ArXiv is a repository of electronic preprints approved for posting after moderation, but not full peer review. It consists of scientific papers in the fields of mathematics, astronomy, electrical engineering, computer science, quantitative biology, mathematical finance and economics, which can be accessed online. In many fields of mathematics and physics all scientific papers are self-archived on the arXiv repository. Begun on August 14, 1991, arXiv.org passed the half-million-article milestone on October 3, 2008, had hit a million by the end of 2014. By October 2016 the submission rate had grown to more than 10,000 per month. ArXiv was made possible by the compact TeX file format, which allowed scientific papers to be transmitted over the Internet and rendered client-side. Around 1990, Joanne Cohn began emailing physics preprints to colleagues as TeX files, but the number of papers being sent soon filled mailboxes to capacity. Paul Ginsparg recognized the need for central storage, in August 1991 he created a central repository mailbox stored at the Los Alamos National Laboratory which could be accessed from any computer.
Additional modes of access were soon added: FTP in 1991, Gopher in 1992, the World Wide Web in 1993. The term e-print was adopted to describe the articles, it began as a physics archive, called the LANL preprint archive, but soon expanded to include astronomy, computer science, quantitative biology and, most statistics. Its original domain name was xxx.lanl.gov. Due to LANL's lack of interest in the expanding technology, in 2001 Ginsparg changed institutions to Cornell University and changed the name of the repository to arXiv.org. It is now hosted principally with eight mirrors around the world, its existence was one of the precipitating factors that led to the current movement in scientific publishing known as open access. Mathematicians and scientists upload their papers to arXiv.org for worldwide access and sometimes for reviews before they are published in peer-reviewed journals. Ginsparg was awarded a MacArthur Fellowship in 2002 for his establishment of arXiv; the annual budget for arXiv is $826,000 for 2013 to 2017, funded jointly by Cornell University Library, the Simons Foundation and annual fee income from member institutions.
This model arose in 2010, when Cornell sought to broaden the financial funding of the project by asking institutions to make annual voluntary contributions based on the amount of download usage by each institution. Each member institution pledges a five-year funding commitment to support arXiv. Based on institutional usage ranking, the annual fees are set in four tiers from $1,000 to $4,400. Cornell's goal is to raise at least $504,000 per year through membership fees generated by 220 institutions. In September 2011, Cornell University Library took overall administrative and financial responsibility for arXiv's operation and development. Ginsparg was quoted in the Chronicle of Higher Education as saying it "was supposed to be a three-hour tour, not a life sentence". However, Ginsparg remains on the arXiv Scientific Advisory Board and on the arXiv Physics Advisory Committee. Although arXiv is not peer reviewed, a collection of moderators for each area review the submissions; the lists of moderators for many sections of arXiv are publicly available, but moderators for most of the physics sections remain unlisted.
Additionally, an "endorsement" system was introduced in 2004 as part of an effort to ensure content is relevant and of interest to current research in the specified disciplines. Under the system, for categories that use it, an author must be endorsed by an established arXiv author before being allowed to submit papers to those categories. Endorsers are not asked to review the paper for errors, but to check whether the paper is appropriate for the intended subject area. New authors from recognized academic institutions receive automatic endorsement, which in practice means that they do not need to deal with the endorsement system at all. However, the endorsement system has attracted criticism for restricting scientific inquiry. A majority of the e-prints are submitted to journals for publication, but some work, including some influential papers, remain purely as e-prints and are never published in a peer-reviewed journal. A well-known example of the latter is an outline of a proof of Thurston's geometrization conjecture, including the Poincaré conjecture as a particular case, uploaded by Grigori Perelman in November 2002.
Perelman appears content to forgo the traditional peer-reviewed journal process, stating: "If anybody is interested in my way of solving the problem, it's all there – let them go and read about it". Despite this non-traditional method of publication, other mathematicians recognized this work by offering the Fields Medal and Clay Mathematics Millennium Prizes to Perelman, both of which he refused. Papers can be submitted in any of several formats, including LaTeX, PDF printed from a word processor other than TeX or LaTeX; the submission is rejected by the arXiv software if generating the final PDF file fails, if any image file is too large, or if the total size of the submission is too large. ArXiv now allows one to store and modify an incomplete submission, only finalize the submission when ready; the time stamp on the article is set. The standard access route is through one of several mirrors. Sev
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world, it holds letters patent as the Queen's Printer. The press mission is "to further the University's mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education and research at the highest international levels of excellence". Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, offices in more than 40 countries, it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries, its publishing includes academic journals, reference works and English language teaching and learning publications. Cambridge University Press is a charitable enterprise that transfers part of its annual surplus back to the university. Cambridge University Press is both the oldest publishing house in the world and the oldest university press.
