Neck (water spirit)
The neck, nixie or nokken are shapeshifting water spirits in Germanic mythology and folklore who appeared in forms of other creatures. Under a variety of names, they were common to the stories of all Germanic peoples, although they are best known from Scandinavian folklore; the related English knucker was depicted as a wyrm or dragon, although more recent versions depict the spirits in other forms. Their sex and various transformations vary geographically; the German Nix and his Scandinavian counterparts were males. The German Nixe was a female river mermaid; the names are held to derive from Common Germanic * nikwis, derived from PIE * neigw. They are related to Sanskrit nḗnēkti, Greek νίζω nízō and νίπτω níptō, Irish nigh; the form neck appears in Swedish. The Swedish form is derived from Old Swedish neker, which corresponds to Old Icelandic nykr, nykk in Norwegian Nynorsk. In Finnish, the word is näkki. In Old Danish, the form was nikke and in modern Danish and Norwegian Bokmål it is nøkk; the Icelandic and Faroese nykur are horselike creatures.
In Middle Low German, it was called necker and in Middle Dutch nicker. The Old High German form nihhus meant "crocodile", while the Old English nicor could mean both a "water monster" like those encountered by Beowulf, a "hippopotamus"; the Norwegian Fossegrim and Swedish Strömkarlen are related figures sometimes seen as by-names for the same creature. The southern Scandinavian version can transform himself into a horse-like kelpie, is called a Bäckahästen, whilst the Welsh version is called the Ceffyl Dŵr. English folklore contains many creatures with similar characteristics to the Näck; these include Jenny Greenteeth, the Shellycoat, the river-hag Peg Powler, the Bäckahäst-like Brag, the Grindylow. At Lyminster near Arundel in the English county of Sussex, there are today said to dwell "water-wyrms" called knuckers, in a pool called the Knucker-hole; the great Victorian authority Skeat had plausibly suggested the pool's name of knucker was derived from the Old English nicor, a creature-name found in Beowulf.
Yet the waters at the pool were badly muddied by a local antiquarian named Samuel Evershed, who from 1866 tried assiduously to connect the pool with dragons and thus with the tale of St. George and the Dragon. Any authentic water-sprite folklore the site may have had was thus trampled down by Evershed's enthusiastic inculcation of the local people in ideas about water-dragons; the Scandinavian näcken, näkki, nøkk were male water spirits who played enchanted songs on the violin, luring women and children to drown in lakes or streams. However, not all of these spirits were malevolent. Stories exist wherein the Fossegrim agreed to live with a human who had fallen in love with him, but many of these stories ended with the nøkk returning to his home a nearby waterfall or brook; the nøkker were said to grow despondent unless they had regular contact with a water source. The Norwegian Fossegrim or Grim, Swedish strömkarl, is a related figure who, if properly approached, will teach a musician to play so adeptly "that the trees dance and waterfalls stop at his music".
It is difficult to describe the appearance of the nix, as one of his central attributes was thought to be shapeshifting. He did not have any true shape, he could show himself as a man playing the violin in brooks and waterfalls but could appear to be treasure or various floating objects, or as an animal—most in the form of a "brook horse". The modern Scandinavian names are derived from Old Norse nykr, meaning "river horse". Thus, it is that the figure of the brook horse preceded the personification of the nix as the "man in the rapids". Fossegrim and derivatives were always portrayed as beautiful young men, whose clothing varied from story to story; the enthralling music of the nøkk was most dangerous to women and children pregnant women and unbaptised children. He was thought to be most active during Midsummer's Night, on Christmas Eve, on Thursdays. However, these superstitions do not relate to all the versions listed here. Many, if not all of them, developed after the Christianizing of the northern countries, as was the case of similar stories of faeries and other entities in other areas.
