The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System is a third generation mobile cellular system for networks based on the GSM standard. Developed and maintained by the 3GPP, UMTS is a component of the International Telecommunications Union IMT-2000 standard set and compares with the CDMA2000 standard set for networks based on the competing cdmaOne technology. UMTS uses wideband code division multiple access radio access technology to offer greater spectral efficiency and bandwidth to mobile network operators. UMTS specifies a complete network system, which includes the radio access network, the core network and the authentication of users via SIM cards; the technology described in UMTS is sometimes referred to as Freedom of Mobile Multimedia Access or 3GSM. Unlike EDGE and CDMA2000, UMTS requires new base stations and new frequency allocations. UMTS supports maximum theoretical data transfer rates of 42 Mbit/s when Evolved HSPA is implemented in the network. Users in deployed networks can expect a transfer rate of up to 384 kbit/s for Release'99 handsets, 7.2 Mbit/s for High-Speed Downlink Packet Access handsets in the downlink connection.
These speeds are faster than the 9.6 kbit/s of a single GSM error-corrected circuit switched data channel, multiple 9.6 kbit/s channels in High-Speed Circuit-Switched Data and 14.4 kbit/s for CDMAOne channels. Since 2006, UMTS networks in many countries have been or are in the process of being upgraded with High-Speed Downlink Packet Access, sometimes known as 3.5G. HSDPA enables downlink transfer speeds of up to 21 Mbit/s. Work is progressing on improving the uplink transfer speed with the High-Speed Uplink Packet Access. Longer term, the 3GPP Long Term Evolution project plans to move UMTS to 4G speeds of 100 Mbit/s down and 50 Mbit/s up, using a next generation air interface technology based upon orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing; the first national consumer UMTS networks launched in 2002 with a heavy emphasis on telco-provided mobile applications such as mobile TV and video calling. The high data speeds of UMTS are now most utilised for Internet access: experience in Japan and elsewhere has shown that user demand for video calls is not high, telco-provided audio/video content has declined in popularity in favour of high-speed access to the World Wide Web—either directly on a handset or connected to a computer via Wi-Fi, Bluetooth or USB.
UMTS combines three different terrestrial air interfaces, GSM's Mobile Application Part core, the GSM family of speech codecs. The air interfaces are called UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access. All air interface options are part of ITU's IMT-2000. In the most popular variant for cellular mobile telephones, W-CDMA is used, it is called "Uu interface", as it links User Equipment to the UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network Please note that the terms W-CDMA, TD-CDMA and TD-SCDMA are misleading. While they suggest covering just a channel access method, they are the common names for the whole air interface standards. W-CDMA or WCDMA, along with UMTS-FDD, UTRA-FDD, or IMT-2000 CDMA Direct Spread is an air interface standard found in 3G mobile telecommunications networks, it supports conventional cellular voice, text and MMS services, but can carry data at high speeds, allowing mobile operators to deliver higher bandwidth applications including streaming and broadband Internet access. W-CDMA uses the DS-CDMA channel access method with a pair of 5 MHz wide channels.
In contrast, the competing CDMA2000 system uses one or more available 1.25 MHz channels for each direction of communication. W-CDMA systems are criticized for their large spectrum usage, which delayed deployment in countries that acted slowly in allocating new frequencies for 3G services; the specific frequency bands defined by the UMTS standard are 1885–2025 MHz for the mobile-to-base and 2110–2200 MHz for the base-to-mobile. In the US, 1710–1755 MHz and 2110–2155 MHz are used instead, as the 1900 MHz band was used. While UMTS2100 is the most deployed UMTS band, some countries' UMTS operators use the 850 MHz and/or 1900 MHz bands, notably in the US by AT&T Mobility, New Zealand by Telecom New Zealand on the XT Mobile Network and in Australia by Telstra on the Next G network; some carriers such as T-Mobile use band numbers to identify the UMTS frequencies. For example, Band I, Band IV, Band V. UMTS-FDD is an acronym for Universal Mobile Telecommunications System - frequency-division duplexing and a 3GPP standardized version of UMTS networks that makes use of frequency-division duplexing for duplexing over an UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access air interface.
