NTA Film Network
The NTA Film Network was an early American television network founded by Ely Landau in 1956. The network was not a full-time television network like CBS, NBC, or ABC. Rather, it operated on a part-time basis, broadcasting films and several first-run television programs from major Hollywood studios. Despite attracting over 100 affiliate stations and the financial support of Twentieth Century-Fox the network proved unprofitable, was discontinued by 1961; the NTA Film Network's flagship station, WNTA-TV, is now WNET, one of the flagship stations of the Public Broadcasting Service. Parent company National Telefilm Associates was founded by producers Ely Landau and Oliver A. Unger in 1954 when Landau's film and television production company, Ely Landau, Inc. was reorganized in partnership with Unger and screenwriter and producer Harold Goldman. NTA was the successor company to U. M. & M. TV Corporation, having purchased U. M. & M. in 1956. In October 1956, NTA launched the NTA Film Network, a syndication service which distributed both films and television programs to independent television stations and stations affiliated with NBC, CBS, or ABC.
The ad-hoc network's flagship station was WNTA-TV. The NTA Network was launched as a "fourth TV network", trade papers of the time referred to it as a new television network. Unlike the Big Three television networks, the local stations in the NTA Film Network were not connected via coaxial cable or microwave relay. Instead, NTA Film Network programs were filmed and mailed to each station in the network, a method used by television syndicators in the 1950s and 1960s. However, many local stations agreed to broadcast NTA Film Network programs in pattern. Landau's claim to network status was based on the simultaneous airing of the programs; the NTA Film Network launched on October 1956, with over 100 affiliate stations. In November 1956, it was announced that 50% of the network had been purchased by Twentieth Century-Fox, which would produce original content for the network; the film network grew to 128 stations. In September 1957, the network purchased KMGM-TV in Minneapolis; the following is a list of NTA Film Network affiliate stations in November 1956.
Affiliates included KOOK-TV in Billings, Montana, KONO-TV in San Antonio, WISH-TV in Indianapolis, KTVU in San Francisco. The network purchased KMGM-TV in Minneapolis, in September 1957; the NTA Film Network aired television series. Among its 1956–1957 offerings were 52 Twentieth Century-Fox films. Premiere Performance, a prime time block of Twentieth Century-Fox films, aired from 1957–1959. Other film blocks included TV Hour of The Big Night; the network's television programs included: How to Marry a Millionaire, which aired from 1957 to 1959, was based on the popular 1953 film of the same name. The series starred Barbara Eden, Merry Anders, Lori Nelson, Lisa Gaye; the final episode aired in August 1959. Man Without a Gun, a western series starring Rex Reason and Mort Mills, aired from 1957 to 1959; the series portrayed Reason as a newspaper editor who brought criminals to justice without the use of guns. This is Alice, which aired from 1958 to 1959, starred nine-year-old Patty Ann Gerrity as Alice Holliday, a girl who lived in the fictional town of River Glen, Georgia.
The series was produced by Sidney Salkow for NTA and Desilu Productions. The Play of the Week, which aired from 1959 to 1961, was a series of 67 televised plays; the program was well received by critics, received a Peabody Award. The series ended its run on May 1, 1961. Other, lesser-known NTA series included The Bill Corum Sports Show, Man's Heritage, The Passerby, Official Detective, Open End, William Tell, Assignment: Underwater, Q. T. Hush, Sheriff of Cochise/U. S. Marshall, Alex in Wonderland, Newsbeat Juke Box Jury, The Best of Bishop Sheen, Danger Is My Business, Divorce Court, Grand Jury, Henry Morgan and Company, George Jessel's Show Business, The Mike Wallace Interview, The Third Man, The Oscar Levant Show, Confidential Portrait, Crime Reporter, Probe. In October 1956, the NTA Film Network announced provisional plans to telecast live sporting and special events by the 1959–1960 television season. Below is a timeline showing the airdates of the NTA Film Network's programs and NTA offerings.
