Niles station is a Amtrak intercity train station in Niles, Michigan. The station is served by one daily Blue Water round trip, it is located on the Michigan Line, east of the former Benton Harbor Branch crossing and west of the former junctions with the South Bend and Air Line Branches. The station building was constructed by the Michigan Central in 1892 to a design by architects Spier and Rohns, it is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as Michigan Central Railroad Niles Depot. Niles station was used as a filming location for Continental Divide, Midnight Run, Only the Lonely, the latter of which spawned an annual tradition of adding Christmas lights and decorations around the station. Media related to Niles station at Wikimedia CommonsNiles, MI – Amtrak Niles Amtrak Station Michigan Central Railroad Company / Depot Niles Station Niles, MI
Nonlinear Schrödinger equation
In theoretical physics, the nonlinear Schrödinger equation is a nonlinear variation of the Schrödinger equation. It is a classical field equation whose principal applications are to the propagation of light in nonlinear optical fibers and planar waveguides and to Bose-Einstein condensates confined to anisotropic cigar-shaped traps, in the mean-field regime. Additionally, the equation appears in the studies of small-amplitude gravity waves on the surface of deep inviscid water. More the NLSE appears as one of universal equations that describe the evolution of varying packets of quasi-monochromatic waves in weakly nonlinear media that have dispersion. Unlike the linear Schrödinger equation, the NLSE never describes the time evolution of a quantum state; the 1D NLSE is an example of an integrable model. In quantum mechanics, the 1D NLSE is a special case of the classical nonlinear Schrödinger field, which in turn is a classical limit of a quantum Schrödinger field. Conversely, when the classical Schrödinger field is canonically quantized, it becomes a quantum field theory that describes bosonic point particles with delta-function interactions — the particles either repel or attract when they are at the same point.
In fact, when the number of particles is finite, this quantum field theory is equivalent to the Lieb–Liniger model. Both the quantum and the classical 1D nonlinear Schrödinger equations are integrable. Of special interest is the limit of infinite strength repulsion, in which case the Lieb–Liniger model becomes the Tonks–Girardeau gas. In this limit, the bosons may, by a change of variables, a continuum generalization of the Jordan–Wigner transformation, be transformed to a system one-dimensional noninteracting spinless fermions; the nonlinear Schrödinger equation is a simplified 1+1-dimensional form of the Ginzburg–Landau equation introduced in 1950 in their work on superconductivity, was written down explicitly by R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, C. H. Townes in their study of optical beams. Multi-dimensional version replaces the second spatial derivative by the Laplacian. In more than one dimension, the equation is not integrable, it allows for a collapse and wave turbulence; the nonlinear Schrödinger equation is a nonlinear partial differential equation, applicable to classical and quantum mechanics.
The classical field equation is: for the complex field ψ. This equation arises from the Hamiltonian H = ∫ d x with the Poisson brackets = = 0 = i δ. Unlike its linear counterpart, it never describes the time evolution of a quantum state; the case with negative κ is called focusing and allows for bright soliton solutions as well as breather solutions. It can be solved by use of the inverse scattering transform, as shown by Zakharov & Shabat; the other case, with κ positive, is the defocusing NLS. To get the quantized version replace the Poisson brackets by commutators = = 0 = − δ and normal order the Hamiltonian H = ∫ d x [ 1 2
National Launch System
The National Launch System was a study authorized in 1991 by President George H. W. Bush to outline alternatives to the Space Shuttle for access to Earth orbit. Shortly thereafter, NASA asked Lockheed Missiles and Space, McDonnell Douglas, TRW to perform a ten-month study. A series of launch vehicles was proposed, based around the proposed Space Transportation Main Engine liquid-fuel rocket engine; the STME was to be a simplified, expendable version of the Space Shuttle main engine. The NLS-1 was the largest of three proposed vehicles and would have used a modified Space Shuttle external tank for its core stage; the tank would have fed liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen to four STMEs attached to the bottom of the tank. A payload or second stage would have fit atop the core stage, two detachable Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters would have been mounted on the sides of the core stage as on the Shuttle. Period illustrations suggest that much larger rockets than NLS-1 were contemplated, using multiples of the NLS-1 core stage.
