Novell, Inc. was a software and services company headquartered in Provo, Utah. Its most significant product was the multi-platform network operating system known as Novell NetWare, which became the dominant form of personal computer networking during the second half of the 1980s and first half of the 1990s. Novell technology contributed to the emergence of local area networks, which displaced the dominant mainframe computing model and changed computing worldwide. Novell became instrumental in making Utah Valley a focus for software development. Under the leadership of founder Ray Noorda, during the early- to mid-1990s Novell attempted to compete directly with Microsoft by acquiring Digital Research, Unix System Laboratories, WordPerfect, the Quattro Pro division of Borland; these moves did not work out, NetWare began losing market share once Microsoft bundled network services with the Windows NT operating system and its successors. Despite new products such as Novell Directory Services and GroupWise, Novell entered a long period of decline.
Novell acquired SUSE Linux and attempted to refocus its technology base. The company was an independent corporate entity until it was acquired as a wholly owned subsidiary by The Attachmate Group in 2011, which in turn was acquired in 2014 by Micro Focus International. Novell products and technologies are now integrated within various Micro Focus divisions; the company began in 1979 in Orem, Utah as Novell Data Systems Inc. a hardware manufacturer producing CP/M-based systems. Former Eyring Research Institute employee Dennis Fairclough was a member of the original team, it was co-founded by George Canova, Darin Field, Jack Davis. Victor V. Vurpillat brought the deal to Pete Musser, chairman of the board of Safeguard Scientifics, Inc. who provided the seed funding. The company did not do well; the microcomputer produced by the company was comparatively weak against performance by competitors. In order to compete on systems sales Novell Data Systems planned a program to link more than one microcomputer to operate together.
The former ERI employees Drew Major, Dale Neibaur and Kyle Powell, known as the SuperSet Software group, were hired to this task. At ERI, Major and Powell had worked on government contracts for the Intelligent Systems Technology Project, thereby gained an important insight into the ARPANET and related technologies, ideas which would become crucial to the foundation of Novell; the Safeguard board ordered Musser to shut Novell down. Musser contacted two Safeguard investors and investment bankers, Barry Rubenstein and Fred Dolin, who guaranteed to raise the necessary funds to continue the business as a software company as Novell Data Systems' networking program could work on computers from other companies. Davis left Novell Data Systems in November 1981, followed by Canova in March 1982. Rubinstein and Dolin, along with Jack Messman and hired Raymond Noorda; the required funding was obtained through a rights offering to Safeguard shareholders, managed by the Cleveland brokerage house, Prescott and Turben, guaranteed by Rubenstein and Dolin.
Major and Powell continued to support Novell through their SuperSet Software Group. In January 1983, the company's name was shortened to "Novell, Inc.", Noorda became the head of the firm. That same year, the company introduced its most significant product, the multi-platform network operating system, Novell NetWare; the first Novell product was a proprietary hardware server based on the Motorola 68000 CPU supporting six MUX ports per board for a maximum of four boards per server using a star topology with twisted pair cabling. A network interface card was developed for the IBM PC industry standard architecture bus; the server was using the first network operating system called ShareNet. ShareNet was ported to run on the Intel platform and renamed NetWare; the first commercial release of NetWare was version 1.5. Novell based its network protocol on Xerox Network Systems, created its own standards from IDP and SPP, which it named Internetwork Packet Exchange and Sequenced Packet Exchange. File and print services ran on the NetWare Core Protocol over IPX, as did Routing Information Protocol and Service Advertising Protocol.
Novell had acquired Kanwal Rekhi's company Excelan in 1989, which manufactured smart Ethernet cards and commercialized the Internet protocol TCP/IP, solidifying Novell's presence in these niche areas. Novell did well throughout the 1980s, it aggressively expanded its market share by selling its expensive Ethernet cards at cost. By 1990, Novell had an monopolistic position in NOS for any business requiring a network. With this market leadership, Novell began to acquire and build services on top of its NetWare operating platform; these services extended NetWare's capabilities with such products as NetWare for SAA, Novell multi-protocol router, GroupWise and BorderManager. However, Novell was diversifying, moving away from its smaller users to target large corporations, although the company attempted to refocus with NetWare for Small Business, it reduced investment in research and was slow to improve the product administration tools, although it was helped by the fact its products needed little "tweaking" — they just ran.
