Liman, Novi Sad
Liman is an urban neighborhood of the city of Novi Sad, Serbia. It is located to the south of the city centre, along the Danube river, covering an area of 3.98 km². It is a new part of the city, built between 1960s and 1990s on what were marshes, it is divided into four parts, numbered by Roman numerals: Liman I, II, III and IV, which match the chronology of its development. The northern border of Liman is Bulevar Cara Lazara, the western borders are Ulica Ribarsko ostrvo and Ulica Sima Matavulja, while the southern and eastern border is Danube river; the neighbouring neighbourhoods are: Telep in the west, Adamovićevo Naselje and Stari Grad in the north, Ribarsko ostrvo in the south. In the south-east of the settlement is river Danube. By data from 1764, area on which Liman lies was part of stretch of forest from Futog to historic city centre of Novi Sad. Works on railroad from Budapest to Zemun and Belgrade were started in 1881. Railroad was built on today's Bulevar Cara Lazara, it was torn down in 1964, after a new railroad through town was built in Salajka and Podbara neighborhoods.
Work on buildings in Liman was started in the early 1960s, four parts of the settlement were developed chronologically. Liman I with University campus was started first. Between 1980 and 1989, Liman was one of the seven municipalities of Novi Sad City; the municipality included part of the neighborhood of Liman, as well as neighborhoods of Grbavica, Adamovićevo Naselje and Ribarsko ostrvo. Liman consists of four parts: Liman I with University campus, between the Sunny Quay and Fruškogorska Street. There are no residential houses in this neighbourhood. Liman is built in communist times, so there are many communist-style high-rise buildings built. Situated on the left bank of the Danube river, Liman possess many water sports beaches. There are Štrand and Bećarac beaches, two small recreational marinas, rowing club and Sunčani kej, next to Danube river, popular for pedestrians and cyclists. Sunčani kej stretches from Podbara to Liman III. There is Liman park and University park and two football pitches of FK Kabel.
Most facilities of the University of Novi Sad are within the area of University campus in Liman I, but a couple of dormitories are in Liman III. Liman I was started as a housing project for professors of the University of Novi Sad. In mid-2005 estimation by city's registry Liman had 34,234 inhabitants, including: Liman I 4,683. Liman is part of Novi Sad municipality, it is divided into five local communities: Liman, Boško Buha, Liman III, Ivo Andrić. Neighborhoods of Novi Sad Depresija Jovan Mirosavljević, Brevijar ulica Novog Sada 1745-2001, Novi Sad, 2002. Milorad Grujić, Vodič kroz Novi Sad i okolinu, Novi Sad, 2004. City Construction and Development of Novi Sad
Novi Sad is the second largest city in Serbia, the capital of the autonomous province of Vojvodina and the administrative centre of the South Bačka District. It is located in the southern portion of the Pannonian Plain on the border of the Bačka and Srem geographical regions. Lying on the banks of the Danube river, the city faces the northern slopes of Fruška Gora. According to the 2011 census, Novi Sad proper has a population of 250,439, while the entire urban area of Novi Sad comprises 277,522 inhabitants; the population of the administrative area of the city, which includes its suburbs, totals 341,625 people. Novi Sad was founded in 1694 when Serb merchants formed a colony across the Danube from the Petrovaradin fortress, a strategic Habsburg military post. In the following centuries, it transformed into an important trading and manufacturing centre as well as a centre of Serbian culture, earning it the nickname Serbian Athens; the city was devastated in the 1848 Revolution, but was subsequently rebuilt and restored.
Today, along with the Serbian capital city of Belgrade, Novi Sad is an industrial and financial centre important to the Serbian economy. Novi Sad was selected to be a European Capital of Culture for the year 2021; the name Novi Sad means'new orchard' in Serbian. Its Latin name, stemming from the establishment of city rights, is'Neoplanta'; the official names of Novi Sad used by the local administration are: In both Croatian and Romanian, which are used in the provincial administration, the city is called'Novi Sad'. It was called'Neusatz' in German. In its wider meaning, the name Grad Novi Sad refers to the'City of Novi Sad', one of the city-level administrative units of Serbia. Novi Sad could refer to the urban areas of the City of Novi Sad, as well as only to the historical core located on the left Danube bank, i.e.'Novi Sad proper'. Human habitation in the territory of present-day Novi Sad has been traced as far back as the Stone Age. Several settlements and necropolises dating to 5000 BC were unearthed during the construction of a new boulevard in Avijatičarsko Naselje.