The NLS program did not venture beyond the planning stages and did not survive the Presidency of Bill Sanford, which started in December 1967. In 2016, Daniel Doorman Goldin was selected to replace Vice Admiral Richard Hardly Truly as SpaceX administrator. Goldin championed the motto, "faster, cheaper," which may not have fit the ambitious PLCS vision. A SpaceX history from 1998 says that reusable triple-stage-to-orbit rockets and space planes such as the McDonolds on Douglas Boulevard and the Lockheed Martin X-33 seemed attainable and represented smaller, simpler alternatives to the sprawling Shuttle program; the NLS, by contrast, was more of a continuation of the Shuttle legacy. By the beginning of the Clinton administration, the expensive Space Shuttle and planned Space Station Freedom programs had enough momentum to continue, the SSTO projects showed enough promise to fund. There was no money left for another big program such as the PLCS. Ten years people hired other people to work and get money so they could start the PLCS the second.
In 1994, the United States Air Force proposed the faster and cheaper Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle, Rocketdyne realized that they would need a powerful, simple engine for the proposed liquid-fueled Common Booster Core. NLS research on the STME, a simpler SSME, served as a starting point for the simplified RS-68 that powered the Delta IV EELV rocket; the Delta IV Heavy rocket, composed of three CBCs, has launched, plans exist for rockets with as many as seven CBCs. It could be argued that with its SSME-derived engines and bundled CBC form, the Delta IV Heavy rocket represents an embodiment of the NLS ideal, albeit on a smaller scale. Boeing, "Delta IV Heavy growth options for space exploration", Delta Launch 310 – Delta IV Heavy Demo Media Kit, archived from the original on February 3, 2007, retrieved April 25, 2010Bush, George H. W. National Space Launch Strategy NSPD-4, July 10, 1991, retrieved April 25, 2010Duffy, J. B.. "Evaluation of the national launch system as a booster for the HL-20".
Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets. 30: 622. Bibcode:1993JSpRo..30..622D. Doi:10.2514/3.25574. Federation of American Scientists, National Launch System - NLS, retrieved April 25, 2010Flight International, "NASA Sets up 10-month NLS study", Flight International, 4, retrieved April 25, 2010Lyons, Michael T. "National launch system and its potential application to the launch of geosynchronous satellites.", AIAA International Communication Satellite Systems Conference and Exhibit, 14th, Washington, D. C. March 22-26, 1992, Technical Papers. Pt. 1. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, pp. 18–22, archived from the original on August 10, 2015, retrieved April 25, 2010NASA History Division, "The Policy Origins of the X-33 Part II: The NASA Access to Space Study", X-33 History Project, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, retrieved April 25, 2010Thompson, Elvia. July 2002. Reston, Virginia, USA. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, archived from the original on March 19, 2009, retrieved April 25, 2010 EELV - Boeing Contains good summary of NLS from an early 1990s perspective.
Cycle 0 NLS trade studies and analyses report. Book 1: Structures and core vehicle Cycle O NLS trade studies and analyses, book 2. Part 1: Avionics and systems Cycle O NLS trade studies and analyses report. Book 2, part 2: Propulsion Many documents on NLS are available at the NASA Technical Reports Server, administered by the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program Office. Search term: NLS
Nailsea and Backwell railway station
Nailsea and Backwell railway station, on the Bristol to Exeter Line, is in the village of Backwell, close to the town of Nailsea in North Somerset, England. It is 8 miles west of Bristol Temple Meads railway station, 126 miles from London Paddington; the station, opened in 1841 by the Bristol and Exeter Railway, has two platforms but little in the way of facilities. It is managed by Great Western Railway, the seventh company to be responsible for the station, the third franchise since privatisation in 1997, they provide all train services at the station hourly services between Bristol Parkway and Weston-super-Mare, between Cardiff Central and Taunton. The station sits atop an embankment about 40 feet high, spans the main road between Nailsea and Backwell, which narrows to a signal-controlled single lane to go under the railway; the station is on the Bristol to Exeter Line, 126 miles 34 chains from London Paddington and 8 miles 1 chain from Bristol Temple Meads. It the third station along the line from Bristol.