Under Noorda, Novell made a series of acquisitions interpreted by many to be a challenge to Microsoft. Novell acquired Digital Research in June 1991. NetWare used DR DOS as a boot loader and maintenance platform, Novell intended to extend its desktop presence by integrating networking into DR DOS and providing an alternative to Microsoft's Windows. At first, the idea was to provide a graphical environment based on
North Sea oil
North Sea oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons, comprising liquid petroleum and natural gas, produced from petroleum reservoirs beneath the North Sea. In the petroleum industry, the term "North Sea" includes areas such as the Norwegian Sea and the area known as "West of Shetland", "the Atlantic Frontier" or "the Atlantic Margin", not geographically part of the North Sea. Brent crude is still used today as a standard benchmark for pricing oil, although the contract now refers to a blend of oils from fields in the northern North Sea. Commercial extraction of oil on the shores of the North Sea dates back to 1851, when James Young retorted oil from torbanite mined in the Midland Valley of Scotland. Across the sea in Germany, oil was found in the Wietze field near Hanover in 1859, leading to the discovery of seventy more fields in Lower Cretaceous and Jurassic reservoirs, producing a combined total of around 1340 m³ per day. Gas was found by chance in a water well near Hamburg in 1910, leading to minor gas discoveries in Zechstein dolomites elsewhere in Germany.
In England, BP discovered gas in similar reservoirs in the Eskdale anticline in 1938, in 1939 they found commercial oil in Carboniferous rocks at Eakring in Nottinghamshire. Discoveries elsewhere in the East Midlands lifted production to 400 m³ per day, a second wave of exploration from 1953 to 1961 found the Gainsborough field and ten smaller fields; the Netherlands' first oil shows were seen in a drilling demonstration at De Mient during the 1938 World Petroleum Congress at The Hague. Subsequent exploration led to the 1943 discovery by Exploratie Nederland, part of the Royal Dutch/Shell company Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij, of oil under the Dutch village of Schoonebeek, near the German border. NAM found the Netherlands' first gas in Zechstein carbonates at Coevorden in 1948. 1952 saw the first exploration well in the province of Groningen, Haren-1, the first to penetrate the Lower Permian Rotliegendes sandstone, the main reservoir for the gas fields of the southern North Sea, although in Haren-1 it contained only water.
The Ten Boer well failed to reach target depth for technical reasons, but was completed as a minor gas producer from the Zechstein carbonates. The Slochteren-1 well found gas in the Rotliegendes in 1959, although the full extent of what became known as the Groningen gas field was not appreciated until 1963—it is estimated at ≈96×10^12 cu ft recoverable gas reserves. Smaller discoveries to the west of Groningen followed; the UK Continental Shelf Act came into force in May 1964. Seismic exploration and the first well followed that year, it and a second well on the Mid North Sea High were dry, as the Rotliegendes was absent, but BP's Sea Gem rig struck gas in the West Sole Field in September 1965. The celebrations were short-lived since the Sea Gem sank, with the loss of 13 lives, after part of the rig collapsed as it was moved away from the discovery well; the Viking Gas Field was discovered in December 1965 with the Conoco/National Coal Board well 49/17-1, finding the gas-bearing Permian Rotliegend Sandstone at a depth of 2,756 m subsea.
Helicopters were first used to transport workers. Larger gas finds followed in 1966—Leman Bank and Hewett, but by 1968 companies had lost interest in further exploration of the British sector, a result of a ban on gas exports and low prices offered by the only buyer, British Gas. West Sole came onstream in May 1967. Licensing regulations for Dutch waters were not finalised until 1967; the situation was transformed in December 1969, when Phillips Petroleum discovered oil in Chalk of Danian age at Ekofisk, in Norwegian waters in the central North Sea. The same month, Amoco discovered the Montrose Field about 217 km east of Aberdeen. BP had been awarded several licences in the area in the second licensing round late in 1965, but had been reluctant to work on them; the discovery of Ekofisk prompted them to drill what turned out to be a dry hole in May 1970, followed by the discovery of the giant Forties Oil Field in October 1970. The following year, Shell Expro discovered the giant Brent oilfield in the northern North Sea east of Shetland in Scotland and the Petronord Group discovered the Frigg gas field.
