The Piscataqua River is a 12-mile-long tidal river forming the boundary of the U. S. states of New Hampshire and Maine from its origin at the confluence of the Salmon Falls River and Cocheco River. The drainage basin of the river is 1,495 square miles, including the subwatersheds of the Great Works River and the five rivers flowing into Great Bay: the Bellamy, Lamprey and Winnicut; the river runs southeastward, with New Hampshire to the south and west and Maine to the north and east, empties into the Gulf of Maine east of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. The last 6 miles before the sea are known as Portsmouth Harbor and have a tidal current of around 4 knots; the cities/towns of Portsmouth, New Castle, Newington and Eliot have developed around the harbor. Named by the area's original Abenaki inhabitants, the word Piscataqua is believed to be a combination of peske with tegwe; the first known European to explore the river was Martin Pring in 1603. Captain John Smith placed a spelling similar to "Piscataqua" for the region on his map of 1614.
The river was the site of the first sawmill in the colonies in 1623, the same year the contemporary spelling "Piscataqua" was first recorded. Once salmon, oysters, scallops, mussels, eels and many others species of marine life were common in the river, evidenced by such tributaries as the Salmon Falls River, Sturgeon Creek and Seal Rock in Eliot, the Oyster River in Durham, New Hampshire, the Lamprey River in Newmarket, New Hampshire. All but the salmon and sturgeon remain, with fishing for striped bass and bluefish common recreational sports. In the mid 1630s some of the region's earliest settlers built a sawmill in what is today's Berwick, Maine, on a tributary above the head of tide of the Piscataqua. Thought to be the first over-shot water-powered site in America, it became known as the "Great Works", giving name to today's Great Works River. After the Allies' European victory in the Second World War, four surrendered German U-boats traveled upriver to the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, with their captains and crews interned as POWs at Portsmouth Naval Prison.
U-805 was the first to arrive, towed up the river to a rendezvous with U. S. officials on a tugboat off the Navy Yard on May 15, 1945. U-873 and U-1228 arrived the next day. U-234, by far the greatest prize, arrived on May 19, seized off Nova Scotia by the U. S. destroyer escort Sutton. It had left Germany with a cargo bound for Japan of a disassembled Messerschmitt Me 262 jet plane, the most sophisticated fighter of World War II. While this was enough to create a media sensation, it was decades before the U. S. government revealed that the sub carried a top secret load of uranium oxide produced by the German atomic weapons program bound for a last-ditch Japanese effort. Instead, the valuable nuclear material was diverted to the U. S.' Top secret Manhattan Project, ended up part of the bomb the U. S. Army Air Corps dropped over Hiroshima to hasten the end of the Pacific war; the shipyard is located on Seavey's Island in Kittery, near the Piscataqua's mouth. Long regarded by some as being in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, the yard was claimed by that state into the 2000s.
However, the Piscataqua River border dispute over ownership of Seavey's Island was settled based upon a 2001 U. S. Supreme Court decision which cited a 1977 decision affirming New Hampshire's claim that the state borders met at the center of the river's navigable channel as described in a 1740 decree, thus placing the island in Maine; the Piscataqua River and its tributaries, including Great Bay, form a substantial estuarine environment. Two rivers, the Salmon Falls and Cocheco, join to form the Piscataqua on the eastern edge of Dover, New Hampshire, at the northwest corner of Eliot, Maine. Five rivers with tidal stretches flow into Great Bay: the Bellamy, Lamprey and Winnicut, the Great Works River drains into the tidal portion of the Salmon Falls. Badger's Island Great Bay Little Bay Bridge List of rivers of Maine List of rivers of New Hampshire Memorial Bridge Piscataqua River Bridge Point of Graves Burial Ground Prescott Park Sarah Mildred Long Bridge MaineRivers.org Piscataqua River History as Border of New Hampshire Seacoast Forts of Portsmouth Harbor from American Forts Network Port of New Hampshire Ports of Piscataqua, William Gurdon Saltonstall, Harvard University Press, Massachusetts, 1941
Lobsters are a family of large marine crustaceans. Lobsters have long bodies with muscular tails, live in crevices or burrows on the sea floor. Three of their five pairs of legs have claws, including the first pair, which are much larger than the others. Prized as seafood, lobsters are economically important, are one of the most profitable commodities in coastal areas they populate. Commercially important species include two species of Homarus from the northern Atlantic Ocean, scampi – the Northern Hemisphere genus Nephrops and the Southern Hemisphere genus Metanephrops. Although several other groups of crustaceans have the word "lobster" in their names, the unqualified term "lobster" refers to the clawed lobsters of the family Nephropidae. Clawed lobsters are not related to spiny lobsters or slipper lobsters, which have no claws, or to squat lobsters; the closest living relatives of clawed lobsters are the reef lobsters and the three families of freshwater crayfish. Lobsters are invertebrates with a hard protective exoskeleton.