When malicious nøkker attempted to carry off people, they could be defeated by calling their name. Another belief was that if a person bought the nøkk a treat of three drops of blood, a black animal, some brännvin or snus dropped into the water, he would teach his enchanting form of music; the nøkk was an omen for drowning accidents. He would scream at a particular spot in a lake or river, in a way reminiscent of the loon, on that spot, a fatality would take place, he was said to cause drownings, but swimmers could protect themselves against such a fate by throwing a bit of steel into the water. In the Romantic folklore and folklore-inspired stories of the 19
The krone, plural kroner, is the currency of Norway and its dependent territories. It is subdivided into 100 øre, which have existed only electronically since 2012; the name translates into English as crown. The krone was the thirteenth most traded currency in the world by value in April 2010, down three positions from 2007; the krone was introduced in 1875, replacing the Norwegian speciedaler/spesidaler at a rate of 4 kroner = 1 speciedaler. In doing so, Norway joined the Scandinavian Monetary Union, established in 1873; the Union persisted until 1914. After its dissolution, Denmark and Sweden all decided to keep the names of their respective and since separate currencies. Within the Scandinavian Monetary Union, the krone was on a gold standard of 2,480 kroner = 1 kilogram of pure gold; this gold standard was restored between 1916 and 1920 and again in 1928. It was suspended permanently in 1931, when a peg to the British pound of 19.9 kroner = 1 pound was established.. In 1939, Norway pegged the krone temporarily to the U.
S. dollar at a rate of 4.4 kroner = 1 dollar. Nonetheless, Norway would continue to hold the Kingdom's gold reserves. During the German occupation in the Second World War, the krone was pegged to the Reichsmark at a rate of 1 krone = 0.6 Reichsmark reduced to 0.57. After the war, a rate of 20 kroner = 1 pound was established; the rate to the pound was maintained in 1949, when the pound devalued relative to the U. S. dollar, leading to a rate of 7.142 kroner = 1 U. S. dollar. In December 1992, the Central Bank of Norway abandoned the fixed exchange rate in favor of a floating exchange rate due to the heavy speculation against the Norwegian currency in the early 1990s, which lost the central bank around two billion kroner in defensive purchases of the NOK through usage of foreign currency reserves for a short period of time. In 1875, coins were introduced in denominations of 1 and 10 kroner; these coins bore the denomination in the previous currency, as 3, 15, 30 skillings and 2½ specidaler. Between 1875 and 1878, the new coinage was introduced in full, in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 25, 50 øre and 1, 2, 10 kroner.
The 1, 2, 5 øre were struck in bronze. The last gold coins were issued in 1910. Between 1917 and 1921, iron temporarily replaced bronze. 1917 saw the last issuance of 2 kroner coins. During the German occupation of Norway in the Second World War, zinc was used in place of cupro-nickel in 10, 25, 50 øre coins, production of the 1 krone piece was suspended. In 1963, 5 kroner coins were introduced. Production of 1 and 2 øre coins ceased in 1972; the following year, the size of the 5 øre coin was reduced. Ten-kroner coins were introduced in 1983. In 1992, the last 10 øre coins were minted. Between 1994 and 1998, a new coinage was introduced, consisting of 50 øre, 1, 5, 10, 20 kroner; these are the only coins which are legal tender, with the exception of the 50-øre coin, withdrawn on 1 May 2012. It was withdrawn. However, banks in Norway will still exchange 50 øre coins for higher values until 2022; the 10- and 20-kroner coins carry the effigy of the current monarch. The 1- and 5-kroner coins carried the royal effigy, but now these denominations are decorated only with stylistic royal or national symbols.