The Piper oilfield was discovered in 1973 and the Statfjord Field and the Ninian Field in 1974, with the Ninian reservoir consisting of Middle Jurassic sandstones at a depth of 3000 m subsea in a "westward tilted horst block". Off shore production, like that of the North Sea, became more economical after the 1973 oil crisis caused the world oil price to quadruple, followed by the 1979 oil crisis, causing another tripling in the oil price. Oil production started from the Argyll & Duncan Oilfields in June 1975 followed by Forties Oil Field in November of that year; the inner Moray Firth Beatrice Field, a Jurassic sandstone/shale reservoir 1829 m deep in a "fault-bounded anticlinal trap", was discovered in 1976 with well 11/30-1, drilled by the Mesa Petroleum Group in 49 m of water. Volatile weather conditions in Europe's North Sea have made drilling hazardous, claiming many lives; the conditions make extraction a costly process. The exploration of the North Sea has been a story of continually pushing the edges of the technology of exploitation and the technologies of discovery and evaluation (2-D seismic, followed by 3-D and 4-D seismic.
National Security Guard
The National Security Guard is an Indian special forces unit under the Ministry of Home Affairs. It was raised in 1984, following Operation Blue Star and the assassination of Indira Gandhi, "for combating terrorist activities with a view to protect states against internal disturbances". NSG is under the authority of Ministry of Home Affairs; however it is not categorised under the uniform nomenclature of Central Armed Police Forces. It has a special forces mandate, its core operational capability is provided by the Special Action Group, drawn from the Indian Army; the Special Rangers Group, the police component of NSG, which handles VIP security, is composed of personnel on deputation from other Central Armed Police Forces and State Police Forces. The NSG personnel are referred to in the media as Black Cats because of the black outfit and black cat insignia worn on their uniform; the National Security Guard was set up in 1984 as a Federal Contingency Deployment Force to tackle all facets of terrorism in the country.
As a specialized counter terrorism force, it is intended for use "only in exceptional situations" and not meant to take over the "functions of the State Police Forces or other Para Military Forces". Yet, over the years its role has vastly expanded to provide personal security to influential politicians quite independent of the real threat that they face; the NSG is trained to conduct counter terrorist task to including counter hijacking tasks on land and air. The head of NSG, designated as Director General, is selected by the MHA-Home Minister. Since its raising in 1984, the NSG has had 28 DGs, in 31 years, with an average tenure one year and few months. According to the NSG web site it is modeled on Germany's GSG 9. At Mehram Nagar, Palam Administration The Director General is assisted by four Indian Police Service officers for administrative matters of whom two are Inspectors General each for Administration and Headquarters who in turn are assisted by Deputy Inspectors General; the Financial Advisor of the NSG has been an Indian Revenue Service officer of the rank of Joint Secretary and has Dy Advisors from the Indian Audit and Accounts Service and Indian Civil Account Service.
At Manesar and training: Operations and training is under senior army officers on deputation to NSG. A Major General of Indian Army, on deputation, designated as Inspector General, is responsible for planning and conduct of operations. Training is under another Major General, located in Gurgaon, they are further assisted by two Brigadiers on deputation from Indian army as DIG and DIG. Another Brigadier from army from Indian Army Corps of Signals is deputed as DIG to look after communication systems of the force; the strength of the NSG is estimated to be about 7000+ personnel. Air transport to support; the SAG is the main offensive or the strike wing of the NSG. Its members are drawn from the Indian army; the SAGs includes headquarters, support units, training wing. The training of both the action and ranger group is conducted by the officers and NCOs drawn from the army. There are two SAGs – 51 Special Action Group and 52 Special Action Group; the two SAGs are tasked for counter-hijack operations respectively.
The smallest operation sub unit of the SAG is called "hit" commanded by an NCO. A "hit" has five members – two pairs, or buddies, a technical support member. Four hits make a team. A team is commanded by a Captain. In hostage rescue operations, depending on the situation, team size may vary between 50 and 90 NSG personnel. For immediate transport airlift IL-76MD strategic transport aircraft are stationed at New Delhi's Palam Air Force Station and are ready to deploy within 30 minutes; each SAG is headed by an officer of Rank colonel of Indian Army on deputation as Group Commander NSG has three SRGs, each with a strength of battalion total 900 all ranks. SRG personnel are drawn on deputation from Central Armed Police Forces and State Police forces. There are three SRGs – 11, 12 and 13. SRG's mandate was to render logistical support to the SAGs during operations and are deployed for guarding high-risk VIPs/VVIPs. However, Since 2013, 11SRG is converted into a regular SAG unit for undertaking specific counter-terror operations.
