NGC 1566, sometimes known as the Spanish Dancer, is an intermediate spiral galaxy in the constellation Dorado. It is the dominant and brightest member of the Dorado Group, being among the brightest Seyfert galaxies in the sky. Absolute luminosity is 3.7×1010 L☉, is calculated to contain 1.4×1010 M☉ of H I. On June 19, 2010, Berto Monard from South Africa detected a magnitude 16 supernova 13" west and 22" south of the center of NGC 1566 at coordinates 04 19 58.83 -54 56 38.5. Spitzer Space Telescope page on NGC 1566 Discovery image of SN 2010el NGC 1566 on WikiSky: DSS2, SDSS, GALEX, IRAS, Hydrogen α, X-Ray, Sky Map and images
NGC 1664 is an open cluster in the constellation of Auriga. It contains stars with a total of around 640 solar masses with a tidal radius of 43 ly. NGC 1664 NGC 1664 Image NGC 1664 NGC 1664 on WikiSky: DSS2, SDSS, GALEX, IRAS, Hydrogen α, X-Ray, Sky Map and images
NGC 1592 is an irregular galaxy in the constellation Eridanus. It is about 20,000 light years across, it has not been studied in detail, as it is at 27 degrees south, making it not visible below 63 degrees north in a flat area, about 50 degrees north in a hilly area. It was discovered in 1835 by John Herschel; until 2014, not much was known about the galaxy, other than the fact. In early 2014, the galaxy was observed with a 2-foot telescope at the SARA remote observatory in Chile, revealing the galaxy in higher resolution, it appears the galaxy is in the process of forming stars at a high rate - in the red areas in the image. Additionally, the galaxy has several small clumps of stars, implying an ongoing merger. NGC 1592 appears to have a companion, 2MFGC 3572, at 40 million light years away, assuming similar velocity with NGC 1592, they are separated by about 750,000 ±200,000 light years
An open cluster is a group of up to a few thousand stars that were formed from the same giant molecular cloud and have the same age. More than 1,100 open clusters have been discovered within the Milky Way Galaxy, many more are thought to exist, they are loosely bound by mutual gravitational attraction and become disrupted by close encounters with other clusters and clouds of gas as they orbit the galactic center. This can result in a migration to the main body of the galaxy and a loss of cluster members through internal close encounters. Open clusters survive for a few hundred million years, with the most massive ones surviving for a few billion years. In contrast, the more massive globular clusters of stars exert a stronger gravitational attraction on their members, can survive for longer. Open clusters have been found only in spiral and irregular galaxies, in which active star formation is occurring. Young open clusters may be contained within the molecular cloud from which they formed, illuminating it to create an H II region.
Over time, radiation pressure from the cluster will disperse the molecular cloud. About 10% of the mass of a gas cloud will coalesce into stars before radiation pressure drives the rest of the gas away. Open clusters are key objects in the study of stellar evolution; because the cluster members are of similar age and chemical composition, their properties are more determined than they are for isolated stars. A number of open clusters, such as the Pleiades, Hyades or the Alpha Persei Cluster are visible with the naked eye; some others, such as the Double Cluster, are perceptible without instruments, while many more can be seen using binoculars or telescopes. The Wild Duck Cluster, M11, is an example; the prominent open cluster the Pleiades has been recognized as a group of stars since antiquity, while the Hyades forms part of Taurus, one of the oldest constellations. Other open clusters were noted by early astronomers as unresolved fuzzy patches of light; the Roman astronomer Ptolemy mentions the Praesepe, the Double Cluster in Perseus, the Ptolemy Cluster, while the Persian astronomer Al-Sufi wrote of the Omicron Velorum cluster.
However, it would require the invention of the telescope to resolve these nebulae into their constituent stars. Indeed, in 1603 Johann Bayer gave three of these clusters designations; the first person to use a telescope to observe the night sky and record his observations was the Italian scientist Galileo Galilei in 1609. When he turned the telescope toward some of the nebulous patches recorded by Ptolemy, he found they were not a single star, but groupings of many stars. For Praesepe, he found more than 40 stars. Where observers had noted only 6-7 stars in the Pleiades, he found 50. In his 1610 treatise Sidereus Nuncius, Galileo Galilei wrote, "the galaxy is nothing else but a mass of innumerable stars planted together in clusters." Influenced by Galileo's work, the Sicilian astronomer Giovanni Hodierna became the first astronomer to use a telescope to find undiscovered open clusters. In 1654, he identified the objects now designated Messier 41, Messier 47, NGC 2362 and NGC 2451, it was realised as early as 1767 that the stars in a cluster were physically related, when the English naturalist Reverend John Michell calculated that the probability of just one group of stars like the Pleiades being the result of a chance alignment as seen from Earth was just 1 in 496,000.