The royal motto of the monarch is inscribed on the 10-kroner coin. Coins and banknotes of the Norwegian krone are distributed by the Central Bank of Norway. Up to 25 coins of any single denomination is considered tvungent betalingsmiddel—a recognized method of payment, in which the intended recipient can not refuse payment, according to Norwegian law; the characteristics of the 10 Syrian pound coin have been found to so resemble the 20 Norwegian kroner coin that it can fool vending machines, coins-to-cash machines, arcade machines, any other coin-operated, automated service machine in the country. Whilst they are hardly similar to the naked eye, machines are unable to tell the coins apart, owing to their identical weight and size; as of mid February 2017, 10 Syrian pounds were worth 39 øre, making the 20-kroner coin 51.5 times more valuable than the 10-pound coin. While not easy to find in Norway, the Syrian coins are still used in automated machines there with such frequency that Posten Norge, the Norwegian postal service, decided to close many of their coins-to-cash machines on 18 February 2006, with plans to develop a system able to differentiate between the two coins.
In the summer of 2005, a Norwegian man was sentenced to 30 days, for having used Syrian coins in arcade machines in the municipality of Bærum. In 1877, Norges Bank introduced notes for 10, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 kroner. In 1917, 1-krone notes were issued, 2-kroner notes were issued between 1918 and 1922; because of metal shortages, 1- and 2-kroner notes were again issued between 1940 and 1950. In 1963, 5-kroner notes were replaced by coins, with the same happening to the 10-kroner notes in 1984. 200-kroner notes were introduced in 1994. Sources: The value of Norwegian krone compared to other currencies varies from one year to another based on changes in oil prices and interest rates. In 2002 the Norwegian kro
Nokia Corporation is a Finnish multinational telecommunications, information technology, consumer electronics company, founded in 1865. Nokia's headquarters are in the greater Helsinki metropolitan area. In 2017, Nokia employed 102,000 people across over 100 countries, did business in more than 130 countries, reported annual revenues of around €23 billion. Nokia is a public limited company listed on New York Stock Exchange, it is the world's 415th-largest company measured by 2016 revenues according to the Fortune Global 500, having peaked at 85th place in 2009. It is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index; the company has had various industries in over 150 years. It was founded as a pulp mill and had long been associated with rubber and cables, but since the 1990s focuses on large-scale telecommunications infrastructures, technology development, licensing. Nokia is a notable major contributor to the mobile telephony industry, having assisted in the development of the GSM, 3G and LTE standards, is best known for having been the largest worldwide vendor of mobile phones and smartphones for a period.
After a partnership with Microsoft and market struggles, its mobile phone business was bought by the former, creating Microsoft Mobile as its successor in 2014. After the sale, Nokia began to focus more extensively on its telecommunications infrastructure business and on the Internet of things, marked by the divestiture of its Here mapping division and the acquisition of Alcatel-Lucent, including its Bell Labs research organization; the company also experimented with virtual reality and digital health, the latter through the purchase of Withings. The Nokia brand has since returned to the mobile and smartphone market through a licensing arrangement with HMD Global. Nokia continues to be a major patent licensor for most large mobile phone vendors; as of 2018 Nokia is the world's third largest network equipment manufacturer. The company was viewed with national pride by Finns, as its successful mobile phone business made it by far the largest worldwide company and brand from Finland. At its peak in 2000, during the telecoms bubble, Nokia alone accounted for 4% of the country's GDP, 21% of total exports, 70% of the Helsinki Stock Exchange market capital.
Nokia's history dates back to 1865, when Finnish-Swede mining engineer Fredrik Idestam established a pulp mill near the town of Tampere, Finland. A second pulp mill was opened in 1868 near the neighboring town of Nokia, offering better hydropower resources. In 1871, together with friend Leo Mechelin, formed a shared company from it and called it Nokia Ab, after the site of the second pulp mill. Idestam retired in 1896. Mechelin expanded into electricity generation by 1902. In 1904 Suomen Gummitehdas, a rubber business founded by Eduard Polón, established a factory near the town of Nokia and used its name. In 1922, Nokia Ab entered into a partnership with Finnish Rubber Works and Kaapelitehdas, all now jointly under the leadership of Polón. Finnish Rubber Works company grew when it moved to the Nokia region in the 1930s to take advantage of the electrical power supply, the cable company soon did too. Nokia at the time made respirators for both civilian and military use, from the 1930s well into the early 1990s.