Each SRG is headed by an officer of Rank Commandant as Group Commander under deputation from CAPFs NSG has set five regional hubs under regional deployment. SCG consists of personnel both from Army and CAPFs for counter terror operations with in their area of responsibility; each SCG is headed by an officer of Rank colonel of Indian Army on deputation as Group Commander. Five regional hubs are 26 SCG Mumbai 27 SCG Chennai 28 SCG Hyderabad 29 SCG Kolkata 30 SCG Gandhinagar The National Bomb Data Centre established in the year 1988 & further its role redefined in the year 2000. NBDC was assigned role of monitoring and analysing all bombing incidents in the country, it records and analyses various bombing incidents across the world to gain expertise knowledge in Bombing and related incidents and counter such and share with relevant security agencies. All national security agencies which rely on NBDC for assistance in bombing incidents and related knowledge have high regards for its working culture.
At present NBDC act as a nodal agency for all bombing related facets in the country. It is headed by a Colonel of Indian Army Corps of Engineers on deputation, desig
Nuclear Suppliers Group
The Nuclear Suppliers Group is a multilateral export control regime and a group of nuclear supplier countries that seek to prevent nuclear proliferation by controlling the export of materials and technology that can be used to manufacture nuclear weapons. The NSG was founded in response to the Indian nuclear test in May 1974 and first met in November 1975; the test demonstrated that certain non-weapons specific nuclear technology could be turned to weapons development. Nations signatories of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty saw the need to further limit the export of nuclear equipment, materials or technology. Another benefit was that non-NPT and non-Zangger Committee nations specifically France, could be brought in. A series of meetings in London from 1975 to 1978 resulted in agreements on the guidelines for export. Listed items could only be exported to non-nuclear states if certain International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards were agreed to or if exceptional circumstances relating to safety existed.
The name of the "London Club" was due to the series of meetings in London. It has been referred to as the London Group, or the London Suppliers Group; the NSG did not meet again until 1991. The "Trigger List" remained unchanged until 1991, although the Zangger list was updated; the revelations about the Iraqi weapons program following the first Gulf War led to a tightening of the export of so-called dual-use equipment. At the first meeting since 1978, held at the Hague in March 1991, the twenty-six participating governments agreed to the changes, which were published as the "Dual-use List" in 1992, to the extension of the original list to more match the up-to-date Zangger list; the NSG had seven participating governments: Canada, West Germany, Japan, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States. In 1976-77, participation was expanded to fifteen with the admittance of Belgium, East Germany, the Netherlands, Poland and Switzerland. Germany was reunited in 1990 while Czechoslovakia broke up into the Czech Republic and Slovakia in 1993.
Twelve more nations joined up to 1990. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union a number of former republics were given observer status as a stage towards future membership. China became a participating government in 2004; the European Commission and the Zangger Committee Chair participate as observers. The NSG Chair for 2018-2019 is Latvia; as of 2019, the NSG has 48 participating governments: During a state visit to India in November 2010, U. S. President Barack Obama announced U. S. support for India's participation in the Nuclear Suppliers Group, the Wassenaar Arrangement, the Australia Group and the Missile Technology Control Regime, "in a phased manner," and to encourage the evolution of regime participation criteria to that end, "consistent with maintaining the core principles of these regimes."During a visit to India in December 2010, French President Sarkozy expressed his country's backing for India's inclusion in Nuclear Suppliers Group. The United Kingdom has for a long time been a supporter of India's inclusion in the Nuclear Suppliers Group.
During Republic Day visit of India in January 2015, Obama said that India was ready for NSG membership. Russian president Vladimir Putin has offered unconditional support to India's entry into NSG. Switzerland announced its backing on India's Membership in 48 member group on 6 June 2016 during PM Modi's visit to Geneva, President Obama reiterated U. S. support for India's NSG membership on 8 June 2016 during PM Modi's visit to Washington DC. Japan has expressed support for India's bid for membership of the NSG. However, China is opposing India's membership citing Pakistan's non-admission in the exclusive group. Other countries opposing Indian membership of the Nuclear Suppliers Group on the basis of NPT non-signatory status of India include New Zealand and Austria. In June 2016, India got crucial support from Mexico in its bid to become a member of the NSG ahead of a plenary meeting of the 48-nation bloc whose members are allowed to trade in and export nuclear technology. On 17 June, British Prime Minister David Cameron had assured Prime Minister Narendra Modi of the UK's "firm support" for India's NSG membership bid.
