England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Health and Social Care Act 2012
The Health and Social Care Act 2012 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It provides for the most extensive reorganisation of the structure of the National Health Service in England to date, it removed responsibility for the health of citizens from the Secretary of State for Health, which the post had carried since the inception of the NHS in 1948. It abolished NHS primary care trusts and Strategic Health Authorities and transferred between £60 billion and £80 billion of "commissioning", or health care funds, from the abolished PCTs to several hundred "clinical commissioning groups" run by the general practitioners in England but a major point of access for private service providers. A new executive agency of the Department of Health, Public Health England, was established under the Act on 1 April 2013; the proposals are the result of policies of the Secretary of State for Health, Andrew Lansley. Writing in the BMJ, Clive Peedell compared the policies with academic analyses of privatisation and found "evidence that privatisation is an inevitable consequence of many of the policies contained in the Health and Social Care Bill".
Lansley said that claims that the government is attempting to privatise the NHS are "ludicrous scaremongering". The proposals contained in the Act are some of the coalition government's most controversial. Although glanced at in the Conservative Party's manifesto in 2010, they were not discussed during the general election campaign that year and were not contained in the Conservative–Liberal Democrat coalition agreement, which mentioned the NHS only to commit the coalition to a real-term funding increase every year. Within two months of the election a white paper was published, outlining what the Daily Telegraph called the "biggest revolution in the NHS since its foundation"; the bill was introduced in the House of Commons on 19 January 2011. In April 2011 the government announced a "listening exercise", halting the Bill's legislative progress until after the May local elections; the "listening exercise" finished by the end of that month. The Bill received Royal Assent on 27 March 2012; the proposals in the Act were not discussed during the general election campaign in 2010 and were not contained in the Conservative – Liberal Democrat coalition agreement of 20 May 2010, which declared an intention to "stop the top-down reorganisations of the NHS that have got in the way of patient care".
However, within two months a white paper outlined what the Daily Telegraph called the "biggest revolution in the NHS since its foundation". The white paper and Excellence: Liberating the NHS, was followed in December 2010 by an implementation plan in the form of Liberating the NHS: legislative framework and next steps. McKinsey & Company who have been influential in the British Department of Health for many years was involved in the discussions around the Bill; the bill was introduced into the House of Commons on 19 January 2011 and received its second reading, a vote to approve the general principles of the Bill, by 321-235, a majority of 86, on 31 January 2011. The Act had implications for the entire NHS. NHS primary care trusts and Strategic Health Authorities were abolished, with projected redundancy costs of £1 billion for around 21,000 staff. £60 to £80 billion worth of commissioning will be transferred from PCTs to several hundred clinical commissioning groups run by GPs. Around 3,600 facilities owned by PCTs and SHAs will transfer to NHS Property Services, a limited company owned by the Department of Health.
When the white paper was presented to Parliament the Secretary of State for Health, Andrew Lansley, told MPs of three key principles: patients at the centre of the NHS changing the emphasis of measurement to clinical outcomes empowering health professionals, in particular GPs. The white paper set out the following timetable. By April 2012 it proposed to: establish the independent NHS Commissioning Board establish new local authority health and well-being boards develop Monitor as an economic regulator; the Bill foresaw all NHS trusts becoming, or being amalgamated into, foundation trusts. The Bill abolished the existing cap on trusts' income from non-NHS sources, which in most cases was set at a low single-digit percentage. Under the Bill's provisions the new commissioning system would be expected to be in place by April 2013, by which time SHAs and PCTs would be abolished; the Bill was analysed by Stephen Cragg of Doughty Street Chambers, on behalf of the 38 Degrees campaign, who concluded that "Effectively, the duty to provide a national health service would be lost if the Bill becomes law, would be replaced by a duty on an unknown number of commissioning consortia with only a duty to make or arrange provision for that section of the population for which it is responsible."
