Chautauqua County. Once reaching the village of Silver Creek it overlaps US 20 until entering Erie County at the Cattaraugus Reservation and NY 438 where the roads once again split. Once in Erie County it pulls inward from the lake shore from Brant to the hamlet of Wanakah.
Once past Wanakah, the road once again borders the lake shore and goes through more developed areas the Ford Stamping Plant and the Bethlehem Steel plant in the city of Lackawanna where the road is called the Hamburg Turnpike and eight wind powered turbines, which pump power into the national grid are visible. Near the northern edge of the city, NY 5 begins to ascend onto an elevated roadway as it connects to Ridge Road and the Buffalo and Erie County Botanical Gardens by way of an interchange. Here, the route becomes the Buffalo Skyway, a limited-access highway with exits for Ohio and Tifft streets and Fuhrmann Boulevard. After a quarter-mile, NY 5 passes seamlessly into the city of Buffalo. A short distance past the city line, NY 5 passes over the Union Ship Canal on a span of the elevated road known as the Father Baker Bridge. North of the waterway, the Skyway gains a frontage road named Fuhrmann Boulevard. Both the service road and the Skyway run parallel to Lake Erie until the northern end of the Buffalo Outer Harbor.
Here, the frontage roads end while NY 5 turns to the northeast, crossing the Buffalo River and entering downtown. On the north bank, the Skyway returns to a northerly routing as it passes KeyBank Center, located directly to the east, Buffalo and Erie County Naval & Military Park, situated to the west, meets I-190 at exit 7. Past the interchange, the Skyway ends and the route descends in elevation, becoming an at-grade roadway once more at Church Street in the shadow of Buffalo City Hall. NY 384 begins here, following Delaware Avenue north into the heart of downtown, while NY 5 turns east onto Church. At Main Street, Church Street splits into a pair of one-way streets and becomes North and South Division Street; the route follows South Division eastward for two blocks to an intersection with Ellicott Street located one block north of Sahlen Field. At the junction, which includes the northern terminus of NY 16, NY 5 turns northward, rejoining NY 5 westbound one block at North Division; the route continues on Ellicott for nine blocks to the unidirectional East Tupper Street, where NY 5 westbound s
Buffalo–Depew is an Amtrak train station in Depew, New York, a suburb of Buffalo. It was built in 1979 to replace the Buffalo Central Terminal as Buffalo's main Amtrak station; the station is served by eight trains per day: two Empire Service round trips, one Lake Shore Limited round trip, one Maple Leaf round trip. It has a single side platform adjacent to the southernmost of the four tracks of the Rochester Subdivision; the Lake Shore Subdivision, used by the Lake Shore Limited, diverges to the south between Buffalo–Depew and downtown Buffalo. Service to Depew began on October 28, 1979; the original building was a trailer which had served as the temporary station building in Dearborn, Michigan. The permanent building was financed by the New York Department of Transportation; the station is near the site where in 1893, Empire State Express Locomotive #999 attained its alleged top speed of 112.5 miles per hour, making it the fastest locomotive of its time. On September 23, 2014, a bison statue was dedicated on the lawn in front of the depot.
It recalls two similar pieces. Funding for the fiberglass statue was raised by railroad heritage and advocacy groups within the state. A new bison statue has been placed in Buffalo Central Terminal by the Buffalo Central Terminal Restoration Corporation. Media related to Buffalo–Depew station at Wikimedia Commons Buffalo-Depew – Amtrak Buffalo–Depew Amtrak Station Buffalo-Depew, NY
Buffalo Metro Rail
The Buffalo Metro Rail is the public transit rail system in Buffalo, New York, United States. The system consists of a single, 6.4-mile long light rail line that runs for most of the length of Main Street in the City of Buffalo, from KeyBank Center in Downtown Buffalo to the south campus of the University at Buffalo in the northeast corner of the city. The first section of the line opened in October 1984. Construction on the initial Metro Rail line began in 1979 and opened in stages: the surface portion opened on October 9, 1984 while the subway opened as far as Amherst Street Station on May 20, 1985, following an opening ceremony on May 18; the line was further extended to University Station, serving the University at Buffalo, on November 10, 1986 due to construction issues at LaSalle Station. At the time of the start of construction, the line was intended to be the first line for an extensive heavy rail system that would spread throughout the city and suburbs. However, during the construction of the line and afterward, Buffalo's population declined by 55% from around 580,000 in 1950 to about 261,000 in 2010 and the new line's ridership was much lower than anticipated.
The cost of the urban section was so high that no funding was available to extend the lines into the suburbs, including the Amherst campus of the University at Buffalo. Efforts to obtain funding for feeder lines have been met with little to no success. Although a centerpiece of the original line, the downtown transit mall did not live up to expectations; because of poor traffic patterns on Downtown Buffalo's Main Street, some business groups called for the removal of the transit system so that they can return to normal vehicle traffic and curbside parking on Main Street, hoping that this measure would recreate the prosperous days of the past. In 2008, Buffalo began a project to reintroduce cars to Main Street; the project in question involved creating a shared trackbed/roadway with curbside parking, as well as the permanent closure of the Theater Station, which occurred on February 18, 2013. The closure of Theater Station meant that Fountain Plaza Station, located 546 feet south in the 500 block of Main Street, now serves as the beginning and ending of the Free Fare Zone.