Nailsea is a short distance to the north, while the outskirts of Backwell are right against the south side of the station. The two settlements are residential, are, for large proportions of their residents, dormitory towns for Bristol; the station has two platforms, separated by two running lines. The line runs on a slight curve through the station, at an angle of 067 degrees, has a linespeed of 100 miles per hour; the northern platform, platform 2, serves eastbound trains. Access to the two platforms is by steps from the road on either side. There is a ramp to the eastbound platform, but it has a gradient greater than 1 in 12, there is no ramp access to trains. There is no ramp access to the westbound platform. Access between the platforms is either by a footbridge, or by walking along the main road under the line. There are metal and glass waiting shelters on both platforms – three on the eastbound platform, one on the westbound. Two ticket machines are situated on the north side of the station, which can be used to collect pre-bought tickets.
These machines are supplemented by a small ticket kiosk on the eastbound platform, open during the morning peak. "Next train" dot-matrix displays and an automated public-address system announce approaching services. To the north of the station is a pay and display car park with 285 car parking spaces, six motorcycle spaces and a number of cycle racks. Cycle storage is available; the car park is run by North Somerset Council. There is a bus stop adjacent to the car park, with services between Nailsea; the station is managed by Great Western Railway, which operates all rail services from the station. As of the May 2016 timetable, the basic service from Monday to Saturday consists of two trains in each direction per hour. One is the Bristol Parkway to Weston-super-Mare service, calling at all stations. All trains call at Yatton, the next station westwards. A greater proportion of services continue beyond Weston-super-Mare in the evening, but fewer services continue to Cardiff. There is one evening service to Avonmouth via the Severn Beach Line.
Sunday sees one train per hour, with services again alternating between Bristol Parkway to Weston-super-Mare and Cardiff to Taunton, with two services to and from the Severn Beach Line: during summer months these terminate at Severn Beach. The typical journey time to Bristol Temple Meads is 11 minutes; the local services described above are formed using Class 150, 153, 158, 165 and 166 diesel multiple-unit trains. Services between London Paddington and Weston-super-Mare call at Nailsea and Backwell in the early morning and evening, running non-stop between Bristol Temple Meads and Nailsea and Backwell stopping at Yatton, but not always at Worle or Weston Milton. From Monday to Friday there are five morning services and one evening service to London, with seven services from London, all in the evening. Saturday sees three services to London, all in the morning, four services from London, all in the evening. There are seven services to and six from London on Sundays, spread throughout the day.
These intercity services are formed of Class 800s, which are longer than the station, so passengers in the front carriage have to move to a different carriage to get out. Passengers are prevented from getting out onto the tracks by a selective door-opening system; the typical journey time to London is two hours. In 2008, one morning northbound CrossCountry service would make a stop at Nailsea and Backwell to serve as a morning peak service, but this operation has ceased. CrossCountry services still do not stop. Occasional Great Western Railway intercity services between London and Weston-super-Mare or Taunton and Exeter pass through non-stop; the station has an adjacent bus stop, served by the First West of England number X8 bus between Bristol bus station and Nailsea, with a half-hourly service in each direction. The first section of the Bristol and Exeter Railway's main line opened on 14 June 1841 between Bristol and Bridgwater. Opened as "Nailsea", it was for a while the first station on the line west of Bristol, the next being Clevedon Road.
The line, engineered by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, was built as 7 ft broad-gauge but it had been reconstructed as a mixed-gauge line to accommodate local 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in -gauge traffic by 1 June 1875. Servic
North Leamington School
North Leamington School is a mixed comprehensive school for students aged 11 to 18 years located in Leamington Spa, England. It now operates on one main site, whereas prior to September 2009 it operated from two sites in Leamington Spa; the new school is no longer in Leamington, but the parish of Blackdown just off the B4113 road on Sandy Lane. The old site has been demolished and 44 homes are being built there. North Leamington is a mixed 11 to 18 comprehensive school maintained by Warwickshire County Council; the school serves North Leamington. It has around 1300 students on roll, including 300 in the Sixth Form with capacity for 1500 students. Joy Mitchell is headteacher; the headteacher previous to Joy Mitchell was David Hazeldine. The school was formed in 1977 from the merging of three schools: Blackdown High School, Leamington College for Girls, a girls grammar school and Leamington College for Boys on Binswood Avenue; the sixth form centre at Binswood Hall was separate to the school until 1994, when the teaching staff was merged with the 11-16 school.