The number of episodes that each series aired is given in parentheses. Some dates are tentative, as accurate. Friday 1958–1959 Note: This schedule was announced in May 1958. In January 1959, Ely Landau was succeeded by Charles C. Barry, who took over as president of network operations. Landau continued to chair National Telefilm Associates. Despite the 50% ownership of Twentieth Century-Fox, the film network never developed into a major commercial television network on a par with the "Big Three" television networks. By 1961, WNTA-TV was losing money, the network's flagship station was sold to the Educational Broadcasting Corporation that November. WNTA-TV
Nanoparticle tracking analysis
Nanoparticle tracking analysis is a method for visualizing and analyzing particles in liquids that relates the rate of Brownian motion to particle size. The rate of movement is related only to the temperature of the liquid. NTA allows the determination of a size distribution profile of small particles with a diameter of 10-1000 nanometers in liquid suspension; the technique is used in conjunction with an ultramicroscope and a laser illumination unit that together allow small particles in liquid suspension to be visualized moving under Brownian motion. The light scattered by the particles is captured using a EMCCD camera over multiple frames. Computer software is used to track the motion of each particle from frame to frame; the rate of particle movement is related to a sphere equivalent hydrodynamic radius as calculated through the Stokes–Einstein equation. The technique calculates particle size on a particle-by particle basis, overcoming inherent weaknesses in ensemble techniques such as dynamic light scattering.
Since video clips form the basis of the analysis, accurate characterization of real time events such as aggregation and dissolution is possible. Samples require minimal preparation. Speculators suggest that the analysis may be done in real-time with no preparation, e.g. when detecting the presence of airborne viruses or biological weapons. NTA operates for particles from about 10 to 1000 nm in diameter, depending on particle type. Analysis of particles at the lowest end of this range is possible only for particles composed of materials with a high refractive index, such gold and silver; the upper size limit is restricted by the limited Brownian motion of large particles. The viscosity of the solvent influences the movement of particles, it, plays a part in determining the upper size limit for a specific system. NTA has been used by commercial and government laboratories working with nanoparticle toxicology, drug delivery, exosomes and other small biological particles and vaccine production, protein aggregation, orthopedic implants and pigments, nanobubbles.
Both dynamic light scattering and nanoparticle tracking analysis measure the Brownian motion of nanoparticles whose speed of motion, or diffusion constant, Dt, is related to particle size through the Stokes–Einstein equation. 2 4 = D t = T K b 3 π η d where Dt is the diffusion constant, a product of diffusion coefficient D and time t K b is Boltzmann's constant, T is the absolute temperature, η is viscosity d is the diameter of the spherical particle. In NTA this motion is analyzed by video – individual particle positional changes are tracked in two dimensions from which the particle diffusion is determined. Knowing Dt, the particle hydrodynamic diameter can be determined. In contrast, DLS does not visualize the particles individually but analyzes, using a digital correlator, the time dependent scattering intensity fluctuations; these fluctuations are caused by interference effects arising from the relative Brownian movements of an ensemble of a large number of particles within a sample. Through analysis of the resultant exponential autocorrelation function, average particle size can be calculated as well as a polydispersity index.
For multi-exponential autocorrelation functions arising from polydisperse samples, deconvolution can give limited information about the particle size distribution profile. NTA and related technologies were developed by Bob Carr. Along with John Knowles, Carr founded NanoSight Ltd in 2003; this United Kingdom-based company, of which Knowles is the chairman and Carr is the chief technology officer, manufactures instruments that use NTA to detect and analyze small particles in industrial and academic laboratories. In 2004 Particle Metrix GmbH was founded in Germany by Hanno Wachernig; this company used the same NTA technique for low concentration zeta potential measurements adding size and fluorescence capabilities. NanoSight Ltd Dynamic light scattering
Nigerian Television Authority
The Nigerian Television Authority – known as NTA is a Nigerian government-owned and commercial broadcaster, inaugurated in 1977. At inauguration it had a monopoly on television broadcasting in the country; the NTA runs the biggest television network in Nigeria with stations in several parts of Nigeria. Known as Nigerian Television, the network began with a takeover of regional television stations in 1976 by the Nigerian military authorities, is viewed as the authentic voice of the Nigerian government. NTA's monopoly was broken in the 1990s; the first chairman of NTV was Olapade Obisesan, a lawyer trained in the United Kingdom and son of Akinpelu Obisesan, an Ibadan socialite and first President of Cooperative Bank, Nigeria. The first official director general was a former engineer. Prior to his appointment, Maduka was General Manager of Western Nigeria Television, Africa's first television station; the NTA has been criticized by performing artists such as Becky Umeh for pressuring artists to align their expression with government propaganda goals.