It replaces a “duty to provide” with a “Duty to promote”. After an increase in opposition pressure, including from both rank-and-file Liberal Democrats and the British Medical Association, the government announced a "listening exercise" with critics. On 4 April 2011 the government announced a "pause" in the progress of the Bill to allow the government to'listen and improve' the proposals; the Prime Minister, David Cameron, said "the status quo is not an option" and many within his and Nick Clegg's coalition said that certain aspects of the Bill, such as the formation of Clinical commissioning groups, were not only not open for discussion, but already too far along the path to completion to be stopped. Cameron insisted that the Act was part of his "Big Society" agenda and that it would not alter the fundamental principles of the NHS. Part of the "listening exercise" saw th
Healthcare in Canada
Healthcare in Canada is delivered through thirteen provincial and territorial systems of publicly funded health care, informally called Medicare. It is guided by the provisions of the Canada Health Act of 1984, is universal; the government ensures the quality of care through federal standards. The government does not participate in day-to-day care or collect any information about an individual's health, which remains confidential between a person and their physician. Canada's provincially based Medicare systems are cost-effective because of their administrative simplicity. In each province, each doctor handles the insurance claim against the provincial insurer. There is no need for the person who accesses healthcare to be involved in billing and reclaim at all. Private health expenditure accounts for 30% of health care financing; the Canada Health Act does not cover prescription drugs, home care or long-term care or dental care, which means most Canadians rely on private insurance from their employers or the government to pay for those costs.
Provinces provide partial coverage for those living in poverty and seniors. Programs vary by province. Competitive practices such as advertising are kept to a minimum, thus maximizing the percentage of revenues that go directly towards care. Costs are paid through funding from federal and provincial general tax revenues which include income taxes, sales taxes and corporation taxes. In British Columbia, taxation-based funding is supplemented by a fixed monthly premium, waived or reduced for those on low incomes. In Ontario, there is an income tax identified as a health premium on taxable income above $20,000. In addition to funding through the tax system and medical research are funded in part by charitable contributions. For example, in 2018, Toronto's Hospital for Sick Children embarked on campaign to raise $1.3 billion to equip a new hospital. Charities such as the Canadian Cancer Society provide assistance such as transportation for patients. There are no deductibles on basic health care and co-pays are low or non-existent.
In general, user fees are not permitted by the Canada Health Act, but physicians may charge a small fee to the patient for reasons such as missed appointments, doctor's notes and for prescription refills done over the phone. Some physicians charge "annual fees" as part of a comprehensive package of services they offer their patients and their families; such charges are optional and can only be for non-essential health options. Health cards are issued by provincial health ministries to individuals who enroll for the program in the province and everyone receives the same level of care. There is no need for a variety of plans because all essential basic care is covered, including maternity but excluding mental health and home care. Infertility costs are not covered in any province other than Quebec, though they are now covered in some other provinces. In some provinces, private supplemental plans are available for those who desire private rooms if they are hospitalized. Cosmetic surgery and some forms of elective surgery are not considered essential care and are not covered.
For example, Canadian health insurance plans do not cover non-therapeutic circumcision. These can be paid out-of-pocket or through private insurers. Health coverage is not affected by loss or change of jobs, cannot be denied due to unpaid premiums, there are no lifetime limits or exclusions for pre-existing conditions; the Canada Health Act deems that essential physician and hospital care be covered by the publicly funded system, but each province has reasons to determine what is considered essential, where and who should provide the services. The result is that there is a wide variance in what is covered across the country by the public health system in more controversial areas, such as in-vitro fertilization, gender reconstructive surgery, midwifery or autism treatments. Canada is one of the few countries with a universal healthcare system that does not include coverage of prescription medication. Residents of Quebec who are covered by the province's public prescription drug plan pay an annual premium of $0 to $660 when they file their Quebec income tax return.
Pharmaceutical medications are covered by public funds in some provinces for the elderly or indigent, or through employment-based private insurance or paid for out-of-pocket. In Ontario, eligible medications are provided at no cost for covered individuals aged 24 and under. Most drug prices are negotiated with suppliers by each provincial government to control costs but more the Council of the Federation announced an initiative for select provinces to work together to create a larger buying block for more leverage to control costs of pharmaceutical drugs. More than 60 percent of prescription medications are paid for in Canada. Family physicians are chosen by individuals. If a patient wishes to see a specialist or is counselled to see a specialist by their GP, a referral is made by a GP in the local community. Preventive care and early detection are considered critical and yearly checkups are recommended for everyone. An OECD study in 2010 noted that there seemed to be variations in care across geographical regions corresponding to the different provinces in Canada.