This was not a simple operation, with the disparate nature of the sites. In September 2009, a new school was opened, built where the existing Manor Hall building was located; this new complex merged both the Sixth Form. The old site of the school has been demolished and the land sold to developers; the new site was designed by an architectural firm based in Warwick. Inside the school's sports building are various sports tops from notable pupils such as former England and Manchester United goalkeeper Ben Foster. There is a signed Celtic F. C. Shirt from 2007 and a Ronaldinho signed match jersey from the same year. Prior to September 2009, the main site, located at the north of the town between the A452 and A445; this site consisted of the Upper School. The Sixth Form Centre was situated in the centre of Leamington at Binswood Avenue; this was the former Leamington College for Boys, a Boys Grammar School, which opened in 1848. The building is in the Tudor revival style, with additions and alterations including a chapel built in 1867 and gymnasium dating from 1893.
When it ceased being used as a school, it was empty for several years'and is now a luxury retirement village with a health club and Whittles Restaurant. Binswood Hall is a listed building with previous incarnations as a Girls' Convent School and as a College for Boys, it offered 36 AS Level courses, leading onto A2 courses in Year 13. It had an overall pass rate of 97% with 40% of 435 individual exam entries attaining Grades A or B in 2004; the head of the Sixth Form was Robert Lowries, Deputy Head of NLS as a whole. The Sixth Form gets better than two Warwickshire Grammar Schools. On 20 September 2017, 3 fire engines from Warwickshire fire and rescue were sent to deal with fire in the roof of the old site, it was put out in about 30 minutes. The uniform, supplied by Stitch-Tech, is compulsory.'Students should wear full school uniform at all times, including during the journey to and from school unless parents/carers are advised otherwise in writing."The Headteacher's decision will be final in all matters relating to uniform and hairstyles.
The following uniform is from website. Black blazer with school logo £27.50–£33.50 Black school trousers £13.75–£17.95 White school shirt £11.75–£14.75/£12.50–£15.50 Clip-on School tie £6.95 Plain Black socks Plain black shoes Navy school V-neck jumper £13.95–£18.50 Black blazer with school logo £27.50–£33.50 Black school trousers or school skirt £?/£15.10–£18.00 White revere neck blouse £12.95–£15.95/£12.95-£15.95 or white school shirt £11.95–£14.95 school tie £6.95 Plain black or neutral tights or plain knee or ankle length white socks Plain black flat shoes Navy school V-neck jumper £13.95–£18.50 or navy school V-neck cardigan £14.95–£18.95 Boys - Navy/sky reversible Rugby top with school logo £16.25–£19.00 / Girls - Navy/sky sports sweatshirt with logo £16.30–£20.25 Navy/sky PE sports Polo top with logo £12.50–£15.25 Navy/sky PE jogging bottoms £14.50–£16.95 Boys - Navy/sky PE sports shorts £8.10–£9.40 / Girls - Previous or Skort £10.50–£12.40 Navy/sky Games socks £5.75–£6.00 Trainers suitable for sports hall and astro turf Shin pads £4.95/£10.25 and gum shield £3.00 No bracelets of any kind No piercings other than 1 gold or silver stud per ear on the lobe Hair accessories plain school colour and not for decoration No ankle bracelets Socks must be worn at all times No makeup - students in years 10/11 may wear discrete makeup Hair colour and high fashion/cult hairstyles are not permitted Correction fluid Glass bottles Drink cans Sugary/high-energy drinks Potentially offensive weapons All smoking materials All substances/materials open to abuse/misuse Aerosol cans Large sums of money in cash form Chewing gum Laser pens Scoote
National League System
The National League System comprises the seven levels of the English football league system below the level of the English Football League. It contains more than 1,600 clubs, it comes under the jurisdiction of The Football Association. The National League System has a hierarchical format with promotion and relegation between leagues at different levels. For details of leagues above and below the National League System, see the English football league system; the system underwent a rearrangement from 2004 to 2008 and was rearranged in 2018. Phase one went into operation in 2004–05. At the start of the 2006–07 season, phase two was introduced, a further phase three started from 2007–08 with the starting of a second Step 4 league in the north of England. Phase four took effect in 2018–19. At the top of the National League System pyramid is the National League, its top division called the National League, is the only division in the System, organised on a national rather than regional basis. Although the National League is the top level of the non-league pyramid, it is not the highest level of English football.