Like most arthropods, lobsters must moult to grow. During the moulting process, several species change color. Lobsters have eight walking legs. Although lobsters are bilaterally symmetrical like most other arthropods, some genera possess unequal, specialized claws. Lobster anatomy includes two main body parts: the abdomen; the cephalothorax fuses the thorax, both of which are covered by a chitinous carapace. The lobster's head bears antennae, mandibles, the first and second maxillae; the head bears the compound eyes. Because lobsters live in murky environments at the bottom of the ocean, they use their antennae as sensors; the lobster eye has a reflective structure above a convex retina. In contrast, most complex eyes use a concave retina; the lobster's thorax is composed of maxillipeds, appendages that function as mouthparts, pereiopods, appendages that serve for walking and for gathering food. The abdomen includes pleopods, used for swimming as well as the tail fan, composed of uropods and the telson.
Lobsters, like snails and spiders, have blue blood due to the presence of hemocyanin, which contains copper. In contrast and many other animals have red blood from iron-rich hemoglobin. Lobsters possess a green hepatopancreas, called the tomalley by chefs, which functions as the animal's liver and pancreas. Lobsters of the family Nephropidae are similar in overall form to a number of other related groups, they differ from freshwater crayfish in lacking the joint between the last two segments of the thorax, they differ from the reef lobsters of the family Enoplometopidae in having full claws on the first three pairs of legs, rather than just one. The distinctions from fossil families such as the Chilenophoberidae are based on the pattern of grooves on the carapace. Lobsters are dark colored, either bluish green or greenish brown as to blend in with the ocean floor, but they can be found in a multitude of colors. Lobsters with atypical coloring are rare, accounting for only a few of the millions caught every year, due to their rarity, they aren't eaten, instead released back into the wild or donated to aquariums.
In cases of atypical coloring, there is a genetic factor, such as albinism or hermaphroditism. Notably, the New England Aquarium has a collection of such lobsters, called the Lobster Rainbow, on public display. Special coloring doesn't appear to have an effect on the lobster's taste once cooked. Lobsters live up to an estimated 45 to 50 years in the wild. In 2012, a report was published describing how growth bands in calcified regions of the eyestalk or gastric mill in shrimps and lobsters could be used to measure growth and mortality in decapod crustaceans. Without such a technique, a lobster's age is estimated by size and other variables. Research suggests that lobsters may not slow down, weaken or lose fertility with age, that older lobsters may be more fertile than younger lobsters; this longevity may be due to telomerase, an enzyme that repairs long repetitive sections of DNA sequences at the ends of chromosomes, referred to as telomeres. Telomerase is expressed by most vertebrates during embryonic stages, but is absent from adult stages of life.
However, unlike most vertebrates, lobsters express telomerase as adults through most tissue, suggested to be related to their longevity. Telomerase is present in'Green Spotted' lobsters - whose markings are thought to be produced by the enzyme interacting with their shell pigmentation Lobster longevity is limited by their size. Moulting requires metabolic energy and the larger the lobster, the more energy is needed. Lobsters, like many other decapod crustaceans, grow throughout life and are able to add new muscle cells at each moult. Lobster longevity allows them to reach impressive sizes. According to Guinness World Records, the largest lobster caught was in Nov
Isles of Shoals
The Isles of Shoals are a group of small islands and tidal ledges situated 6 miles off the east coast of the United States, straddling the border of the states of Maine and New Hampshire. Some of the islands were used for seasonal fishing camps by indigenous peoples and first settled by Europeans in the early 17th century, they became one of the many fishing areas for the young French colonies. This was one of the most northern fishing ports; the Isles of Shoals were named by English explorer Capt. John Smith after sighting them in 1614; the first recorded landfall of an Englishman was that of explorer Captain Christopher Levett, whose 300 fishermen in six ships discovered that the Isles of Shoals were abandoned in 1623."The first place I set my foot upon in New England was the Isle of Shoals, being islands in the sea about two leagues from the main," Levett wrote later. "Upon these islands I neither could see one good timber-tree nor so much good ground as to make a garden. The place is found to be a good fishing-place for six ships, but more can not be well there, for want of convenient stage room, as this year's experience hath proved."