W-CDMA is the basis of Japan's NTT DoCoMo's FOMA service and the most-commonly used member of the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System family and sometimes used as a synonym for UMTS. It uses the DS-CDMA channel access method and the FDD duplexing method to achieve higher speeds and support more users compared to most used time division multiple access and time division duplex schemes. While not an evolutionary upgrade on the airside, it uses the same core network as the 2G GSM networks deployed worldwide, allowing dual mode mobile operation al
AT&T Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered at Whitacre Tower in Downtown Dallas, Texas. It is the world's largest telecommunications company, the second largest provider of mobile telephone services, the largest provider of fixed telephone services in the United States through AT&T Communications. Since June 14, 2018, it is the parent company of mass media conglomerate WarnerMedia, making it the world's largest media and entertainment company in terms of revenue; as of 2018, AT&T is ranked #9 on the Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. AT&T began its history as Southwestern Bell Telephone Company, a subsidiary of the Bell Telephone Company, founded by Alexander Graham Bell in 1880; the Bell Telephone Company evolved into American Telephone and Telegraph Company in 1885, which rebranded as AT&T Corporation. The 1982 United States v. AT&T antitrust lawsuit resulted in the divestiture of AT&T Corporation's subsidiaries or Regional Bell Operating Companies, resulting in several independent companies including Southwestern Bell Corporation.
In 2005, SBC purchased its former parent AT&T Corporation and took on its branding, with the merged entity naming itself AT&T Inc. and using its iconic logo and stock-trading symbol. In 2006, AT&T Inc. acquired BellSouth, the last independent Baby Bell company, making their joint venture Cingular Wireless wholly owned and rebranding it as AT&T Mobility. The current AT&T reconstitutes much of the former Bell System, includes ten of the original 22 Bell Operating Companies along with the original long distance division. AT&T can trace its origin back to the original Bell Telephone Company founded by Alexander Graham Bell after his patenting of the telephone. One of that company's subsidiaries was American Telephone and Telegraph Company, established in 1885, which acquired the Bell Company on December 31, 1899, for legal reasons, leaving AT&T as the main company. AT&T established a network of subsidiaries in the United States and Canada that held a government-authorized phone service monopoly, formalized with the Kingsbury Commitment, throughout most of the twentieth century.
This monopoly was known as the Bell System, during this period, AT&T was known by the nickname Ma Bell. For periods of time, the former AT&T was the world's largest phone company. In 1982, U. S. regulators broke up the AT&T monopoly, requiring AT&T to divest its regional subsidiaries and turning them each into individual companies. These new companies were known as Regional Bell Operating Companies, or more informally, Baby Bells. AT&T continued to operate long distance services, but as a result of this breakup, faced competition from new competitors such as MCI and Sprint. Southwestern Bell was one of the companies created by the breakup of AT&T Corp; the architect of divestiture for Southwestern Bell was Robert G. Pope; the company soon started a series of acquisitions. This includes the 1987 acquisition of Metromedia mobile business and the acquisition of several cable companies in the early 1990s. In the half of the 1990s, the company acquired several other telecommunications companies, including some Baby Bells, while selling its cable business.
During this time, the company changed its name to SBC Communications. By 1998, the company was in the top 15 of the Fortune 500, by 1999 the company was part of the Dow Jones Industrial Average. In 2005, SBC purchased AT&T for $16 billion. After this purchase, SBC adopted the better-known AT&T name and brand, with the original AT&T Corp. still existing as the long-distance landline subsidiary of the merged company. The current AT&T claims the original AT&T Corp.'s history as its own, though its corporate structure only dates from 1983. It retains SBC's pre-2005 stock price history, all regulatory filings prior to 2005 are for Southwestern Bell/SBC, not AT&T Corp. In September 2013, AT&T Inc. announced it would expand into Latin America through a collaboration with América Móvil. In December 2013, AT&T announced plans to sell its Connecticut wireline operations to Stamford-based Frontier Communications. AT&T purchased the Mexican carrier Iusacell in late 2014, two months purchased the Mexican wireless business of NII Holdings, merging the two companies to create AT&T Mexico.