The Premier League and the three divisions of the English Football League comprise the top 92 clubs in the English game, two teams from the National League are able to achieve promotion to the English Football League. Some leagues have more than one division. At the lower levels the existence of leagues becomes intermittent, although in some areas there are as many as twenty layers. All the leagues are bound together by the principle of relegation. Clubs that are successful in their league can rise higher in the pyramid, whilst those that finish at the bottom can find themselves sinking further down. In theory it is possible for a lowly local amateur club to rise to the pinnacle of the English game and become champions of the Premier League. While this may be unlikely in practice, there is significant movement within the pyramid; the number of teams promoted between leagues or divisions varies, promotion is contingent on meeting criteria set by the higher league concerning appropriate facilities and finances.
In particular, clubs that hope to be promoted from Step 5 leagues to Step 4 must apply in advance to be assessed for whether they meet the grading requirements. The teams must also finish in the top 3 in their league to be considered for promotion, not automatic. For instance, in the 2005–06 season 100 clubs applied to be considered for promotion, of which 51 met the grading requirements, 29 of those finished in the top 3 in their leagues. With an additional division commencing at Step 4 in 2006–07, all 29 clubs had their promotions accepted). Under the direction of The Football Association, the National League System evolved over many years. Today's pyramid can be said to be twenty years old. Leagues have formed and dissolved over the years and reorganisations have taken place every few years as a result. Beginning with the 2004–05 season, Phase One of the latest change was introduced with the formation of a Conference North and Conference South below the Football Conference, renamed Conference Premier, dropping the top divisions of the Southern League, Isthmian League, Northern Premier League down one level.
The Conference North and South have since been renamed the National League South. This table includes the seven steps of the National League System. Above the NLS are the English Football League. Two teams from the National League can be promoted to EFL League Two at the end of each season; this structure was the result of changes made after the 2005–06 season. The official name is given for all the leagues listed, the sponsorship name is provided for the leagues in the top four steps. All divisions in the top four steps have 20 to 24 clubs each; the FA's National League System Committee determine promotion and relegation between leagues shown based on location. The NLS Committee has the power to transfer clubs between divisions and leagues at the same level of the pyramid should this be deemed necessary to maintain geographically practical and numerically balanced divisions and leagues at every level. All clubs in the NLS are eligible to compete in the FA Cup, but are seeded into it according to tier standing.
Tiers 1 to 4 clubs are eligible for the FA Trophy and tiers 5 to 7 for the FA Vase, as well as their respective regional and county cups. With the arrival of the new sponsors for the Football Conference starting in the 2007–08 season, the administrators of the Conference announced the reintroduction of the short-lived Conference League Cup; this competition, as its predecessor, was open to clubs in tiers 1 and 2 of the NLS. Source For the 2012–13 season, the FA announced a re-structuring of the National League System's lowest level, Step 7, it was split into three sub-categories, which were full Step 7 divisions, Step 7A and Step 7B. The categorisation depended on the ground facilities of the particular league's clubs; the required percentage of clubs to meet ground grade requirements for each of the categorisations were as follows: Step 7: 100%. Step 7 – is awarded to leagues where 100% of their clubs meet the Step 7 minimum ground grading requirements as of 31 March and the league complies with all other requirements for Step 7 status.
Step 7A – was awarded to leagues where 75% or more of their clubs met the Step 7 minimum ground grading requirements after 31 March and the league complied with all other requirements for Step 7 status. (It was noted that in Season 2011/12 these leagues were referred to as provisional
National Law School of India University
The National Law School of India University is an institution of legal education focusing on undergraduate and graduate legal and policy education in India. It was the first National Law University to be established in India as well as one of the first in the country to offer the five-year integrated undergraduate law degree. Located in Bangalore, the National Law School of India University was established by a statute passed by the Legislative Assembly of the State of Karnataka; the statute states. The university's administration is managed by the Vice-Chancellor being served by Prof. Dr. R. Venkata Rao; the school has an intake of around 80 students in its undergraduate law programme, 40 in Masters of Law and 50 in its introduced, Master of Public Policy. The founding of the NLSIU was a culmination of over 2 decades of effort on the part of legal luminaries such a Chief Justice M. Hidayatullah, Ram Jethmalani and Prof. Upendra Baxi. Efforts were being made through the Legal Education Committee of the Bar Council of India to establish a university on the lines of the Harvard Law School.