The study found that there was a difference in hospital admission rates depending on the number of people and what province they lived in
James Gordon Brown is a British politician, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Labour Party from 2007 to 2010. He served as Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1997 to 2007. Brown was a Member of Parliament from 1983 to 2015, first for Dunfermline East and for Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath. A doctoral graduate of the University of Edinburgh, Brown spent his early career working as both a lecturer at a further education college and a television journalist, he entered Parliament in 1983 as the MP for Dunfermline East. He joined the Shadow Cabinet in 1989 as Shadow Secretary of State for Trade, was promoted to become Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1992. After Labour's victory in 1997, he was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer, becoming the longest-serving holder of that office in modern history. Brown's time as Chancellor was marked by major reform of Britain's monetary and fiscal policy architecture, transferring interest rate setting powers to the Bank of England, by a wide extension of the powers of the Treasury to cover much domestic policy and by transferring responsibility for banking supervision to the Financial Services Authority.
Controversial moves included the abolition of advance corporation tax relief in his first budget, the removal in his final budget of the 10% "starting rate" of personal income tax which he had introduced in 1999. In 2007, Tony Blair resigned as Prime Minister and Labour Leader and Brown was chosen to replace him in an uncontested election. After initial rises in opinion polls following Brown becoming Prime Minister, Labour's popularity declined with the onset of a recession in 2008, leading to poor results in the local and European elections in 2009. A year Labour lost 91 seats in the House of Commons at the 2010 general election, the party's biggest loss of seats in a single general election since 1931, making the Conservatives the largest party in a hung parliament. Brown remained in office as Labour negotiated to form a coalition government with the Liberal Democrats. On 10 May 2010, Brown announced he would stand down as leader of the Labour Party, instructed the party to put into motion the processes to elect a new leader.
Labour's attempts to retain power failed and on 11 May, he resigned as Prime Minister and Leader of the Labour Party. He was succeeded as Prime Minister by David Cameron, as Leader of the Labour Party by Ed Miliband. Brown played a prominent role in the campaign surrounding the Scottish independence referendum of 2014, galvanising support behind maintaining the union. Brown was born at the Orchard Maternity Nursing Home in Giffnock, Scotland, his father was John Ebenezer Brown, a minister of the Church of Scotland and a strong influence on Brown. His mother was Jessie Elizabeth "Bunty" Brown, she was the daughter of a timber merchant. The family moved to Kirkcaldy – the largest town in Fife, across the Firth of Forth from Edinburgh – when Gordon was three. Brown was brought up there with younger brother Andrew Brown in a manse. Brown was educated first at Kirkcaldy West Primary School where he was selected for an experimental fast stream education programme, which took him two years early to Kirkcaldy High School for an academic hothouse education taught in separate classes.
At age sixteen he wrote that he resented this "ludicrous" experiment on young lives. He was accepted by the University of Edinburgh to study history at the same early age of sixteen. During an end-of-term rugby union match at his old school, he received a kick to the head and suffered a retinal detachment; this left him blind in his left eye, despite treatment including several operations and weeks spent lying in a darkened room. At Edinburgh, while playing tennis, he noticed the same symptoms in his right eye. Brown underwent experimental surgery at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary and his right eye was saved by a young eye surgeon, Hector Chawla. Brown graduated from Edinburgh with a First-Class Honours MA degree in history in 1972, stayed on to obtain his PhD in history, titled The Labour Party and Political Change in Scotland 1918–29. In his youth at the University of Edinburgh, Brown was involved in a romantic relationship with Margarita, Crown Princess of Romania. Margarita said about it: "It was a solid and romantic story.
I never stopped loving him but one day it didn't seem right any more, it was politics, politics, I needed nurturing." An unnamed friend of those years is quoted by Paul Routledge in his biography of Brown as recalling: "She was sweet and gentle and cut out to make somebody a good wife. She was bright, though not like him, but they seemed made for each other."In 1972, while still a student, Brown was elected Rector of the University of Edinburgh, the convener of the University Court. He served as Rector until 1975, edited the document The Red Paper on Scotland. From 1976 to 1980 Brown was employed as a lecturer in politics at Glasgow College of Technology, he worked as a tutor for the Open University. In the 1979 general election, Brown stood for the Edinburgh South constituency, losing to the Conservative candidate, Michael Ancram. From 1980, he worked as a journalist at Scottish Television serving as current affairs editor until his election to Parliament in 1983. Brown was elected to Parliament on his second attempt as a Labour MP for Dunfermline East in the 1983 general election.