In July 2015, AT&T purchased DirecTV for $48.5 billion, or $67.1 billion including assumed debt, subject to certain conditions. AT&T subsequently announced plans to converge its existing U-verse home internet and IPTV brands with DirecTV, to create AT&T Entertainment. In an effort to increase its media holdings, on October 22, 2016, AT&T announced a deal to buy Time Warner for $108.7 billion. AT&T owns a 2% stake in Canadian-domiciled entertainment company Lionsgate. On July 13, 2017, it was reported that AT&T would introduce a cloud-based DVR streaming service as part of its effort to create a unified platform across DirecTV and its DirecTV Now streaming service, with U-verse to be added soon. In October 2018, it was announced that the service Is set to launch in 2019On September 12, 2017, it was reported that AT&T planned to launch a new cable TV-like service for delivery over-the-top over its own or a competitor's broadband network sometime next year. On November 20, 2017, Assistant Attorney General Makan Delrahim filed a lawsuit for the United States Department of Justice Antitrust Division to block the merger with Time Warner, saying it "will harm competition, result in higher bills for consumers and less innovation."
In order for AT&T to acquire Time Warner, the Department of Justice stated that the company must
Masayoshi Son is a Japanese business magnate and investor of Korean descent, the founder and current chief executive officer of Japanese holding conglomerate SoftBank, the chief executive officer of SoftBank Mobile, current chairman of U. S.-based Sprint Corporation and chairman of U. K.-based Arm Holdings. According to Forbes magazine, Son's estimated net worth is US $23 billion and he is the richest man in Japan, despite having the distinction of losing the most money in history. Forbes describes him as a philanthropist. Son was named the world's 45th most powerful person by Forbes Magazine's List of The World's Most Powerful People in 2013. Son was ranked at number 43 on the Forbes list of The World's Billionaires 2019, with a net worth of $22.9 billion. Ethnically Korean, Son's grandparents immigrated to Japan from North Korea in search for economic opportunities. Son was born in a small town on Japan's southern island Kyushu in the sparsely populated Saga Prefecture. At age 16, Son moved from Japan to California and finished high school in three weeks by taking the required exams at Serramonte High while staying with friends and family in South San Francisco.
After spending two years at Holy Names University in Oakland, CA, Son transferred to the University of California, where he majored in economics and studied computer science. Enamoured by a microchip featured in a magazine, Son at age 19 became confident that computer technology would ignite the next commercial revolution, his first business endeavours began as a student. With the help of some professors, Son invented an electronic translator that he sold to Sharp Corporation for $1.7 million. He made another $1.5 million by importing used video game machines from Japan, on credit, installing them in dormitories and restaurants. Son pursued his interests in business by securing a meeting with Japan McDonald's president Den Fujita. Taking his advice, Son began studying English and computer science. Son graduated from UC Berkeley with a B. A. in Economics in 1980, started Unison in Oakland, CA, which has since been bought by Kyocera. Son's family had adopted the Japanese surname Yasumoto, Son had used that surname as a child.
He decided to use his Korean surname instead on returning to Japan from the U. S. and became a role model for ethnic Korean children in Japan. Son was an early investor in internet firms, buying a share of Yahoo! in 1995 and investing a $20 million stake into Alibaba in 1999. Son's holding company SoftBank owns 29.5% of Alibaba, worth around $108.7 billion as of 23rd October 2018. Although SoftBank's stake in Yahoo! had dwindled to 7%, Son established Yahoo! BroadBand in September 2001 with Yahoo! Japan in which he still owned a controlling interest. After a severe devaluation of SoftBank's equity, Son was forced to focus his attention on Yahoo! BB and BB Phone. So far, SoftBank has accumulated about $1.3 billion in debt. Yet, Yahoo! BB acquired Japan Telecom, the third largest broadband and landline provider with 600,000 residential and 170,000 commercial subscribers. Yahoo! BB is now Japan's leading broadband provider. On March 17, 2006, Vodafone Group announced it had agreed to sell Vodafone K. K. to SoftBank for 1.75 trillion Japanese yen.