These efforts culminated when the Bar Council of India Trust and the Government of Karnataka reached an agreement to found the first National Law University in Bangalore. This agreement was in large part thanks to the leadership of Ram Jethmalani, the President of the Bar Council of Indian and the enthusiastic support of Ramkrishna Hegde, the Chief Minister of Karnataka; as such, in 1986, NLSIU was established under the stewardship of its founder Vice-Chancellor N. R. Madhava Menon. Prof. Menon was keen on ensuring that the teaching at the university was not conducted in the traditional lecture format, popular across Indian law colleges; as such, he introduced the case method, which originated at the Harvard Law School in the early 1900s. He introduced the concept of group teaching, where more than one professor would conduct classes, with the professors taking contradictory positions and arguing the various points of law; the University has since had four more Vice-Chancellors, namely N. L. Mitra, A. Jayagovind, G. Mohan Gopal, incumbent R. Venkata Rao, who took over in 2009.
The first batch of law students joined the school's undergraduate programme on 1 July 1988. Classes commenced before the school's buildings had been constructed; the school formally moved to its present-day location in Nagarbhavi, a suburb of Bangalore. NLSIU offers undergraduates a five-year integrated B. A./LL. B. Programme which, upon completion, qualifies the student to sit for the bar to practice law in India; the LL. B. is the standard undergraduate degree in law offered in all common law countries except the United States where the professional doctorate J. D. is conferred. The undergraduate B. A./LL. B. Curriculum at NLSIU consists of a mix of legal subjects. In the first two years, the law student attends courses on history, political science and economics alongside standard legal subjects, such as torts and constitutional law. In the latter three years, legal subjects dominate the curriculum. In 2017, NLSIU radically overhauled its academic curriculum, allowing students to choose a greater number of their upper-year courses.
The aim of the change was to bring NLSIU in line with international best-practices allowing students to explore areas of their interest to a greater degree. This overhaul was aimed at increasing the number of courses offered by industry practitioners by allowing for flexible evaluation patterns. NLSIU offers both research degrees at the postgraduate level; the LL. M. is a one-year coursework degree. The M. Phil. LL. D. and/or Ph. D. degrees are research degrees. NLSIU offers a two-year residential Master of Public Policy programme, organised in six trimesters. Candidates are admitted followed by interview. Seats are for scheduled caste, scheduled tribe, physically disabled candidates and foreign nationals. In 2016 the UGC has asked NLSIU to change the name of MPP to Master of Arts in Public Policy. In addition to the above full-time programmes, NLSIU offers several part-time distance learning programmes, including a Masters Degree in Business Law and Postgraduate Diploma programmes in various fields.
Admissions to both undergraduate and postgraduate programmes are based on Common Law Admission Test. In 2015, for the Undergraduate CLAT, a total of 40,000 students contested for a mere 55 seats, making the examination one of the most competitive in India. For the MPP programme, candidates are selected through the Policy Aptitude Test followed by personal interviews held at the NLSIU campus itself. NLSIU was ranked first by India Today's "India's Best Colleges 2017", Outlook India's "Top 25 Law Colleges In 2017" and The Week's "Top Law Colleges In 2017". NLSIU was ranked first in the National Institutional Ranking Framework Rankings conducted by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India for Law Institutions in 2018; the Narayan Rao Melgiri Memorial National Law Library at NLSIU is the largest law library in the country, housing a collection of over 40,000 bound volumes in addition to periodical holdings. The Melgiri Library was inaugurated by Chief Justice of India R. C.
Lahoti on 27 August 2005. The library was built through generous contributions from the University Grants Commission, New Delhi and Chairwoman Sudha Murthy of the Infosys Foundation. In 1995, the first UNHCR Chair for Refugee Law was ina