In 1628 the Plymouth Pilgrms exiled Thomas Morton on the island due to his libertine activities with the Indians at Merrymount. The first town, "Apledoore", included all of the Isles of Shoals, was incorporated by the General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony on May 22, 1661. At that time, the province of New Hampshire and the province of Maine were both a part of Massachusetts Bay Colony. By 1665, the name of the town had changed to "Iles of Shoales." Starting in 1680 and continuing for several years, there was a general migration of the population to Star Island in New Hampshire, departing from the Maine Hog Island. In 1696, the town was annexed by Kittery. In 1715 the township of Gosport was established by New Hampshire on Star Island; the Gosport community was prosperous up until about 1778, when the islanders were evacuated to Rye, New Hampshire, due to the Revolutionary War. Though a small population remained, the islands were abandoned until the middle of the 19th century, when Thomas Laighton and Levi Thaxter opened a popular summer hotel on Appledore Island.
Laighton's daughter, married Levi at the age of fifteen and as Celia Thaxter became the most popular American female poet of the 19th century. She hosted an arts community on the island frequented by such luminaries as authors Nathaniel Hawthorne, John Greenleaf Whittier, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sarah Orne Jewett, the Impressionist painter Childe Hassam. Having executed his last drawing three days previous, the Boston painter William Morris Hunt drowned here in 1879 a suicide. Hunt's body was discovered by Celia Thaxter; the popularity of Laighton's Appledore House soon led to establishment of the Mid-Ocean House on Smuttynose Island, the Oceanic Hotel, still in use today on Star Island. Appledore Island, in Maine, is the largest of the Isles of Shoals, at 95 acres. Known as Hog Island, prior to that as Farm Island, it is 0.5 miles from east to west, 0.6 miles from north to south. It was home to The Appledore House, during the 19th century. Built in 1847 and opened the following year, the hotel was lost to a fire in 1914.
According to Celia Thaxter, as late as 1873, "Philip Babb, or some evil-minded descendant of his, haunted Appledore." Today, the island is the operating station of the Shoals Marine Laboratory, run cooperatively by Cornell University and the University of New Hampshire. The island is owned by the Star Island Corporation. Second in size at 46 acres, Star Island is located in New Hampshire within the borders of the town of Rye and is the only island served by a commercial boat from the mainland, it is a religious and educational conference center, owned by the Star Island Corporation, affiliated with the Unitarian Universalist Association and the United Church of Christ. During the summer, the island hosts a number of week-long and shorter conferences which make use of the Oceanic Hotel, Gosport House, the 150-year-old chapel, several buildings dating back to the original village. Short-term day visitors are welcomed, although that may depend on the boat schedule; this is a popular destination for sailboats wishing to tie up overnight in Gosport harbor.
Smuttynose Island, at 25 acres, is the third-largest island. It is the site of Blackbeard's honeymoon for the shipwreck of the Spanish ship Sagunto in 1813, for the notorious 1873 murders of two young women; the latter is recalled in the story, "A Memorable Murder", by Celia Thaxter, in the 1997 novel, The Weight of Water, by Anita Shreve, in the song, "The Ballad of Louis Wagner" by John Perrault. There are two small houses on the island. One of them, the Samuel Haley house, was once believed to be the oldest structure in the state of Maine. Smuttynose is not populated today. Malaga Island is a diminutive island just to the west of Smuttynose, connected to it by a breakwater; that breakwater was built around 1820 by Captain Samuel Haley, reputed to have paid for its construction with proceeds from four bars of pirate silver that he found under a flat rock on the island. White Island and Seavey Island are located at the southern end of the Isles of Shoals, within the borders of the town of Rye, New Hampshire.