On April 14, 2006, SoftBank and Vodafone K. K. jointly announced, that the brand and company name Vodafone will be changed to a "new, easy-to-understand and familiar company name and brand". Masayoshi Son is the CEO of Vodafone K. K. In July 2016 SoftBank announced its plan to acquire Arm Holdings for £23.4 billion which had to be the biggest purchase of a European technology company. In September 2016 SoftBank announced; the total acquisition price was £24 billion. Through his holdings in SoftBank, Son bought a 76% share in Sprint. SoftBank has further accumulated shares in Sprint to about 80% ownership. In response to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011, Masayoshi Son criticized the nuclear industry for creating “the problem that worries Japanese the most today”, engaged in investing in a nationwide solar power network for Japan. In March 2018, it was announced that Son was investing in the biggest solar project, a 200GW development planned for Saudi Arabia as part of its Vision 2030.
Son met Masami Ohno, while in university. They have two daughters, he lives in Tokyo in a three-story mansion, valued at $50 million which has a golf range that has the technology to mimic the weather conditions and temperature of the world’s top golf courses. He has bought a home near Silicon Valley in Woodside, California that cost him $117 million, he owns a professional Japanese baseball team. Son is the second oldest of the siblings, his youngest brother Taizo Son is a serial entrepreneur and investor, having founded GungHo Online Entertainment and the venture capital firm Mistletoe In 2011 Son pledged to donate 10 billion yen and his remaining salary until retirement to support victims of the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. SoftBank's investment vehicle, the $100 billion Vision Fund which invests in emerging technologies like artificial intelligence and the internet of things. Aims to double its portfolio of AI companies from 70 to 125, it invests in companies to revolutionise real estate and retail.
Son makes personal connections with the CEOs of all companies funded by Vision Fund. Son plans to raise $100 billion for a new fund every few years, investing about $50 billion a year in startups. Masayoshi Son, A
Vivo, is a brand of Telefônica Brasil, a subsidiary of Telefónica and the largest telecommunications company in Brazil. It is headquartered both in Rio de Janeiro; the company was formed as part of Telebrás, the state-owned telecom monopoly at the time. In 1998, Telebrás was privatized. Telefónica bought Telesp, the São Paulo division, rebranded it to Telefónica. On 15 April 2012, all Telefónica services were rebranded again to Vivo, using the same strategy of unifying all its services in a unique brand, like Movistar and O2; the following operators merged to form Vivo: The Vivo brand was launched on 13 April 2003, as a mobile phone service provider. It's the largest provider in Brazil with over 76 million users, it originated from the merger of several Brazilian mobile phone operations under a joint-venture owned by Portugal Telecom and Spain's Telefónica. Until 2006, the group was composed of six holding companies which, as announced in November 2005, merged into a single holding company, "Vivo Participações".
The operation was concluded on 22 February 2006. In July 2010, Telefónica bought PT's shares. Today Vivo operates 3G networks and band 7 4G LTE in major cities; the network was based on analog AMPS and parts, using TDMA. These are all being converted to GSM since 2006, after years being the only CDMA network, Vivo announced a GSM network, that it would operate in both CDMA and GSM; the CDMA network was converted to CDMA2000 in the major cities. The CDMA network was discontinued on November 2012. Vivo owns the following brands: Telefônica Brasil Telecommunications in Brazil List of internet service providers in Brazil Vivo website
Marcelo Claure is a Bolivian-American businessman and executive chairman and former CEO of Sprint Corporation. He was succeeded in the role of CEO by Michel Combes, he serves as COO of SoftBank Group. He is a wireless industry distribution entrepreneur and co-founder of Brightstar Corp. Since its founding in 1997, Brightstar has grown into an enterprise with $10.5 billion in gross revenue, with local presence in 50 countries, on six continents. On August 5, 2014, he was selected to replace Dan Hesse as CEO of Sprint Corporation; the announcement was made on August 2014, coinciding with Bolivia's independence day. He spent two years living in Guatemala, his family moved to Morocco and to the Dominican Republic before returning home to La Paz, where he spent most of his childhood, he attended the American Cooperative School in La Paz, graduating in 1989. That year, he left La Paz to attend what was the University of Lowell, in Lowell, Massachusetts, he subsequently transferred to Bentley University, in Waltham, graduating in 1993 with a Bachelor of Science in Economics and Finance.