In 1967, the three companies - Nokia and Finnish Rubber Works - merged and created a new Nokia Corporation, a new restructured form divided into four major businesses: forestry, cable and electronics. In the early 1970s, it entered the radio industry. Nokia started making military equipment for Finland's defence forces, such as the Sanomalaite M/90 communicator in 1983, the M61 gas mask first developed in the 1960s. Nokia was now making professional mobile radios, telephone switches and chemicals. After Finland's trade agreement with the Soviet Union in the 1960s, Nokia expanded into the Soviet market, it soon widened trade. Nokia co-operated on scientific technology with the Soviet Union; the U. S. government became suspicious of that technologic co-operation after the end of the Cold War détente in the early 1980s. Nokia imported many US-made components and used them for the Soviets, according to U. S. Deputy Minister of Defence, Richard Perle, Nokia had a secret co-operation with The Pentagon that allowed the U.
S. to keep track in technologic developments in the Soviet Union through trading with Nokia. However this was a demonstration of Finland trading with both sides, as it was neutral during the Cold War. In 1977, Kari Kairamo became. By this time Finland were becoming what has been called "Nordic Japan". Under his leadership Nokia acquired many companies. In 1984, Nokia acquired television maker Salora, followed by Swedish electronics and computer maker Luxor AB in 1985, French television maker Oceanic in 1987; this made Nokia the third-largest television manufacturer of Europe. The existing brands continued to be used until the end of the television business in 1996. In 1987, Nokia acquired Schaub-Lorenz, the consumer operations of Germany's Standard Elektrik Lorenz, which included its "Schaub-Lorenz" and "Graetz" brands, it was part of American conglomerate Internationa
Yollada "Nok" Suanyot is a Thai politician and celebrity. On May 27, 2012, she was elected to represent Mueang Nan District on the Provincial Administration Organization of Nan Province in Thailand, running unaffiliated with any party. Previous to entering politics, Suanyot had been a model and beauty queen, was a member of the pop group Venus Flytrap, where she performed under the name "Nok". Suanyot is a transgender woman and founded and chairs the TransFemale Association of Thailand, which advocates for transgender rights. Suanyot graduated with a science degree from Thammasat University when she was 21, holds a master's degree in political science, is working toward a Ph. D. in social science at Ramkhamhaeng University. TransFemale Association of Thailand
The Nok culture is an early Iron Age population whose material remains are named after the Ham village of Nok in Kaduna State of Nigeria, where their famous terracotta sculptures were first discovered in 1928. The Nok Culture appeared in northern Nigeria around 1500 BC and vanished under unknown circumstances around 500 AD, thus having lasted 2,000 years. Iron use, in smelting and forging for tools, appears in Nok culture by at least 550 BC and earlier. Data from historical linguistics suggest that iron smelting was independently discovered in the region prior to 1000 BC. Scientific field work began in 2005 to systematically investigate Nok archaeological sites, to better understand Nok terracotta sculptures within their Iron Age archaeological context; the function of Nok terracotta sculptures is still unknown. For the most part, the terracotta is preserved in the form of scattered fragments; that is why Nok art is well known today only for the heads, both male and female, whose hairstyles are detailed and refined.
The statues are in fragments because the discoveries are made from alluvial mud, in terrain made by the erosion of water. The terracotta statues found there are hidden, rolled and broken. Are works of great size conserved intact making them valued on the international art market; the terracotta figures are hollow, coil built, nearly life sized human heads and bodies that are depicted with stylized features, abundant jewelry, varied postures. Little is known of the original function of the pieces, but theories include ancestor portrayal, grave markers, charms to prevent crop failure and illness. Based on the dome-shaped bases found on several figures, they could have been used as finials for the roofs of ancient structures. Margaret Young-Sanchez, Associate Curator of Art of the Americas and Oceania in The Cleveland Museum of Art, explains that most Nok ceramics were shaped by hand from coarse-grained clay and subtractively sculpted in a manner that suggests an influence from wood carving. After some drying, the sculptures were covered with slip and burnished to produce a smooth, glossy surface.