During low tide, the two islands are connected by a land bridge. White Island features one of the two lighthouses on the New Hampshire coast. White Island is dominated by Isles of Shoals Light, now automated, the keeper's house; the lighthouse and
Heraldry is a broad term, encompassing the design and study of armorial bearings, as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony and pedigree. Armory, the best-known branch of heraldry, concerns the design and transmission of the heraldic achievement; the achievement, or armorial bearings includes a coat of arms on an shield and crest, together with any accompanying devices, such as supporters, heraldic banners, mottoes. Although the use of various devices to signify individuals and groups goes back to antiquity, both the form and use of such devices varied and the concept of regular, hereditary designs, constituting the distinguishing feature of heraldry, did not develop until the High Middle Ages, it is often that the use of helmets with face guards during this period made it difficult to recognize one's commanders in the field when large armies gathered together for extended periods, necessitating the development of heraldry as a symbolic language but there is little actual support for this view.
The beauty and pageantry of heraldic designs allowed them to survive the gradual abandonment of armour on the battlefield during the seventeenth century. Heraldry has been described poetically as "the handmaid of history", "the shorthand of history", "the floral border in the garden of history". In modern times, individuals and private organizations, cities and regions use heraldry and its conventions to symbolize their heritage and aspirations. Various symbols have been used to represent groups for thousands of years; the earliest representations of distinct persons and regions in Egyptian art show the use of standards topped with the images or symbols of various gods, the names of kings appear upon emblems known as serekhs, representing the king's palace, topped with a falcon representing the god Horus, of whom the king was regarded as the earthly incarnation. Similar emblems and devices are found in ancient Mesopotamian art of the same period, the precursors of heraldic beasts such as the griffin can be found.
In the Bible, the Book of Numbers refers to the standards and ensigns of the children of Israel, who were commanded to gather beneath these emblems and declare their pedigrees. The Greek and Latin writers describe the shields and symbols of various heroes, units of the Roman army were sometimes identified by distinctive markings on their shields; until the nineteenth century, it was common for heraldic writers to cite examples such as these, metaphorical symbols such as the "Lion of Judah" or "Eagle of the Caesars" as evidence of the antiquity of heraldry itself. The Book of Saint Albans, compiled in 1486, declares that Christ himself was a gentleman of coat armour, but these fabulous claims have long since been dismissed as the fantasy of medieval heralds, for there is no evidence of a distinctive symbolic language akin to that of heraldry during this early period. The medieval heralds devised arms for various knights and lords from history and literature. Notable examples include the toads attributed to Pharamond, the cross and martlets of Edward the Confessor, the various arms attributed to the Nine Worthies and the Knights of the Round Table.
These too are now regarded as a fanciful invention, rather than evidence of the antiquity of heraldry. The development of the modern heraldic language cannot be attributed to a single individual, time, or place. Although certain designs that are now considered heraldic were evidently in use during the eleventh century, most accounts and depictions of shields up to the beginning of the twelfth century contain little or no evidence of their heraldic character. For example, the Bayeux Tapestry, illustrating the Norman invasion of England in 1066, commissioned about 1077, when the cathedral of Bayeux was rebuilt, depicts a number of shields of various shapes and designs, many of which are plain, while others are decorated with dragons, crosses, or other heraldic figures, yet no individual is depicted twice bearing the same arms, nor are any of the descendants of the various persons depicted known to have borne devices resembling those in the tapestry. An account of the French knights at the court of the Byzantine emperor Alexius I at the beginning of the twelfth century describes their shields of polished metal, utterly devoid of heraldic design.
A Spanish manuscript from 1109 describes both plain and decorated shields, none of which appears to have been heraldic. The Abbey of St. Denis contained a window commemorating the knights who embarked on the Second Crusade in 1147, was made soon after the event. In England, from the time of the Norman conquest, official documents had to be sealed. Beginning in the twelfth century, seals assumed a distinctly heraldic character. A notable example of an early armorial seal is attached to a charter granted by Philip I, Count of Flanders, in 1164. Seals from the latter part of the eleventh and early twelfth centuries show no evidence of heraldic symbolism, but by t
USS Raleigh (1776)
USS Raleigh was one of thirteen ships that the Continental Congress authorized for the Continental Navy in 1775. Following her capture in 1778, she served in the Royal Navy as HBMS Raleigh. Raleigh, a 32-gun frigate, was authorized by Continental Congress on 13 December 1775. Built by Messrs. James Hackett and Paul under supervision of Thomas Thompson, the keel was laid on March 21, 1776 at the shipyard of John Langdon on what is now Badger's Island in Kittery, Maine, she was launched on May 21, 1776. With a full-length figure of Sir Walter Raleigh as figurehead, Raleigh put to sea under Captain Thomas Thompson, who supervised her construction, on August 12, 1777. Shortly thereafter, she joined Alfred and sailed for France. Three days out they captured a schooner carrying counterfeit Massachusetts money. Burning the schooner and her cargo, except for samples, the frigates continued their transatlantic passage. On September 2 they captured the British brig and from her they obtained the signals of the convoy which the brig had been escorting from the rear.