His first Westminster office mate was a newly elected MP from the Sedgefield constituency, Tony Blair. Brown became an opposition spokesman on Trade and Industry in 1985. In
Aneurin Bevan known as Nye Bevan, was a Welsh Labour Party politician, the Minister for Health in the UK from 1945 to 1951. The son of a coal miner, Bevan was a lifelong champion of social justice, the rights of working people and democratic socialism, he was a long-time Member of Parliament, representing Ebbw Vale in South Wales for 31 years. He was one of the chief spokesmen for the Labour Party's left wing, of left-wing British thought generally, his most famous accomplishment came when, as Minister of Health, he spearheaded the establishment of the National Health Service, to provide medical care free at point-of-need to all Britons, regardless of wealth. He resigned when the Attlee government decided to transfer funds from the National Insurance Fund to pay for rearmament; the left-wing group within the party was described as "Bevanite" but he did not control it. Born into a working-class family in South Wales, Bevan emerged as one of Wales' most revered politicians. In 2004, over forty four years after his death, he was voted first in a list of 100 Welsh Heroes, having been credited for his contribution to the founding of the welfare state.
Bevan was born in Tredegar, Monmouthshire, in the South Wales Valleys and on the northern edge of the South Wales coalfield, the son of coal miner David Bevan and Phoebe, a seamstress. Both Bevan's parents were Nonconformists. One of ten children, Bevan did poorly at school and his academic performance was so bad, that his headmaster made him repeat a year. At the age of thirteen, Bevan began working in the local Ty-Trist Colliery. David Bevan had been a supporter of the Liberal Party in his youth, but was converted to socialism by the writings of Robert Blatchford in the Clarion and joined the Independent Labour Party, it was around this time. Aneurin Bevan joined the Tredegar branch of the South Wales Miners' Federation and became a trade union activist: he was head of his local Miners' Lodge at only nineteen years of age. Bevan became a well-known local orator and was seen by his employers, the Tredegar Iron Company, as a troublemaker; the manager of the colliery found an excuse to get. But, with the support of the Miners' Federation, the case was judged as one of victimisation and the company was forced to re-employ him.
In 1919, he won a scholarship to the Central Labour College in London, sponsored by the South Wales Miners' Federation. There, he spent two years studying economics and history, he read Marxism at the college. Reciting long passages by William Morris, Bevan began to overcome the stammer that he had had since he was a child. Bevan remained at the College until 1921, attending at a time when a number of his contemporaries from South Wales, including Jim Griffiths, were students at the College. However, some historians have questioned how influential the College was on his political development, he was not one of the most diligent students, found it difficult to follow an organised routine, including getting up early for breakfast. Bevan was one of the founding members of the "Query Club" with Walter Conway; the club started in 1920 or 1921 and they met in Tredegar. They would collect money each week for any member; the club intended to break the hold that the Tredegar Iron and Coal Company had on the town by becoming members of pivotal groups in the community.
Upon returning home in 1921, he found that the Tredegar Iron & Coal Company refused to re-employ him. He did not find work until 1924 and his employer, the Bedwellty Colliery, closed down only ten months later. Bevan had to endure another year of unemployment. In February 1925, his father died of pneumoconiosis. In 1926, he found work again, this time as a paid union official, his wage of £5 a week was paid by the members of the local Miners' Lodge. His new job arrived in time for him to head the local miners against the colliery companies in what would become the General Strike; when the strike started on 3 May 1926, Bevan soon emerged as one of the leaders of the South Wales miners. The miners remained on strike for six months. Bevan was responsible for the distribution of strike pay in Tredegar and the formation of the Council of Action, an organisation that helped to raise money and provided food for the miners, he was a member of the Cottage Hospital Management Committee around 1928 and was chairman in 1929–30.
In 1928, Bevan won a seat on Monmouthshire County Council. With that success he was picked as the Labour Party candidate for Ebbw Vale, held the seat at the 1929 General Election. In Parliament he soon became noticed, his targets included the Conservative Winston Churchill and the Liberal David Lloyd George, as well as Ramsay MacDonald and Margaret Bondfield from his own Labour party. He had solid support from his constituency, being one of the few Labour MPs to be unopposed in the 1931 General Election and this support grew through the 1930s and the period of the Great Depression in the United Kingdom. Soon after he entered parliament Bevan was attracted to Oswald Mosley's arguments, becoming one of the 17 signatories of the Mosley Memorandum in the context of the MacDonald government's repeated economic crises, including the doubling of unemployment levels. However, in the words of his biographer John Campbell, "he breached with Mosley as soon as Mosley breached with the Labour Part
History of the National Health Service
The name National Health Service is used to refer to the four public health services of England, Northern Ireland and Wales, individually or collectively, though only England's NHS has this title. For details of the history of each National Health Service since 1999, see: History of the National Health Service History of NHS Scotland History of NHS Wales History of Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland The NHS was the first universal health care system established anywhere in the world. A leaflet was sent to every household in June 1948 which explained that The NHS in Scotland was established as a separate entity with its own legislation, the National Health Service Act 1947, from the foundation of the NHS in 1948. Northern Ireland had its own legislation in 1948. Wales, was managed from England and treated much like an English region for the first 20 years of the NHS. In 1969, responsibility for the NHS in Wales was passed to the Secretary of State for Wales from the Secretary of State for Health, thereafter just responsible for the NHS in England.
