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NIFL Premiership

The NIFL Premiership, known as the Irish Premiership or Danske Bank Premiership for sponsorship purposes, colloquially as the Irish League, is a professional association football league which operates as the highest division of the Northern Ireland Football League – the national league in Northern Ireland. It was called the IFA Premiership until 2013. Still known in popular parlance as the Irish League or the Irish Premiership, the Premiership was established in 2008 under the auspices of the Irish Football Association before the Northern Ireland Football League was created for the start of the 2013–14 season. At the end of the season, the champion club is presented with the Gibson Cup. Linfield are the current champions; the title win was confirmed on 13 April 2019, following a 0–0 draw at home against the outgoing champions, which left them 12 points clear with three games remaining. The current Premiership format was introduced for the 2008–09 season after the League system for Northern Ireland was re-organised.

The top flight was reduced in size from 16 to 12 clubs, included on the basis not only of their performance in the 2007–08 season, but in the previous two seasons, other off-the-field criteria. Each applicant club was assessed by an independent panel and awarded points against the following criteria: Sporting – based on league placings, Irish Cup, League Cup and European performances in 2005–06, 2006–07 and 2007–08; the Northern Ireland Football League assumed responsibility for the top three divisions of national domestic football from the IFA in 2014, putting forward plans to improve the scene of football in Northern Ireland. The plans include improving stadiums, status in European competitions, league structure, commercial image of the competitions, as well as spreading out match kick-off times to be more variable and reintroducing abandoned competitions for clubs to compete in, such as the Charity Shield, Floodlit Cup, Ulster Cup and Gold Cup; each team plays a total of 38 fixtures during the season.

Each team plays every other team three times for a total of 33 fixtures per team. The league splits into Section A and Section B, the top six teams in Section A playing each other for a fourth and final time to settle championship and European qualification issues, the bottom six teams in Section B playing each other to settle relegation issues; the post-split fixtures are arranged in such a way as to result in the teams in each half playing each other twice at home and twice away. After the split, teams in the top six cannot finish lower than 6th place, teams in the bottom six cannot finish higher than 7th place, regardless of the results in the final 5 games; the League campaign continues until late April or early May. Most fixtures are played on Saturday afternoons, with occasional fixtures on Friday evenings, some mid-week games on Tuesday or Wednesday evenings. Traditionally, there are Bank Holiday afternoon fixtures on Boxing Day, New Year's Day and Easter Tuesday. Three points are awarded for a win, one point for a draw.

No points are awarded for a loss. Points can be deducted for breaches of rules e.g. fielding an ineligible player. The teams are foremost ranked by number of points; the team with the most points at the end of the season wins the championship. If two or more teams finish level on points, four tiebreakers are used to separate them: highest overall goal difference, most goals scored, most points gained in the head-to-head meetings, highest goal difference in the head-to-head meetings. In the unlikely event that teams are still tied in a key position after these tiebreakers e.g. determining the league champions, European qualification, or relegation, lots will be drawn by the Management Committee. There is no promotion from the league. At the end of the season, the 12th-placed club is relegated to the NIFL Championship and the 11th-placed club must take part in an aggregate two-legged play-off against the winners of the pre-play-off match between the runners-up and third-placed Championship teams.

The away goals rule is applied after 90 minutes of the second leg, with extra time and penalties used to determine the winner in the second leg if necessary. The Premiership club gets home advantage in the second leg, is relegated to the Championship if it loses the tie. In the event that the Championship winners do not possess the Promotion licence required to be eligible for the top flight, there is no automatic relegation. Instead, the play-off is passed down to the 12th-placed Premiership club and the 11th-placed club is safe from relegation. In the event that there are no Championship clubs eligible for promotion, there is no relegation; the country's low ranking in t

Short Admiralty Type 74

The Short Admiralty Type 74 was a single-engined biplane tractor seaplane with non-folding wings, which saw service with the Royal Naval Air Service during the First World War. The Type 74 incorporated some of the innovations Horace Short had introduced to the Short Admiralty Type 42, including manganese-steel tube struts instead of wood. In addition to the two main rubber-sprung floats below the fuselage and the single tail float, it had smaller floats attached below the lower wingtips. Ailerons were mounted on the upper wing only, the latter extending beyond the span of the lower wing; the extensions were braced by diagonal struts to the lower wingtips. Since it was intended for use as a coastal patrol seaplane operating from coastal stations, there was no requirement for the Type 74 to have folding wings; the Type 74 was powered by a 100 hp Gnome double Omega engine, which provided a maximum flight duration of five hours. In 1913 the Royal Navy ordered seven 100 hp biplane seaplanes from Shorts, which were assigned the company's serial numbers 69-75.

The first of these flew on 4 January 1914, piloted by Gordon Bell. He was accompanied on this first flight by Charles Richard Fairey, who left Shorts in 1915 to found the Fairey Aviation company; when this first aircraft was delivered to the Royal Navy air station on the Isle of Grain it received the Navy's serial number 74, so this and the remaining six aircraft from the batch were therefore known as the Admiralty Type 74 according to the rules in use at the time. Of the seven aircraft, four were dispatched to the air station at Dundee, the other three remaining at the Grain air station; the Dundee aircraft took part in the 1914 Royal Fleet Review off Spithead as part of a contingent of 17 seaplanes and four airships. United KingdomRoyal Naval Air Service Data from Barnes C. H. & James D. N. Shorts Aircraft since 1900. London: Putnam. P. 560. ISBN 0-85177-819-4. CS1 maint: location General characteristics Crew: two Length: 39 ft in Wingspan: 57 ft in Height: Wing area: 580 ft² Empty weight: 2,100 lb Loaded weight: 2,700 lb Max.

Takeoff weight: lb Powerplant: 1 × Gnôme, 100 hp Performance Maximum speed: 65 mph Range: mi Service ceiling: ft Short Admiralty Type 74 at flyingmachines.ru

1651 in literature

This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1651. August 22 – Execution on Tower Hill in London of Welsh Protestant preacher Christopher Love Noah Biggs – Chymiatrophilos, Matæotechnia medicinæ praxeōs, The vanity of the Craft of Physick, or, A new dispensator William Bosworth – The Chaste and Lost Lovers Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of Orrery – Parthenissa Mary Cary – The Little Horn's Doom and Downfall and A New and More Exact Map of the New Jerusalem's Glory Marin le Roy de Gomberville – Jeune Alcidiane Francisco de Quevedo – Virtud militante contra las cuatro pestes del mundo y cuatro fantasmas de la vida Baltasar Gracián – El Criticón Thomas HobbesLeviathan, or The Matter and Power of a Common Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil John MiltonDefensio pro Populo Anglicano Paul Scarron – Roman comique Filip StanislavovAbagar Anna Weamys – A Continuation of Sir Philip Sydney's Arcadia Sir Henry Wotton – Reliquiæ Wottonianæ. A Tale of the Year Sixteen Hundred and Fifty-one