In an interview on 18 June, Russian President Vladimir Putin said that he was'positive' about India's entry into NSG. On 20 June, Canada stated. On 22 June France reiterated its support to India, urged all the other 48 members of the NSG to allow entry for India into the atomic control body. China remains opposed to Indian membership. In July 2016, South Africa agreed to back India's entry into the NSG. In August 2016, Turkey confirmed support for India's NSG membership bid. On 4 September 2016, Australia reiterated its commitment to India's bid for membership of the Nuclear Suppliers Group just ahead of the G20 summit in Hangzhou, China. On 5 September 2016, Prime Minister Narendra Modi thanked Argentina for backing India's bid. On 17 October 2016, following the BRICS summit in Benaulim, Brazil backed India's bid for NSG membership. On 26 October 2016, Prime Minister Key of New Zealand stated that "New Zealand would continue to contribute constructively to the process underway in the NSG to consider India’s membership."
Poland and Cyprus backed India's NSG bid in April 2017. Germany reaffirmed India's NSG membership bid in May 2017. Switzerland show support for India's NSG bid; the Swiss Foreign Ministry spokesperson Pierre-Alain Eltschinger said that “We support India’s application for participation in the NSG and acknowl
The Implementation Force was a NATO-led multinational peace enforcement force in Bosnia and Herzegovina under a one-year mandate from 20 December 1995 to 20 December 1996 under the codename Operation Joint Endeavour. NATO was responsible to the United Nations for carrying out the Dayton Peace Accords; the Dayton Peace Accords were started on 22 November 1995 by the presidents of Bosnia and Serbia, on behalf of Serbia and the Bosnian Serb Republic. The actual signing happened in Paris on 14 December 1995; the peace accords contained eleven supporting annexes with maps. The accords had three major goals: ending of hostilities, authorization of military and civilian program going into effect, the establishment of a central Bosnian government while excluding individuals that serve sentences or under indictment by the International War Crimes Tribunals from taking part in the running of the government. IFOR's specific role was to implement the military Annexes of The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
IFOR relieved the UN peacekeeping force UNPROFOR, which had arrived in 1992, the transfer of authority was discussed in Security Council Resolution 1031. 60,000 NATO soldiers in addition to forces from non-NATO nations were deployed to Bosnia. Operation Decisive Endeavor, beginning 6 December 1995, was a subcomponent of Joint Endeavor; the Dayton Agreement resulted from a long series of events. Notably, the failures of EU-led peace plans, the August 1995 Croat Operation Storm and expelling 200.000 Serb civilians, the Bosnian Serb war crimes, in particular the Srebrenica massacre, the seizure of UNPROFOR peace-keepers as human shields against NATO's Operation Deliberate Force. Admiral Leighton W. Smith, Jr. acted as the Joint Force Commander for the operation. He commanded the operation from HQs in Zagreb and from March 1996 from the Residency in Sarajevo. Lt Gen Michael Walker, Commander Allied Rapid Reaction Corps acted as the Land Component Commander for the Operation, commanding from HQ ARRC based in Kiseljak and from late January 1996 from HQ ARRC Ilidža.
This was NATO's first out-of-area land deployment. The Land Component's part of the operation was known as Operation Firm Endeavour. At its height, IFOR involved troops from 32 countries and numbered some 54,000 soldiers in-country and around 80,000 involved soldiers in total. In the initial phases of the operation, much of the initial composition of IFOR consisted of units, part of UNPROFOR but remained in place and replaced their United Nations insignia with IFOR insignia. NATO nations that contributed forces included Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Turkey, the United States, the United Kingdom. Non-NATO nations that contributed forces included; the tasks of the Land Component were carried out by three Multi National Divisions: Multi-National Division, Mostar - French led. Known as the'Division salamandre.' MND-SE included two French brigades, one Spanish brigade, one Italian brigade, a Portuguese Parachute Battalion of 700 plus a services and support detachement of 200, Egyptian and Ukrainian units, as well as a Moroccan task force.