A settlement was identified on the right bank of the river Danube in present-day Petrovaradin. In antiquity, the region was inhabited by Celtic tribes, most notably the Scordisci. Celts were present in the area since the 4th century BC and founded the first fortress on the right bank of the Danube. In the 1st century BC, the region was conquered by the Romans. During Roman rule, a larger fortress was built in the 1st century, with the name Cusum, was included in the Roman province of Pannonia. In the 5th century, Cusum was devastated by Hunnic invasions. By the end of the same century, the Byzantines had reconstructed the town and called it by the names Petrikon or Petrikov after Saint Peter. Slavic tribes such as the Severians, the Obotrites and the Serbs settled today's region around Novi Sad in the 6th and 7th centuries; the Serbs absorbed the aforementioned Slavic groups as well as the Paleo-Balkanic peoples of the region. In the Middle Ages, the area was subsequently controlled by the Ostrogoths, Avars, West Slavic groups, again by the Byzantines, by the Hungarians.
It became a part of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary between the 12th centuries. Hungarians began to settle in the area, which before that time was populated by Slavs, the place was first mentioned under the Hungarian variant Peturwarad or Pétervárad, which derived from the Byzantine variant, found in documents from 1237; that same year, several other settlements were mentioned as existing in the territory of modern-day urban Novi Sad. From the 13th century to the 16th century, the following settlements existed within the territory of the urban areas of modern-day Novi Sad: on the right bank of the Danube: Pétervárad and Kamanc. on the left bank of the Danube: Baksa or Baksafalva, Kűszentmárton, Bivalyos or Bivalo, Vásárosvárad or Várad, Zajol I, Zajol II, Bistritz. Some other settlements existed in the suburbs of Novi Sad: Mortályos, Keménd, Rév. An etymology of settlement names reveals that some designations are of Slavic origin, which indicates that the areas were inhabited by Slavs the West Slavs.
For example, Bivalo was a large Slavic settlement dating from the 5th–6th centuries. Other names are of Hungarian origin, indicating that the settlements were inhabited by Hungarians before the Ottoman invasion in the 16th century; some settlement names are of uncertain origin. Tax records from 1522 show a mix of Hungarian and Slavic names among the inhabitants of these villages, including Slavic names like Bozso, Radonya, etc. Following the Ottoman invasion in the 16th–17th centuries, some of these settlements were destroyed. Most of the surviving Hungarian inhabitants retreated from this area; some of the settlements were populated by ethnic Serbs. Between 1526 and
Naftna Industrija Srbije
Naftna Industrija Srbije is a Serbian multinational oil and gas company with headquarters in NIS building, Novi Sad, Serbia. NIS is one of one of the largest domestic exporters, it employs around 11,000 people in the region. Gazprom Neft is the majority shareholder, owning 56.15% of NIS shares, while 29.87% of NIS share capital is held by the Republic of Serbia and rest by minority shareholders. The main activities of the company are exploration and refining of petroleum and natural gas and distribution of a broad range of petroleum and gas products, as well as the implementation of energy and petrochemical projects; the main NIS production facilities are in the Republic of Serbia, while subsidiaries and representative offices have been established in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Hungary, Russia and Angola. The precursor of today’s NIS was the "Oil Exploration and Production Company" with headquarters in Zrenjanin, founded in 1949 by the decision of the government of the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia.
The "Company for Oil Exploration and Production Naftagas" was established in 1953 pursuant to the decision of the government of FPRY, when management was relocated to Novi Sad. During the 1950s, first petrol stations and warehouses in this area were opened. Oil refineries in Pančevo and Novi Sad were put into operation in 1968. At the end of 1973, sales and distribution organizations "Jugopetrol-Beograd" and "Jugopetrol-Novi Sad" were integrated into the company. Naftna industrija Srbije, in its present form, was established in 1991 as a public company for the exploration, production and sales and distribution of oil, petroleum products and natural gas; the company gave rise to three present-day companies: NIS, "Transnafta". In October 2005, NIS was transformed into a joint-stock company, appointing its own Shareholders’ Assembly, Board of Directors and other managing bodies. In 2008, the Russian company Gazprom Neft became the majority shareholder, pursuant to the "Sales and Purchase Agreement" between the Republic of Serbia and the Russian Federation on the purchase of 51% of shares for €400 million and €550 million in investments until 2012.