Dr Benjamin Moore, a Liverpool physician, in 1910 in The Dawn of the Health Age was the first to use the words'National Health Service'. He established the State Medical Service Association which held its first meeting in 1912 and continued to exist until it was replaced by the Socialist Medical Association in 1930. Before the National Health Service was created in 1948, patients were required to pay for their health care. Free treatment was sometimes available from charitable voluntary hospitals; some local authorities operated hospitals for local ratepayers. The London County Council on 1 April 1930 took over from the abolished Metropolitan Asylums Board responsibility for 140 hospitals, medical schools and other medical institutions; the Local Government Act 1929 allowed local authorities to run services over and above those authorised by the Poor Laws and in effect to provide medical treatment for everyone. By the outbreak of the Second World War, the LCC was running the largest public health service in Britain.
Dr A. J. Cronin's controversial novel The Citadel, published in 1937, had fomented extensive criticism about the severe inadequacies of health care; the author's innovative ideas were not only essential to the conception of the NHS, but his best-selling novels are said to have contributed to the Labour Party's victory in 1945. Systems of health insurance consisted of private schemes such as friendly societies or welfare societies. Under the National Insurance Act 1911, introduced by David Lloyd George, a small amount was deducted from weekly wages, to which were added contributions from the employer and the government. In return for the record of contributions, the workman was entitled to medical care though not to the drugs prescribed. To obtain medical care, he registered with a doctor; each doctor in General Practice who participated in the scheme thus had a'panel' of those who have made an insurance under the system, was paid a capitation grant out of the fund calculated upon the number.
Lloyd George's name survives in the "Lloyd George envelopes" in which most primary care records in England are stored, although today most working records in primary care are at least computerised. This imperfect scheme only covered workers who paid their National Insurance Contributions and was known as'Lloyd George's Ambulance Wagon'. Most women and children were not covered. Bertrand Dawson was commissioned in 1919 by Christopher Addison, the first British Minister of Health to produce a report on "schemes requisite for the systematised provision of such forms of medical and allied services as should, in the opinion of the Council, be available for the inhabitants of a given area". An Interim Report on the Future Provision of Medical and Allied Services was produced in 1920, though no further report appeared; the report laid down plans for a network of Primary and Secondary Health Centres, was influential in subsequent debates about the National Health Service. However the fall of the Lloyd George government prevented any implementation of those ideas at that time.
The Labour Party in 1932 accepted a resolution moved by Somerville Hastings calling for the establishment of a State Medical Service and in 1934 the Labour Party Conference at Southport unanimously accepted an official document on a National Health Service. Prior to the Second World War there was consensus that health insurance should be extended to the dependants of the wage-earner, that the voluntary and local authority hospitals should be integrated. A British Medical Association pamphlet, "A General Medical Service for the Nation" was issued along these lines in 1938. However, no action was taken due to the international crisis. During the war, a new centralised state-run Emergency Hospital Service employed doctors and nurses to care for those injured by enemy action and arrange for their treatment in whichever hospital was available; the existence of the service made voluntary hospitals dependent on the Government and there was a recognition that many would be in financial trouble once peace arrived.