It originated from letters patent granted to the University of Cambridge by Henry VIII in 1534, has been producing books continuously since the first University Press book was printed. Cambridge is one of the two privileged presses. Authors published by Cambridge have included John Milton, William Harvey, Isaac Newton, Bertrand Russell, Stephen Hawking. University printing began in Cambridge when the first practising University Printer, Thomas Thomas, set up a printing house on the site of what became the Senate House lawn – a few yards from where the press's bookshop now stands. In those days, the Stationers' Company in London jealously guarded its monopoly of printing, which explains the delay between the date of the university's letters patent and the printing of the first book. In 1591, Thomas's successor, John Legate, printed the first Cambridge Bible, an octavo edition of the popular Geneva Bible; the London Stationers objected strenuously. The university's response was to point out the provision in its charter to print "all manner of books".
Thus began the press's tradition of publishing the Bible, a tradition that has endured for over four centuries, beginning with the Geneva Bible, continuing with the Authorized Version, the Revised Version, the New English Bible and the Revised English Bible. The restrictions and compromises forced upon Cambridge by the dispute with the London Stationers did not come to an end until the scholar Richard Bentley was given the power to set up a'new-style press' in 1696. In July 1697 the Duke of Somerset made a loan of £200 to the university "towards the printing house and presse" and James Halman, Registrary of the University, lent £100 for the same purpose, it was in Bentley's time, in 1698, that a body of senior scholars was appointed to be responsible to the university for the press's affairs. The Press Syndicate's publishing committee still meets and its role still includes the review and approval of the press's planned output. John Baskerville became University Printer in the mid-eighteenth century.
Baskerville's concern was the production of the finest possible books using his own type-design and printing techniques. Baskerville wrote, "The importance of the work demands all my attention. Caxton would have found nothing to surprise him if he had walked into the press's printing house in the eighteenth century: all the type was still being set by hand. A technological breakthrough was badly needed, it came when Lord Stanhope perfected the making of stereotype plates; this involved making a mould of the whole surface of a page of type and casting plates from that mould. The press was the first to use this technique, in 1805 produced the technically successful and much-reprinted Cambridge Stereotype Bible. By the 1850s the press was using steam-powered machine presses, employing two to three hundred people, occupying several buildings in the Silver Street and Mill Lane area, including the one that the press still occupies, the Pitt Building, built for the press and in honour of William Pitt the Younger.
Under the stewardship of C. J. Clay, University Printer from 1854 to 1882, the press increased the size and scale of its academic and educational publishing operation. An important factor in this increase was the inauguration of its list of schoolbooks. During Clay's administration, the press undertook a sizeable co-publishing venture with Oxford: the Revised Version of the Bible, begun in 1870 and completed in 1885, it was in this period as well that the Syndics of the press turned down what became the Oxford English Dictionary—a proposal for, brought to Cambridge by James Murray before he turned to Oxford. The appointment of R. T. Wright as Secretary of the Press Syndicate in 1892 marked the beginning of the press's development as a modern publishing business with a defined editorial policy and administrative structure, it was Wright who devised the plan for one of the most distinctive Cambridge contributions to publishing—the Cambridge Histories. The Cambridge Modern History was published
The NGC 1569 is a dwarf irregular galaxy in Camelopardalis. The galaxy is nearby; the Hubble Space Telescope can resolve the stars within the galaxy. The distance to the galaxy was believed to be only 2.4 Mpc. However, in 2008 scientists studying images from Hubble calculated the galaxy's distance at nearly 11 million light-years away, about 4 million light-years farther than previous thought: therefore the galaxy resulted to be a member of the IC 342 group of galaxies. NGC 1569 is smaller than the Small Magellanic Cloud, but brighter than the latter or the Large Magellanic Cloud NGC 1569 is characterized by a large starburst, it has formed stars at a rate 100 times greater than that of the Milky Way during the last 100 million years. It contains two prominent super star clusters with different histories. Both clusters have experienced episodic star formation. Super star cluster A, located in the northwest of the galaxy and formed of two close clusters, contains young stars that formed less than 5 million years ago as well as older red stars.
Super star cluster B, located near the center of the galaxy, contains an older stellar population of red giants and red supergiants. Both of these star clusters are thought to have masses equivalent to the masses of the globular clusters in the Milky Way. Numerous smaller star clusters, some of them having masses similar to those of small globular clusters or R136 in the Large Magellanic Cloud, with young ages have been identified; these results, along with the results from other dwarf galaxies such as the Large Magellanic Cloud and NGC 1705, demonstrate that star formation in dwarf galaxies does not occur continuously but instead occurs in a series of short, nearly instantaneous bursts. The numerous supernovae produced in the galaxy as well as the strong stellar winds of its stars have produced filaments and bubbles of ionized hydrogen with respective sizes of up to 3,700 and 380 light years that shine excited by the light of the young stars contained within them and that are conspicuous on images taken with large telescopes.