On January 23, 2015, after less than two years of construction, traffic was reintroduced to the 600 block of Main Street, between Tupper and Chippewa Streets, in the Theater District. On December 15, 2015, traffic was reintroduced to the 500 block of Main Street, between Chippewa and Mohawk Streets, in the Central Business District. On January 9, 2017, Governor Andrew Cuomo announced in his State of the State address that funding would be secured for the Amherst and Cobblestone line extensions. If successful, this would be the first extension in the service's history. Funding for an environmental review into the Amherst extension was approved in 2018; the study is expected to take between 30 months. Metro Rail is a light rail transit system as characterized by the American Public Transportation Association although it shares many characteristics with "heavy rail" metro systems and could be considered a "light metro." 80% of its track is an underground subway with high-level platforms. This section has eight stations that are spaced widely apart, comparable to subway systems elsewhere.
This section is cut-and-cover from Allen/Medical Campus to Utica deep-bored from Delavan/Canisius College to University. The remaining 20% of its track are on the surface on Main Street in downtown Buffalo. On the surface section, trains interact with automobile traffic from the theater district where it emerges from the tunnel until Mohawk Street where it reverts to a transit mall and at cross streets, where movements are governed by traffic signals. Catenary poles are spaced every 130 feet to support the overhead electrical lines. Metro Rail operates electric multiple-unit light rail vehicles in two-to-four car trains with power drawn from an overhead catenary system. Three-car trains are limited to rush hour and special events and four-car trains to special events; the Buffalo trains and SEPTA's light rail cars in Philadelphia are the only modern non-articulated LRVs operating in the United States. Fares are collected through a proof-of-payment system enforced by ticket inspectors. Travel is free on the above ground portion of the system.
Regular fare is $2. All stations have ticket machines. Metro Rail runs as follows: Monday-Friday from 5:10am–12:50am, Saturdays from 7:05am–12:50am, Sundays and holidays from 8:00am–11:50pm. Trains run as as once every ten minutes at rush hour and no less than once every twenty minutes. In July 2008, the NFTA reported that the passenger count "eclipsed the previous year's tally by 23%." As a result of this, in September 2008, the NFTA began an earlier starting time to the weekday schedule in response to an 11% increase in ridership over eight months of growth. Numbers are from the Federal Transit Administration's National Transit Database, which contains statistics from 1996–2011: Buffalo Metro Rail is ranked 25th in the nation in light rail daily ridership service as of 2013, with 5,058,300 passengers. However, it is noted that the line lacks extended branches to the suburbs, being confined to the city limits of Buffalo. One group, the Citizens Regional Transit Corporation, advocates for expansion.
As indicated in its statement, the CRTC seeks to educate the public, public off
Buffalo–Exchange Street station
Buffalo–Exchange Street is an Amtrak station in Buffalo, New York. It was built by the New York Central Railroad; the station serves six Amtrak trains daily: two daily Empire Service round trips and one Maple Leaf round trip. The station is two blocks away from the Erie Canal Harbor and Seneca stations on the Buffalo Metro Rail light rail line, it is close to the First Niagara Center. There is daily Coach USA bus service at the station, operating between Buffalo Metropolitan Transportation Center and Jamestown, New York, via Dunkirk and Fredonia, serving the communities along the southeast shore of Lake Erie. There have been four New York Central Railroad stations on Exchange Street in Buffalo, the third of, built in 1880, its importance declined after Buffalo Central Terminal opened in 1929, it was closed on November 13, 1935. Planning for the current structure began in 1949. New York funded the station as being part of the Skyway construction; the total cost was $7 million. The station opened on August 2, 1952.
The station served 21 New York Central and Toronto and Buffalo Railway trains daily. The double track station had two side platforms connected by an overhead walkway. However, passenger rail service was soon in steep decline. In 1961, the New York Central Railroad ceased passenger operations to Niagara Falls, the station building was closed, though some trains continued to stop at the platforms for a brief time. On October 29, 1978, Amtrak routed the Niagara Rainbow through Niagara Falls, restoring service there and to downtown Buffalo. One old platform was reused immediately; the line was reduced to single track and the second platform was abandoned. In September 2016, the station building was temporarily closed due to a partial collapse during heavy rains; the platforms remain open for passengers. Beginning in 2016, there were proposals to replace the station with either a station at Canalside or at Buffalo Central Terminal as part of that building's restoration; the downtown location - close to the current Exchange Street location - was chosen because of its proximity to the central business district, though public opinion favored the Buffalo Central Terminal site.