The need to do something to guarantee the voluntary hospitals meant that hospital care drove the impetus for reform. In February 1941 the Deputy Permanent Secretary at the Ministry of Health recorded areas of agreement on post-war health policy which included "a complete health service to be available to every member of the community" and on 9 October 1941, the Minister of Health Ernest Brown announced that the government proposed to ensure that there was a comprehensive hos
Alan Milburn is a British Labour politician, Member of Parliament for Darlington from 1992 to 2010. He served for five years in the Cabinet, first as Chief Secretary to the Treasury from 1998 to 1999, subsequently as Secretary of State for Health until 2003, when he resigned, he rejoined the Cabinet as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster in order to manage Labour's 2005 re-election campaign. In June 2009, he told his local party he would not be standing at the 2010 general election, saying: "Standing down as a MP will give me the chance to balance my work and my family life with the time to pursue challenges other than politics."Milburn was Chair of the Social Mobility and Child Poverty Commission from 2012 to 2017. Since 2015, he has been Chancellor of Lancaster University. Milburn was born in Birmingham, brought up in the village of Tow Law in County Durham and Newcastle-upon-Tyne, he was educated at John Marlay School and Stokesley Comprehensive School. He went on to Lancaster University, where he resided at Pendle College and graduated in 1979 with a Bachelor of Arts degree with Upper Second Class Honours in History.
After leaving university, he returned to Newcastle where, with Martin Spence, he operated a small radical bookshop in the Westgate Road, called Days of Hope. He studied for a PhD at Newcastle University, but did not complete his thesis. In 1981 he married future Labour MEP Mo O'Toole. Milburn was Co-ordinator of the Trade Union Studies Information Unit from the mid-1980s onwards. From 1988, Milburn co-ordinated a campaign to defend shipbuilding in Sunderland, was elected as Chairman of Newcastle-upon-Tyne Central Constituency Labour Party. In 1990 he was appointed as a Business Development Officer for North Tyneside Borough Council and elected as President of the North East Region of the Manufacturing Science and Finance Trade Union. Meanwhile, he won the seat of Darlington in the 1992 general election. In Parliament, Milburn allied himself with the Blairite modernisers in the Labour Party, becoming close to Tony Blair who sat for the next-door constituency of Sedgefield; the political editor of the New Statesman wrote that "Alan Milburn is regarded by most in Labour as the epitome of Blairite centrism and moderation."
In 1997 he was appointed as Minister of State at the Department of Health, an important post in which he had responsibility for driving through Private Finance Initiative deals on hospitals. In the reshuffle caused by Peter Mandelson's resignation on 23 December 1998, Milburn was promoted to the Cabinet as Chief Secretary to the Treasury, he became Secretary of State for Health in October 1999, with responsibility for continuing the reduction in waiting times and delivering modernisation in the National Health Service. In 2002 Milburn introduced NHS foundation trusts, "described at the time as a sort of halfway house between the public and private sectors"; the government increased expenditure on the NHS, although the public was sceptical over claims of improved performance. Milburn was thought to be a candidate for promotion within the Government, but on the day of a reshuffle he announced his resignation, he cited the difficulties combining family life in North-East England with a demanding job in London as his reason for quitting.
While on the backbenches he continued to be a strong supporter of Tony Blair's policies his continued policy of increased private involvement in public service provision. Following his resignation as Secretary of State for Health, Milburn took a post for £30,000 a year as an advisor to Bridgepoint Capital, a venture capital firm involved in financing private health-care firms moving into the NHS, including Alliance Medical, Match Group and the Robinia Care Group, he returned to government with the title of Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. He was brought back to lead the Labour Party's campaign in the 2005 general election, but the unsuccessful start to the campaign led to Milburn taking a back seat, with Gordon Brown returning to take a prominent role. On election night in 2005, he announced he would be leaving the Cabinet for a second time, although rumours persisted that he would challenge Gordon Brown for the succession. On 27 June 2007, Brown subsequently assumed. On 8 September 2006, after Tony Blair had announced his intention to step down within a year, Charles Clarke suggested Milburn as leader in place of Brown.
On 28 February 2007, he and Clarke launched The 2020 Vision, a website intended to promote policy debate in the Labour Party. He was the honorary president of the political organisation Progress, founded by Derek Draper. In 2007, Milburn worked as an advisor to Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd and again in 2010 acted as an advisor to the election campaign of Julia Gillard. Between January and July 2009, Milburn chaired a governmental commission on social mobility, the Panel on Fair Access to the Professions; the Panel reported in July 2009 with recommendations to improve social mobility by acting at every life stage – including through schools, internship practices and recruitment processes. In 2007, Milburn sat on its nutritional advisory board. By the time he stood down from parliament, Milburn had an income at least £115,000 a year from five companies. Despite the change of government following the May 2010 General Election, it was reported in August 2010 that Milburn had been offered a role in the Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition as "social mobility tsar".
Although not politically-