Giving chase, the Americans closed with the convoy on September 4, 1777. Raleigh, making use of the captured signals, engaged HMS Druid. In the ensuing battle she damaged Druid, but the approach of the remaining British escorts forced her to retire. On December 29, 1777, Raleigh and Alfred, having taken on military stores, set sail from L'Orient, following a course that took them along the coast of Africa. After capturing a British vessel off Senegal, Raleigh crossed the Atlantic Ocean to the West Indies. On March 9, 1778, in the Lesser Antilles, some distance from Raleigh, was captured by the British ships HMS Ariadne and HMS Ceres. Raleigh, unable to reach Alfred in time to assist her, continued north and returned to New England early in April 1778. Accused of cowardice and dereliction of duty for not aiding Alfred, Captain Thompson was suspended soon after reaching port. On May 30, 1778 the Marine Committee appointed John Barry to replace him as captain. Barry arrived in Boston to assume command on June 24 only to find his ship without crew or stores and the Navy Board not wholly in support of the manner of his appointment.
His reputation and character, however neutralized the ill-will of the Marine Committee, drew enlistments, helped to obtain the stores. On September 25, Raleigh sailed for New Hampshire with a brig and a sloop under convoy. Six hours two strange sails were sighted. After identification of the ships as British the merchant vessels were ordered back to port. Raleigh drew off the enemy. Through that day and the next the enemy ships HMS Unicorn and HMS Experiment pursued Raleigh. In late afternoon on the 27th, the leading British ship closed with her. A 7-hour running battle followed, much of the time in close action. About midnight, the enemy hauled off and Barry prepared to conceal his ship among the islands of Penobscot Bay; the enemy, again pressed the battle. As Raleigh opened fire, Barry ordered a course toward the land. Raleigh soon grounded on part of Matinicus; the British hauled off but continued the fight for a while anchored. Barry ordered the crew ashore to burn Raleigh. A large party, including Barry, made it to shore.
One boat was ordered back to Raleigh to take off the remainder of the crew, destroy her, however the British again fired on the ship, striking the Continental colors. The battle was over. All three ships had been damaged, Unicorn so. Of the Americans ashore, a few were captured on the island, but the remainder, including Barry, made it back to Boston, arriving on October 7; the British refloated Raleigh at high tide on the 28th, after repairs, commissioned her into the Royal Navy as HBMS Raleigh. They admired her design, applied it in their new ships, she continued to fight during the War for Independence as a British vessel and took part in the capture of Charleston, SC. In May 1780, she was decommissioned at Portsmouth, England, on June 10, 1781 and was sold in July 1783. Raleigh is depicted on the Seal of New Hampshire. Raleigh was the first U. S. Navy warship commissioned at the shipyard of Portsmouth merchant and statesman John Langdon on what is today Badger's Island. Only about two tenths of a mile from the wharves of Portsmouth, the island in the Piscataqua River was taken for granted as the seaport's shipbuilding annex, just as the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard is today.
Dept U. S. Navy. "USS Raleigh". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Department of the Navy -- Naval Historical Center. Retrieved 27 March 2013. Preble, George Henry. History of the United States Navy-yard, Portsmouth, N. H. U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington. P. 219
Old Man of the Mountain
The Old Man of the Mountain known as the Great Stone Face or the Profile, was a series of five granite cliff ledges on Cannon Mountain in the White Mountains of New Hampshire, United States, that appeared to be the jagged profile of a face when viewed from the north. The rock formation was 1,200 feet above Profile Lake, measured 40 feet tall and 25 feet wide; the site is located in the town of Franconia. The first recorded mention of the Old Man was in 1805, it collapsed on May 3, 2003. Franconia Notch is a U-shaped valley, shaped by glaciers; the Old Man formation was formed from freezing and thawing of water in cracks of the granite bedrock sometime after the retreat of glaciers 12,000 years ago. The formation was first noted in the records of a Franconia surveying team around 1805. Francis Whitcomb and Luke Brooks, part of the surveying team, were the first two to record observing the Old Man; the official state history says several groups of surveyors were working in the Franconia Notch area at the time and claimed credit for the discovery.