The NGC 1569 starburst is believed to have been triggered by interactions with other galaxies of the IC 342 group, in particular a nearby cloud of neutral hydrogen. A A 2013 study suggested the presence of tidal tails linking this galaxy with IC 342 and the dwarf galaxy UGCA 92 whose nature, however, is unclear and may be structures within our galaxy The spectrum of NGC 1569 is blueshifted; this means. In contrast, the spectra of most other galaxies are redshifted because of the expansion of the universe; the dwarf irregular galaxy UGCA 92 is assumed to be a companion of NGC 1569. NGC 1569 at ESA/Hubble NGC 1569 on WikiSky: DSS2, SDSS, GALEX, IRAS, Hydrogen α, X-Ray, Sky Map and images NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day: NGC 1569 NGC 1569 at Constellation Guide
NGC 1531 is a dwarf galaxy in the constellation Eridanus, interacting with the larger spiral galaxy NGC 1532. It was discovered by John Herschel on 19 October 1835. Although technically classified as a peculiar lenticular galaxy, the galaxy's structure is better described as amorphous. NGC 4627 - a similar interacting dwarf galaxy M51B - a similar interacting dwarf galaxy NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day: NGC 1531/2 NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day: Interacting Galaxies NGC 1531 on WikiSky: DSS2, SDSS, GALEX, IRAS, Hydrogen α, X-Ray, Sky Map and images
NGC 1553 is a prototypical lenticular galaxy in the constellation Dorado. It is the second brightest member of the Dorado Group of galaxies. British astronomer John Herschel discovered NGC 1553 on December 5, 1834 using an 18.7 inch reflector. It forms a pair of interacting galaxies together with elliptical NGC 1549 which lies 11′.8 away from it in the sky. Their interaction appears to be in the early stage and can be seen in optical wavelengths by faint but distinct irregular shells of emission and a curious jet on the northwest side. Together, these two galaxies comprise the center of the Dorado group. NGC 1553 is an early type galaxy with a luminosity of 4×1010 L⊙, it has been detected in H I but has an H I mass to B-band luminosity ratio of less than 0.01. NGC 1553's ultraviolet spectrum shows weak flux under the main-sequence turn off at around 2,400 A°; this is characteristic of old intermediate populations of quiescent lenticular galaxies. NGC 1553 has an well developed lens component of nearly constant surface brightness, found between the bulge and the exponential disk.
Its lens is similar to what is found in NGC 3945 and its inner parts are hot. NGC 1553 has associated with itself cool dust, it can be seen in infrared and is a weak radio source. Hubble observations in 2000 revealed an inner torus-like dust lane about 3″ across at the galaxy's center. Chandra X-ray imaging of NGC 1553 show diffuse hot gas making up 70% of the emissions, dotted with many point-like sources making up the rest. To NGC 4697 and Messier 60, these bright spots are due to binary star systems of black holes and neutron stars most of which are located in globular clusters and reflect this old galaxy's active past. In these systems, material pulled off a regular star is heated and gives off X-rays as it falls toward the accompanying black hole or neutron star; the brightest of the point sources is coincident with the galaxy's optical nucleus. Its luminosity and spectrum suggest its being an obscured central active galactic nucleus; this source is visible in the center of the X-ray image of NGC 1553 shown above.
Globular clusters have been resolved in the galaxy by the Hubble Space Telescope. There are an estimated 600+300−200 globulars in NGC 1553. Like Messier 87, there is a central deficit of globulars with respect to the underlying luminosity. NGC 1553 has a symmetrical X-ray spiral feature with a possible 10″ inner bar in the diffuse emission near the center of the galaxy; this feature is due to adiabatic or shock compression of ambient gas due to interaction with the radio source. Hα emission has spiral structure, similar to the X-ray spiral. Digital Sky Survey visible light image of NGC 1553. NGC 1553 on WikiSky: DSS2, SDSS, GALEX, IRAS, Hydrogen α, X-Ray, Sky Map and images
NGC 1545 is an open cluster in the constellation Perseus. It was discovered by William Herschel on December 28, 1790, it is located in the north-eastern part of the constellation, a few arcminutes east of the 4.5 magnitude star b Persei, near the large and bright NGC 1528, less than 1.5° towards the northwest. However, it is less rich; the brightest star of the cluster is a K5 III giant star, with 7.1 magnitude, but its membership is questionable. One more 7.9 magnitude star is visible at the north edge of the cluster
NGC 1533 is a barred lenticular galaxy with faint spiral structure in the constellation Dorado. The seventh-brightest member of the Dorado Group and 1° off the group's center, it is surrounded by a vast arc or ring of H I, connected to IC 2038 and IC 2039; the ring orbits around 32 kpc from the center. As is typical of lenticular galaxies, star formation is weak in NGC 1533. Using both the surface brightness fluctuation and globular cluster luminosity function methods, its distance was estimated in 2007 to be 19.4 ± 1.1 Mpc and 18.6 ± 2.0 Mpc respectively. Averaging these together gives a distance of around 19 million parsecs or 62 million light-years from earth. In 1970, a supernova was detected in NGC 1533. NGC 1533 was discovered by John Herschel on December 5, 1834. NGC 1533 on WikiSky: DSS2, SDSS, GALEX, IRAS, Hydrogen α, X-Ray, Sky Map and images Sky View image of NGC 1533