The figures are hollow, with several openings to facilitate thorough firing. The firing process most resembled that used today in Nigeria, in which the pieces are covered with grass and leaves and burned for several hours; as a result of natural erosion and deposition, Nok terracottas were scattered at various depths throughout the Sahel grasslands, causing difficulty in the dating and classification of the mysterious artifacts. Luckily, two archaeological sites, Samun Dukiya and Taruga, were found containing Nok art that had remained unmoved. Radiocarbon and thermo-luminescence tests narrowed the sculptures’ age down to between 2,000 and 2,500 years ago, making them some of the oldest in Western Africa. Many further dates were retrieved in the course of new archaeological excavations, extending the beginnings of the Nok tradition further back in time; because of the similarities between the two sites, archaeologist Graham Connah believes that "Nok artwork represents a style, adopted by a range of iron-using farming societies of varying cultures, rather than being the diagnostic feature of a particular human group as has been claimed."
The first Nok terracotta was discovered in 1928 by Colonel Dent Young, a co-owner of a mining partnership, near the village of Nok in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The terracotta was accidentally unearthed at a level of 24 feet from an alluvial tin mine. Young presented the sculptures to the museum of the Department of Mines in Jos. Fifteen years in 1943 near the village of Nok, in the center of Nigeria, a new series of clay figurines were discovered by accident while mining tin. A clerk in charge of the mine had found a head and had taken it back to his home for use as a scarecrow, a role that it filled for a year in a yam field; this scarecrow was noticed by Bernard Fagg who at the time was an administrative officer who had studied archaeology at the University of Cambridge. Fagg noticed that the head on the scarecrow looked similar to the sculpture that Young had found, he traveled to Jos where Young showed Fagg other uncovered terracotta figures. It became clear that the tin mining in Nok and Jema'a areas were revealing and destroying archaeological material.
Preliminary excavations at the beginning of January 1961 began near a remote valley named Taruga near the village of Takushara. The trial excavations took place during a period of eight days; the finds included objects of wrought iron, a quantity of iron slag, fragments of tuyere, figurine fragments, red ocher, quartz hammer-stones, small concentrations of charcoal. The most famous finds at the site were the pottery graters which were shallow, flat-bottomed dishes which were scored inside with diced patterns to produce a sharp abrasive surface; these pottery graters were used for food preparation. In the preliminary excavation a proton magnetometer survey was used to locate furnaces; the survey revealed a total of 61 magnetic anomalies which were located in a flat, central area which indicated the limits of actual occupation. Twenty of the anomalies revealed concentrations of slag and nine of them contained in situ structures of furnace walls and bases; the most common type of artefact found was domestic pottery which can be divided into two different types.
One type are bowls or shallow basins without lips and the other are globular pots which have averted lips. Because of this preliminary excavation, the Nok Culture would start being regarded as belonging to the Iron Age. In 1989, German scientists were working in northeastern Nigeria's C
The Kiel Canal is a 95-kilometre long freshwater canal in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. The canal was finished in 1895, but widened, links the North Sea at Brunsbüttel to the Baltic Sea at Kiel-Holtenau. An average of 250 nautical miles is saved by using the Kiel Canal instead of going around the Jutland Peninsula; this not only saves time but avoids storm-prone seas and having to pass through the Sound or Belts. Besides its two sea entrances, the Kiel Canal is linked, at Oldenbüttel, to the navigable River Eider by the short Gieselau Canal; the first connection between the North and Baltic Seas was constructed while the area was ruled by Denmark-Norway. It was called the Eider Canal, which used stretches of the Eider River for the link between the two seas. Completed during the reign of Christian VII of Denmark in 1784, the Eiderkanal was a 43-kilometre part of a 175-kilometre waterway from Kiel to the Eider River's mouth at Tönning on the west coast, it was only 29 metres wide with a depth of 3 metres, which limited the vessels that could use the canal to 300 tonnes.