After graduation, Claure returned to La Paz and joined the Bolivian Football Federation as International Marketing Manager. In 1995, he bought USA Wireless, a cellular retailer, he expanded the company before selling it one year later. In 1996, Claure became President of Small World Communications, a California-based communications and distribution company, he led the company for two years before re-locating to Florida to start Brightstar in 1997. Brightstar was founded in Miami in 1997, as a distributor and service provider to the wireless industry with a focus on the Latin American market; the company opened offices in Bolivia, Brazil and the Caribbean. In 2000, the company entered distribution agreement with Motorola for all of Latin America; this was followed by the launch of subsidiaries in Argentina, Venezuela, Peru and El Salvador. A US Brightstar subsidiary opened in 2001, based in Chicago, expanded into Asia, followed by Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Brightstar operates in 50 countries and all six continents around the globe.
Forbes Magazine recognized it as one of the largest held companies in the US, listing it 55th in 2013. Inc. Magazine identified Brightstar as one of the fastest-growing companies in the U. S. placing it sixth in its annual Inc. 500/5000 listing in 2009. It has been recognized by HispanicBusiness.com as the largest Hispanic-owned business in the U. S. in 2007, 2008, 2009, 2011, 2012 and 2013. On October 18, 2013, Brightstar Corp. and SOFTBANK CORP. announced a definitive agreement for SoftBank to invest $1.26 billion in Brightstar. In December 2013, Brightstar announced plans to acquire 20:20 Mobile in Europe; the transaction closed in February 2014 and Brightstar now owns facilities in the UK, Hungary, Denmark, Finland and Sweden, providing products and services across 13 European countries. In February 2014, Brightstar announced plans to acquire the Commerce & Services Division of SoftBank Group; the transaction closed in April 2014 and as a result Brightstar became the primary global distributor for the SoftBank Selection brand mobile products, which feature more than 765 mobile accessories.
The new company is expected to grow Brightstar’s presence in Japan and increase the company’s revenues by $3 billion on an annualized basis. Claure became Sprint Corporation President and CEO on Aug. 11, 2014, has served on the Sprint board of directors since January 2014. He is a member of the board of directors of SoftBank Group, as well as the board of Arm, a leading chip technology developer. In 2017 Claure commissioned Jason Neubauer of Social Bet Inc. to produce the Helicopter Trampoline with internet sensation Jake Paul. Claure is chairman of CTIA. In 2008, Claure created BAISA, to acquire and operate Club Bolivar, the most popular soccer Club in Bolivia and the ninth-ranked team in Latin America. Claure has previously served on FIFA's Committee for Fair Play and Social Responsibility. In 2018, Claure - along with David Beckham. MLS Commissioner Don Garber announced the expansion team on January 29 in a ceremony at The Arsht Center; the event was transmitted on live TV and attended by over 1700 people including athletes, celebrities and international business leaders, political figures and members of the national and international media.
Miami’s new futbol team will play in a privately-financed, 25,000-seat state-of-the-art stadium in downtown Miami. The stadium will be designed by Populous and is expected to be built by 2021. World Economic Forum Young Global Leader. Ernst & Young Entrepreneur of the Year Award and lifetime member of Ernst & Young's Entrepreneur of the Year Hall of Fame. Hispanic Businessman of the Year by the United States Hispanic Chamber of Commerce. Global Telecoms Business "Forty Under Forty" Leaders.
Motorola, Inc. was an American multinational telecommunications company founded on September 25, 1928, based in Schaumburg, Illinois. After having lost $4.3 billion from 2007 to 2009, the company was divided into two independent public companies, Motorola Mobility and Motorola Solutions on January 4, 2011. Motorola Solutions is considered to be the direct successor to Motorola, as the reorganization was structured with Motorola Mobility being spun off. Motorola Mobility was sold to Google in 2012, acquired by Lenovo in 2014. Motorola designed and sold wireless network equipment such as cellular transmission base stations and signal amplifiers. Motorola's home and broadcast network products included set-top boxes, digital video recorders, network equipment used to enable video broadcasting, computer telephony, high-definition television, its business and government customers consisted of wireless voice and broadband systems, public safety communications systems like Astro and Dimetra. These businesses are now part of Motorola Solutions.