Between 1774–1781, French astronomer Charles Messier published a catalogue of celestial objects that had a nebulous appearance similar to comets. This catalogue included 26 open clusters. In the 1790s, English astronomer William Herschel began an extensive study of nebulous celestial objects, he discovered. Herschel conceived the idea that stars were scattered across space, but became clustered together as star systems because of gravitational attraction, he divided the nebulae into eight classes, with classes VI through VIII being used to classify clusters of stars. The number of clusters known continued to increase under the efforts of astronomers. Hundreds of open clusters were listed in the New General Catalogue, first published in 1888 by the Danish-Irish astronomer J. L. E. Dreyer, the two supplemental Index Catalogues, published in 1896 and 1905. Telescopic observations revealed two distinct types of clusters, one of which contained thousands of stars in a regular spherical distribution and was found all across the sky but preferentially towards the centre of the Milky Way.
The other type consisted of a sparser population of stars in a more irregular shape. These were found in or near the galactic plane of the Milky Way. Astronomers dubbed the former globular clusters, the latter open clusters; because of their location, open clusters are referred to as galactic clusters, a term, introduced in 1925 by the Swiss-American astronomer Robert Julius Trumpler. Micrometer measurements of the positions of stars in clusters were made as early as 1877 by the German astronomer E. Schönfeld and further pursued by the American astronomer E. E. Barnard prior to his death in 1923. No indication of stellar motion was detected by these efforts. However, in 1918 the Dutch-American astronomer Adriaan van Maanen was able to measure the proper motion of stars in part of the Pleiades cluster by comparing photographic plates taken at different times; as astrometry became more accurate, cluster stars were found to share a common proper motion through space. By comparing the photographic plates of the Pleiades cluster taken in 1918 with images taken in 1943, van
NGC 1614 is the New General Catalogue identifier for a spiral galaxy in the equatorial constellation of Eridanus. It was discovered on December 29, 1885 by American astronomer Lewis Swift, who described it in a shorthand notation as: pretty faint, round, a little brighter middle; the nebula was catalogued by Danish-Irish astronomer J. L. E. Drayer in 1888; when direct photography became available, it was noted that this galaxy displayed some conspicuous peculiarities. American astronomer Halton Arp included it in his 1966 Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies. In 1971, Swiss astronomer Fritz Zwicky described it as a "blue post-eruptive galaxy, compact patchy core, spiral plumes, long blue jet SSW". In the De Vaucouleurs system for classifying galaxies, NGC 1614 has a galaxy morphological classification of SBc pec; the SB indicates this is a barred spiral galaxy, while the" means it lacks a ring-like structure around the nucleus. The trailing'c' describes the spiral arm structure as being loosely wound; the peculiar nature of the galaxy is noted with the'pec.' abbreviation.
The galaxy is bright at the center, with two nearly symmetrical inner spiral arms. It is a luminous infrared source, with total infrared luminosity is 1011.60 L☉, ranking 55th in the 2003 IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample, is the second most luminous galaxy within 75 Mpc. This galaxy is undergoing a minor merger event with a gas-rich, low-mass companion galaxy, located in a tidal tail to the southwest of the nucleus; the main galaxy is estimated to be around 3 − 5 times. The interaction between the two galaxies is triggering a burst of star formation in NGC 1614, although not an active galactic nucleus, it is described as "one of the most extreme nearby starbursts". In the core region, a 230 pc radius ring feature has formed around the nucleus within the last 5−10 million years from an inflow of gas caused by the merger event, this structure is the site of the intense star forming activity known as a starburst region; this activity is bright enough that it is masking whatever weak nuclear emission there is coming from the core.
The nucleus itself displays evidence of an older starburst event. The starburst activity is presumed to be driving an observed outflow of cold molecular gas that has a combined mass of around 32 million times the mass of the Sun. "NGC 1614", The Hubble Space Telescope, NASA/ESA, April 24, 2008, retrieved 2016-03-21
NGC 1510 is a dwarf lenticular galaxy 38 million light-years away from Earth in the constellation of Horologium. It was discovered by John Herschel on December 4, 1836. NGC 1510 is under the influence of gravitational tidal forces of the colossal neighbour barred spiral galaxy NGC 1512; the two galaxies are separated by only ∼5 arcmin, are in the process of a lengthy merger, going on for 400 million years. At the end of this process NGC 1512 will have cannibalised its smaller companion. Lenticular galaxy Dwarf galaxy Interacting galaxy List of NGC objects Horologium NGC 1510 on WikiSky: DSS2, SDSS, GALEX, IRAS, Hydrogen α, X-Ray, Sky Map and images SEDS
NGC 1573 is an elliptical galaxy in the constellation of Camelopardalis. It was discovered on 1 August 1883 by Wilhelm Tempel, it was described as "very faint, small" by John Louis Emil Dreyer, the compiler of the New General Catalogue. It is located about 190 million light-years away; the galaxy PGC 16052 is not a NGC object, nor is it physically associated with NGC 1573, but is called NGC 1573A. It is an intermediate spiral galaxy with an apparent magnitude of about 14.0. In 2010, a supernova was discovered in PGC 16052 and was designated as SN 2010X