Supporters of the latter site alleged that the selection was made for political favors rather than on the merits of the downtown site. On April 17, 2017, a panel including Buffalo mayor Byron Brown approved the downtown location, voting 11 in favor, 4 opposed, 1 abstaining; the New York State Department of Transportation awarded a $27.7 million design-build contract in December 2018, with completion expected in Fall 2020. The station has one low-level side platform on the north side of the tracks. Buffalo-Exchange Street – Amtrak Buffalo – Exchange Street Amtrak Station Buffalo-Exchange Street
Buffalo Niagara International Airport
Buffalo Niagara International Airport is in Cheektowaga, New York, United States, named after the Buffalo–Niagara Falls metropolitan area. The airport serves New York and the southern Golden Horseshoe region of Ontario, Canada, it is the third-busiest airport in the state of New York and the busiest outside of the New York City metropolitan area. It is about 11 mi east of 60 mi southeast of Toronto; the airport covers 1,000 acres of land. The Buffalo Municipal Airport opened in 1926 on former farmland, making it one of the country's oldest public airports; the original airport included a small terminal building, one hangar, four cinder runways. Each of the cinder runways measured 3,000 feet long by 100 feet wide. Passenger and airmail service began with service to Cleveland. A WPA-built Art Deco terminal building featuring a v-shaped terminal with a large cylindrical tower began construction in 1938, was completed in 1939. In 1940–1941 Curtiss Aeroplane Co. built a manufacturing hangar on the southeast side of the airport.
With the onset of World War II, a major airfield expansion effort took place. This was done to facilitate aircraft manufacturing and acceptance flight activity; this effort provided the airport with the following four paved runways: A new apron was added a few months later. Roadway and parkway improvements were made in the 50s. At this time Runways 1–19 and 8–26 were closed, Runway 13–31 was renamed Runway 14–32; the terminal's first expansion, to 11 gates, which tripled the terminal's square footage and added a restaurant, was constructed in 1955 to keep up with increasing traffic and larger planes. In 1959, after being acquired by the Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority, the name was changed to the Greater Buffalo International Airport. A 1961 renovation/expansion remodeled the main terminal building and built a new control tower and another concourse for American Airlines. To accommodate commercial jet service, Runway 5–23 was extended to 8,100 feet in length in 1965. A second terminal was built in 1971 while it was hoped that an all-new airport would be built in the near future.
The West Terminal had nine gates. Despite the addition of the West Terminal, the original terminal, the "East Terminal", received one more expansion in 1977. New ticket lobbies were built for American Airlines and United Airlines, the original 1938 building was turned into a baggage claim area and jetways were added to the building for the first time. In 1982 two gates were added to the north/east end of the West Terminal, used by Eastern Air Lines; the landside of the West Terminal was enlarged and the blue building was around that time repainted gray. A large Curtiss-Wright plant once existed at the Airport. Built in 1942, the building was sold to Westinghouse in 1946 following the end of World War II. Westinghouse sold the facility to Buffalo developer Paul Snyder in 1985, who turned the building into the Buffalo Airport Center industrial park; the building was abandoned in 1991 and demolished in 1999 to make way for the expansion of the airport's second runway. In 2008, some local residents made a short-lived attempt to rename the airport to "Buffalo Tim Russert International Airport" after popular news commentator and a Buffalo native Tim Russert who had died that year.
In 1991, it was decided it was no longer economically viable to keep renovating and expanding the dated terminals, an all-new terminal was needed. Construction of the new building designed by the Greater Buffalo International Airport Design Group, a joint venture composed of Kohn Pederson Fox Associates, CannonDesign, William Nicholas Bodouva began in 1995 in between the two existing buildings; the new $56 million terminal opened on November 1997 with 15 gates. The old terminals were demolished to allow expansion; the new building was expanded in 2001, increasing gates to 25. In 2006 the main runway was repaved and extended 750 feet, its first major upgrade since 1980 and the secondary runway was extended 1,000 feet. In late 2017 the terminal commenced an $80 million renovation and expansion as part of the airport's 2013 sustainable master plan; the expansion will create secure walkways on the east and west side of the terminal for arriving passengers, relocating the current central exit walkway.
This will create expanded curbside space for arriving and departing passengers. The current baggage claim area's three flat plate baggage carousels will be replaced with four sloped plate carousels, doubling the current capacity. Preparations began December 2018, with groundbreaking and major construction which began in February 2019; the renovations are scheduled to be completed in 2021. As part of the master plan, this expansion allows for the future creation of a new pier south of the current east concourse. Buffalo Niagara International Airport sits at an elevation of 727 feet. There are two runways at the airport. Buffalo Airport Fire Department is a career fire department for the airport; the BNIA CFR respond to all alarms of fire and EMS calls within the terminal complex and throughout the adjacent property. The BNIA CFR respond off grounds for mutual aid requests, it was Buffalo Fire Department Engine 7 until 1981 and was transferred over to the Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority.
A new $