Google sold Motorola Home to the Arris Group in December 2012 for US$2.35 billion. Motorola's wireless telephone handset division was a pioneer in cellular telephones. Known as the Personal Communication Sector prior to 2004, it pioneered the "mobile phone" with DynaTAC, "flip phone" with the MicroTAC, as well as the "clam phone" with the StarTAC in the mid-1990s, it had staged a resurgence by the mid-2000s with the Razr, but lost market share in the second half of that decade. It focused on smartphones using Google's open-source Android mobile operating system; the first phone to use the newest version of Google's open source OS, Android 2.0, was released on November 2, 2009 as the Motorola Droid. The handset division was spun off into the independent Motorola Mobility. On May 22, 2012, Google CEO Larry Page announced that Google had closed on its deal to acquire Motorola Mobility. On January 29, 2014, Page announced that, pending closure of the deal, Motorola Mobility would be acquired by Chinese technology company Lenovo for US$2.91 billion.
On October 30, 2014, Lenovo finalized its purchase of Motorola Mobility from Google. Motorola started in Chicago, Illinois, as Galvin Manufacturing Corporation in 1928 when brothers Paul V. and Joseph E. Galvin purchased the bankrupt Stewart Battery Company's battery-eliminator plans and manufacturing equipment at auction for $750. Galvin Manufacturing Corporation set up shop in a small section of a rented building; the company had $565 in five employees. The first week's payroll was $63; the company's first products were the battery eliminators, devices that enabled battery-powered radios to operate on household electricity. Due to advances in radio technology, battery-eliminators soon became obsolete. Paul Galvin learned that some radio technicians were installing sets in cars, challenged his engineers to design an inexpensive car radio that could be installed in most vehicles, his team was successful, Galvin was able to demonstrate a working model of the radio at the June 1930 Radio Manufacturers Association convention in Atlantic City, New Jersey.
He brought home enough orders to keep the company in business. Paul Galvin wanted a brand name for Galvin Manufacturing Corporation's new car radio, created the name “Motorola” by linking "motor" with "ola", a popular ending for many companies at the time, e.g. Moviola, Crayola; the company sold its first Motorola branded radio on June 23, 1930, to Herbert C. Wall of Fort Wayne, for $30. Wall went on to become one of the first Motorola distributors in the country; the Motorola brand name became so well known that Galvin Manufacturing Corporation changed its name to Motorola, Inc. Galvin Manufacturing Corporation began selling Motorola car-radio receivers to police departments and municipalities in November 1930; the company's first public safety customers included the Village of River Forest, Village of Bellwood Police Department, City of Evanston Police, Illinois State Highway Police, Cook County Police with a one-way radio communication. In the same year, the company built its research and development program with Dan Noble, a pioneer in FM radio and semiconductor technologies, who joined the company as director of research.
The company produced the hand-held AM SCR-536 radio during World War II, vital to Allied communication. Motorola ranked 94th among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts. Motorola went public in 1943, became Motorola, Inc. in 1947. At that time Motorola's main business was selling televisions and radios. In October 1946 Motorola communications equipment carried the first calls on Illinois Bell telephone company's new car radiotelephone service in Chicago; the company began making televisions in 1947, with the model VT-71 with 7-inch cathode ray tube. In 1952, Motorola opened its first international subsidiary in Toronto, Canada to produce radios and televisions. In 1953, the company established the Motorola Foundation to support leading universities in the United States. In 1955, years after Motorola started its research and development laboratory in Phoenix, Arizona, to research new solid-state technology, Motorola introduced the world's first commercial high-power germanium-based transistor.