The divisional headquarters was provided in rotation by divisions including the 7th Armoured Division and the 6th Light Armored Division. Multi-National Division, Banja Luka – British led; the British codename for their armed forces' involvement in IFOR was Operation Resolute. MND-SW included a Canadian Brigade and Dutch units. Division headquarters was provided by 3 Division 1st Armoured Division. Multi-National Division, Tuzla – American led. Task Force Eagle; the US Army 1st Armored Division under the command of Major General William L. Nash, constituted the bulk of the ground forces for Task Force Eagle, they began to deploy on 18 December 1995. MND-N was composed of two U. S. Brigades, a Russian brigade, a Turkish brigade, the Nordic-Polish Brigade. A Russian brigade under the command of Colonel Aleksandr Ivanovich Lentsov, was part of the Task Force Eagle effort; the 1st Brigade of 1st Armored Division was commanded by Colonel Gregory Fontenot and covered the northwest. The 2nd Brigade of 1st Armored Division, led by Col John Batiste, constituted the southern flank of the US sector, based in Camp Lisa, about 20 km east of Kladanj.
Task Force 2–68 Armor, based in Baumholder, was based in Camp Linda, outside of Olovo. This was the Southern boundary of the US Sector; the 1AD returned in late 1996 to Germany. One of MND-N's components was the Nordic-Polish Brigade, a multinational brigade of Denmark, Finland, Lithuania, Poland, Sweden and USA, it was formed in 1996, till its disestablishment in 2000 it was stationed in Bosnia and Herzegovina as part of both IFOR and SFOR. The Nordic Support Group at Pécs in Hungary handled the relay of supply and other logistical tasks between the NORDPOL participating countries and their deployed forces in Bosnia-Herzegovina, it comprised several National Support Eleme
A Naturschutzgebiet is a category of protected area within Germany's Federal Nature Conservation Act. Although translated as'Nature Reserve' in English, the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation refers to them as'Nature Conservation Areas'; the use of the term Naturschutzgebiet or terms that could be confused with it for anything other than the protected areas is forbidden under this law. Because legal restrictions are placed on activity within German nature reserves they have to be signed on the ground. Only by this means can e.g. walkers know that they are entering a nature reserve and may not e.g. leave the tracks and paths. For historical reasons there is no standard sign used across Germany. Nature reserves in the "old states" of the Federal Republic of Germany are marked by green signs with the silhouette of a white-tailed eagle. In the new federal states of the former East Germany they are marked with a pentagonal yellow sign bearing an image of a long-eared owl; the reunification of Germany the 36th Environmental Minister's Conference in 1991 recommended the use of the owl symbol in future in the whole of Germany to designate nature reserves.
This recommendation was not universally adopted by the states, in whom the jurisdiction for conservation policy was vested. For that reason there are de facto three different signs being used alongside one another in Germany today. Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Saxony-Anhalt and Saxony use the owl on a pentagon, Saxony-Anhalt employing a white background instead of the usual yellow. Berlin, Lower Saxony and Bremen use the owl in a green triangle. Hamburg, North Rhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate, the Saarland, Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria use the white-tailed eagle in a green triangle. At the end of 2008 there were 8,413 nature reserves in Germany with a total area of 1,271,582 hectares; that corresponds to 3.6% of the area of Germany. The lowest percentage areas are in the states of Rhineland-Palatinate; the percentage coverage in the "old" and "new" states is identical. About 60% of all nature reserves are smaller than 50 hectares in area. In such small areas experts say that the achievement of conservation goals is at risk, because negative influences from the surrounding area cannot be sufficiently mitigated.
The number and size of nature reserves has increased in recent decades. In 1995 there were only 5,314 Naturschutzgebiete in Germany with an area of 6,845 km2; the current coverage is seen by experts as too low to preserve the variety of species in Germany. The following lists detail the nature reserves by state: Baden-Württemberg Bavaria Berlin Brandenburg Bremen Hamburg Hesse Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania Lower Saxony North Rhine-Westphalia Rhineland-Palatinate Saarland Saxony Saxony-Anhalt Schleswig-Holstein Thuringia Nature parks in Germany