Adjoining contracts signed with Gazprom were about inclusion of Serbia in the South Stream gas-pipeline project and the construction of an underground gas storage facility in Banatski Dvor. On 24 December 2008, final contract between the Government of Gazprom were signed. In January 2010, about 20% of remaining shares of NIS were distributed by the Serbian government to the Serbian citizens. In June 2010, NIS was transformed into an open joint-stock company, is listed on the Belgrade Stock Exchange since 30 August 2010. In March 2011, Gazprom Neft announced that it will purchase an additional 5.15% of shares of NIS, increasing their original share from 51% to 56%. NIS held a monopoly on all oil imports in Serbia until 2011. In accordance with its strategy of becoming a regional leader, in 2011 NIS started to expand its business in the region. Subsidiary companies were established in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria and Romania. In 2012 the construction of hydrocracking and hydrotreatment facilities was completed in Pančevo Oil Refinery, marking the completion of the first stage of modernization of NIS refining facilities.
Two years in 2013, the realization of the cogeneration project began. The first cogeneration facility was commissioned in Sirakovo, after which another 13 mini power plants were put into operation; the surplus of electric energy, produced by NIS, is since sold on the free market. The company strives towards constant implementation of new technologies, thus in 2016 an Amin Plant for the purification of natural gas started operating within the Plant for the preparation and transport of oil and gas in Elemir; the second stage of the Pančevo Oil Refinery modernization has begun in 2017 with the construction of the bottom-of-the-barrel plant with delayed coking technology, with the intent to make Pančevo Oil Refinery one of the most modern in Eastern Europe. NIS is the only company in Serbia which deals with exploration and production of crude oil and gas, as well as with production of geothermal energy; the company disposes with all necessary equipment for the performance of a whole range of complex activities such as geophysical exploration, control of production of crude oil and geothermal energy.
The majority of NIS oil fields are located on the territory of Serbia, in the province of Vojvodina, but upstream has business operations both in Serbia and abroad. In 2011 NIS started to expand business in south-east Europe: in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Hungary. NIS is engaged in the production of electrical and thermal energy from traditional and renewable resources, the production and sale of compressed natural gas, sale of natural gas, trade of electrical energy and implementation of strategically important energy projects, as well as the projects for improving energy efficiency. In terms of electric energy trade, NIS is present on the markets of Serbia and Herzegovina, Romania and Hungary, as well as North Macedonia; the company owns and operates oil refineries in Pančevo and Novi Sad, natural gas refinery in Elemir. NIS refining complex produces a whole range of petroleum products - from motor gasoline and diesel fuel to mechanical lube oils and feedstock for the petrochemical industry, heavy fuel oil and industrial bitumen, etc.
Pančevo Oil Ref
Bulevar is an urban neighborhood of the city of Novi Sad, Serbia. Its name means "boulevard" in Serbian. Bulevar is not a traditional city neighborhood. Bulevar is situated between Liberty Bridge, it includes parts of the traditional neighborhoods of: Banatić, Sajmište, Rotkvarija, Stari Grad, Liman. Liberation Boulevard was built between 1962 and 1964. In that time, the new boulevard cut through the old housings establishing major communication lines; until 1991, the name of the boulevard was Bulevar 23. Oktobra, in honour of October 23, 1944 when Novi Sad was liberated from Axis occupation. Today, every bus line in the city passes through Liberation Boulevard. Bulevar is regarded as an informal city centre. Although most of the important political and cultural institutions are situated in the traditional city centre known as Stari Grad, Bulevar is a main place in the city for business and leisure activities; every bank in Serbia has its offices in Bulevar, while the headquarters of some important companies are located in this area.
There are many bars, shops and one market. Bulevar has a couple of recreational spots, including the Karađorđe Stadium, tennis courts and Liman Park. Neighborhoods of Novi Sad Jovan Mirosavljević, Brevijar ulica Novog Sada 1745-2001, Novi Sad, 2002. Detailed map of Novi Sad and Liberation Boulevard Novi Sad bulevar images