Cable News Network is an American news-based pay television channel owned by WarnerMedia News & Sports, a division of AT&T's WarnerMedia. CNN was founded in 1980 by American media proprietor Ted Turner as a 24-hour cable news channel. Upon its launch, CNN was the first television channel to provide 24-hour news coverage, was the first all-news television channel in the United States. While the news channel has numerous affiliates, CNN broadcasts from the Time Warner Center in New York City, studios in Washington, D. C. and Los Angeles. Its headquarters at the CNN Center in Atlanta is only used for weekend programming. CNN is sometimes referred to as CNN/U. S. to distinguish the American channel from CNN International. As of August 2010, CNN is available in over 100 million U. S. households. Broadcast coverage of the U. S. channel extends to over 890,000 American hotel rooms, as well as carriage on subscription providers throughout Canada. As of July 2015, CNN is available to about 96,374,000 pay-television households in the United States.
Globally, CNN programming airs through CNN International, which can be seen by viewers in over 212 countries and territories. The Cable News Network was launched at 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time on June 1, 1980. After an introduction by Ted Turner, the husband and wife team of David Walker and Lois Hart anchored the channel's first newscast. Burt Reinhardt, the executive vice president of CNN at its launch, hired most of the channel's first 200 employees, including the network's first news anchor, Bernard Shaw. Since its debut, CNN has expanded its reach to a number of cable and satellite television providers, several websites, specialized closed-circuit channels; the company has 42 bureaus, more than 900 affiliated local stations, several regional and foreign-language networks around the world. The channel's success made a bona-fide mogul of founder Ted Turner and set the stage for conglomerate Time Warner's eventual acquisition of the Turner Broadcasting System in 1996. A companion channel, CNN2, was launched on January 1, 1982 and featured a continuous 24-hour cycle of 30-minute news broadcasts.
The channel, which became known as CNN Headline News and is now known as HLN focused on live news coverage supplemented by personality-based programs during the evening and primetime hours. The first Persian Gulf War in 1991 was a watershed event for CNN that catapulted the channel past the "Big Three" American networks for the first time in its history due to an unprecedented, historical scoop: CNN was the only news outlet with the ability to communicate from inside Iraq during the initial hours of the Coalition bombing campaign, with live reports from the al-Rashid Hotel in Baghdad by reporters Bernard Shaw, John Holliman and Peter Arnett; the moment when bombing began was announced on CNN by Shaw on January 16, 1991, as follows: This is Bernie Shaw. Something is happening outside.... Peter Arnett, join me here. Let's describe to our viewers what we're seeing... The skies over Baghdad have been illuminated.... We're seeing bright flashes going off all over the sky. Unable to broadcast live pictures from Baghdad, CNN's coverage of the initial hours of the Gulf War had the dramatic feel of a radio broadcast – and was compared to legendary CBS news anchor Edward R. Murrow's gripping live radio reports of the German bombing of London during World War II.
Despite the lack of live pictures, CNN's coverage was carried by television stations and networks around the world, resulting in CNN being watched by over a billion viewers worldwide. The Gulf War experience brought CNN some much sought-after legitimacy and made household names of obscure reporters. In 2000, media scholar and director of the Center for the Study of Popular Television at Syracuse University, Robert Thompson, stated that having turned 20, CNN was now the "old guard." Shaw, known for his live-from-Bagdhad reporting during the Gulf War, became CNN's chief anchor until his retirement in 2001. Others include then-Pentagon correspondent Wolf Blitzer and international correspondent Christiane Amanpour. Amanpour's presence in Iraq was caricatured by actress Nora Dunn as ruthless reporter Adriana Cruz in the 1999 film Three Kings. Time Warner-owned sister network HBO produced a television movie, Live from Baghdad, about CNN's coverage of the first Gulf War. Coverage of the first Gulf War and other crises of the early 1990s led officials at the Pentagon to coin the term "the CNN effect" to describe the perceived impact of real time, 24-hour news coverage on the decision-making processes of the American government.
CNN was the first cable news channel. Anchor Carol Lin was on the air to deliver the first public report of the event, she broke into a commercial at 8:49 a.m. Eastern Time that morning and said:This just in. You are looking at a disturbing live shot there; that is the World Trade Center, we have unconfirmed reports this morning that a plane has crashed into one of the towers of the World Trade Center. CNN Center right now is just beginning to work on this story calling our sources and trying to figure out what happened, but something devastating happening this morning there on the south end of the island of Manhattan; that is once again, a picture of one of the towers of the World Trade Center. Sean Murtagh, CNN vice president of finance and administration, was the first network employe