The Old Man first became famous because of statesman Daniel Webster, a New Hampshire native, who once wrote: "Men hang out their signs indicative of their respective trades. The writer Nathaniel Hawthorne used the Old Man as inspiration for his short story "The Great Stone Face", published in 1850, in which he described the formation as "a work of Nature in her mood of majestic playfulness"; the profile has been New Hampshire's state emblem since 1945. It was put on the state's license plate, state route signs, on the back of New Hampshire's Statehood Quarter, popularly promoted as the only US coin with a profile on both sides. Before the collapse, it could be seen from special viewing areas along Interstate 93 in Franconia Notch State Park 80 miles north of the state's capital, Concord. Freezing and thawing opened fissures in the Old Man's "forehead". By the 1920s, the crack was wide enough to be mended with chains, in 1957 the state legislature passed a $25,000 appropriation for a more elaborate weatherproofing, using 20 tons of fast-drying cement, plastic covering, steel rods and turnbuckles, plus a concrete gutter to divert runoff from above.
A team from the state highway and park divisions maintained the patchwork each summer. The formation collapsed to the ground between midnight and 2 a.m. May 3, 2003. Dismay over the collapse has been so great that people have visited to pay tribute including leaving flowers. Early after the collapse, many New Hampshire citizens considered replacement with a replica; that idea was rejected by an official task force in 2003 headed by former Governor Steve Merrill. In 2004, the state legislature considered, but did not accept, a proposal to change New Hampshire's state flag to include the profile. On the first anniversary of the collapse in May 2004, the Old Man of the Mountain Legacy Fund began operating coin-operated viewfinders near the base of the cliff; when looking through them up at the cliff of Cannon Mountain one can see a "before" and "after" of how the Old Man of the Mountain used to appear. Seven years after the collapse, on June 24, 2010, the OMMLF, now the Friends of the Old Man of the Mountain, broke ground for the first phase of the state-sanctioned "Old Man of the Mountain Memorial" on a walkway along Profile Lake below Cannon Cliff.
It consists of a viewing platform with "Steel Profilers", when aligned with the Cannon Cliff above, create what the profile looked like up on the cliff overlooking the Franconia Notch. The project was overseen by Friends of the Old Man of the Mountain/Franconia Notch, a committee that succeeded the Old Man of the Mountain Revitalization Task Force; the Legacy Fund is a private 501 corporation with representatives from various state agencies and several private nonprofits. In 2013, the board called a halt to further fundraising, they announced their intention to dissolve the board. Other proposals that were considered but rejected include: Architect Francis Treves envisioned a walk-in profile made of 250 panels of structural glass attached to tubular steel framework and concrete tower, connected by a tram, rim trail or tunnel through to the cliff wall at the original site, it won an American Institute of Architects Un-Built Project Award. In 2009, Kenneth Gidge, a state representative from Nashua, proposed building a copper replica of the Old Man on level ground above the ledge at the original site where hiking trails lead.
Details of the history of the Old Man of the Mountain include: 17th millennium BC–6th millennium BC — New England undergoes the Wisconsin glaciation, the most recent ice age. Glaciers cover New England and post-glacial erosion creates the cliff which would subsequently erode into the Old Man of the Mountain at Franconia Notch. 1805 — Francis Whitcomb and Luke Brooks, part of a Franconia surveying crew, are the first white settlers to record observing the Old Man, according to the official New Hampshire history. 1832 — Author Nathaniel Hawthorne visits the area. 1850 — Hawthorne publishes "The Great Stone Face", a short story inspired by his visit. The story's title becomes an alternative name for the formation. 1869 — President Ulysses S. Grant visits the formation. 1906 — The Reverend Guy Roberts of Massachusetts is the first to publicize signs of deterioration of the formation. 1916 — New Hampshire Governor Rolland H. Spaulding begins a concerted state effort to preserve the formation. 1926 - The formation appears on all New Hampshire passenger, deal
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000