After 1864 Second Schleswig War put Schleswig-Holstein under the government of Prussia, a new canal was sought by merchants and by the German navy, which wanted to link its bases in the Baltic and the North Sea without the need to sail around Denmark. In June 1887, construction started near Kiel; the canal took over 9,000 workers eight years to build. On 20 June 1895 the canal was opened by Kaiser Wilhelm II for transiting from Brunsbüttel to Holtenau; the next day, a ceremony was held in Holtenau, where Wilhelm II named it the Kaiser Wilhelm Kanal, laid the final stone. The opening of the canal was filmed by British director Birt Acres; the first Trans-Atlantic sailing ship to pass through the canal was Lilly, commanded by Johan Pitka. Lilly, a barque, was a wooden sailing ship of about 390 tons built 1866 in Sunderland, U. K, she had a length of 127.5 feet, beam 28.7 feet, depth of 17.6 feet and a 32-foot keel. In order to meet the increasing traffic and the demands of the Imperial German Navy, between 1907 and 1914 the canal width was increased.
The widening of the canal allowed the passage of a Dreadnought-sized battleship. This meant that these battleships could travel from the Baltic Sea to the North Sea without having to go around Denmark; the enlargement projects were completed by the installation of two larger canal locks in Brunsbüttel and Holtenau. After World War I, the Treaty of Versailles required the canal to be open to vessels of commerce and of war of any nation at peace with Germany, while leaving it under German administration; the government under Adolf Hitler repudiated its international status in 1936, but the canal was reopened to all traffic after World War II. In 1948, the current name was adopted; the canal was closed in March 2013 after two lock gates failed at the western end near Brunsbüttel. Ships larger than 125 metres were forced to navigate via a 450-kilometre detour; the failure was blamed on neglect and a lack of funding by the German Federal Government, in financial dispute with the state of Schleswig-Holstein regarding the canal.
Germany's Transport Ministry promised rapid repairs. There are detailed traffic rules for the canal; each vessel in passage is classified in one of six traffic groups according to its dimensions. Larger ships are obliged to accept pilots and specialised canal helmsmen, in some cases the assistance of a tugboat. Furthermore, there are regulations regarding the passing of oncoming ships. Larger ships may be required to moor at the bollards provided at intervals along the canal to allow the passage of oncoming vessels. Special rules apply to pleasure craft. While most large, modern cruise ships cannot pass through this canal due to clearance limits under bridges, the SuperStar Gemini has special funnels and masts that can be lowered for passage. Swan Hellenic's P&O Cruises's Adonia, Fred. Olsen Cruise Lines' ships MV Balmoral, MV Boudicca'Cruise & Maritime Voyages' ships MS Marco Polo and MV Astoria,'Oceania Cruises' Regatta, Nautica, MS Prinsendam of Holland America Line are able to transit the canal.
Several of the Viking cruise ships are made with Kiel Canal passage in mind, namely the Sea and Sky models. All permanent, fixed bridges crossing the canal since its construction have a clearance of 42 metres. Maximum length for ships passing the Kiel Canal is 235.50 metres. Ships up to a length of 160.00 metres may have a draught up to 9.50 metres. The bulker Ever Leader is considered to be the cargo ship that to date has come closest to the overall limits. Several railway lines and federal roads cross the canal on eleven fixed links; the bridges have a clearance of 42 metres allowing for ship heights up to 40 metres. The oldest bridge still in use is the Levensau High Bridge from 1893. In sequence and in the direction of the official kilometre count from west to east these crossings are: Bruns