The Guardian in its editorial of Sunday October 18, 2009 stated "The federal government-owned television network, the Nigeria Television Authority, is arguably the largest of its type in Africa, but it is yet to have the operational freedom required to maximize its potentials". However, the NTA's monopoly on Nigerian airspace was broken in the mid-1990s with the establishment of owned television stations and networks, notably Africa Independent Television. Nigerian Television Authority began broadcasting on 31 October 1959 under the name Western Nigerian Government Broadcasting Corporation with Olapade Obisesan as its first Chairman, it was the first television station in tropical Africa. Other northern parts of Africa had a television station. NTA was founded in 1977. By 1979, it had reached about 20% of the population. March 1962 Radio-Television Kaduna / Radio Kaduna Television was established, it was operated by the Broadcasting Company of Northern Nigeria. RKTV provided coverage for the central northern states.
In 1977 it was re-branded NTV-Kaduna. April 1962 The Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation was established. Based in the city of Lagos it broadcast to the southwestern states. 1972 MidWest TV was established as TV broadcaster at Port Harcourt. This was run by the state government in Benin. 1974 Benue-Plateau Television Corporation was established and was based in Jos. It was the first television station to launch regular/permanent colour broadcasts in Africa; the colour test transmissions commenced 1 October 1975. BPTV was re-branded as NTV-Jos. From May 1977 all the state television broadcasters named above were merged and re-branded Nigerian Television and are now owned by the Nigerian Television Authority. Dramatic programming like serials and anthology series had existed sparingly in regional television stations before the advent of NTA in 1977 the regional stations now local affiliates of NTA network had TV shows such as Moses Olaiya's Alawada on WNTV, Village Headmaster and Hotel de Jordan on NTA Benin.
Apart from these few notable ones there was little original content in dramatic series production during the 1970s. By 1980, when the new NTA network had taken over state-owned broadcasting stations in the country, there was a concerted effort to increase the level of local content. Since 1977, the network began giving support to the production of notable country-wide network programmes such as Tales by Moonlight, Cock Crow at Dawn, Mirror in the Sun. In 1982, NTA Sokoto's produced drama, Moment of Truth won a prize at the fifth festival of the National Radio and Television Organizations of Africa held in Algiers. To cultivate interest in the broadcast of original content from Nigerian producers, the network set a ceiling of 20% broadcasting time to be allocated to foreign programming at a time when the cost of acquiring those programs was much less than the locally produced ones. Cock Crow at Dawn, an agriculture promotional drama sponsored by UBA and produced by Peter Igho who directed the award-winning Moment of Truth, emerged as one of the first nationally televised drama series in Nigeria.
Though produced by NTA, it did not last long before it was cancelled because of technical and production reasons. Came Acada Campus another short-lived show produced by Bode Sowande; these series reached a majority of accessible people because NTA owned a monopoly on broadcasting in the country. Beginning in the 1980s, a string of critically acclaimed soap operas were promoted on the network; the first was Laolu Ogunniyi's Wind Against My Soul came For Better or Worse and Lola Fani Kayode's Mirror in the Sun. Mirror in the Sun produced in 1983 was well acted with good cinematography and was well received by critics, but was pulled off the air after two years due to a lack of financial support. From the mid-1980s, another group of soap operas dominated the airwaves, including the short-lived Behind the Clouds, Turning Wheels. In 1984, NTA began televising Tales by Moonlight, a children's programme that narrates traditional African folklore; the network showed Adelia Onyedibia's adaptation of Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart in 1986.
The network promoted notable comedy series during this period such as New Masquerade and Ken Saro Wiwa's Basi and Company. One of the earliest network comedies was House no. 13 starring Wale Ogunyemi. Followed Basi and Company, a critically acclaimed comedy series starring Albert Egbe. Village Headmast
Demographics of New York City
New York City's demographics show that it is a large and ethnically diverse metropolis. It is the largest city in the United States with a long history of international immigration. New York City was home to nearly 8.5 million people in 2014, accounting for over 40% of the population of New York State and a lower percentage of the New York metropolitan area, home to 23.6 million. Over the last decade the city has been growing faster than the region; the New York region continues to be by far the leading metropolitan gateway for legal immigrants admitted into the United States. Throughout its history, New York City has been a major point of entry for immigrants; as many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. English remains the most spoken language, although there are areas in the outer boroughs in which up to 25% of people speak English as an alternate language, and/or have limited or no English language fluency. English is least spoken in neighborhoods such as Flushing, Sunset Park, Corona.
New York City is the most populous city in the United States, with an estimated 8,491,079 people living in the city, according to U. S. Census estimates dating July 1, 2014; this amounts to about 40% of New York State's population and a similar percentage of the metropolitan regional population. New York's two key demographic features are its population density and cultural diversity; the city's population density of 26,403 people per square mile, makes it the densest of any American municipality with a population above 100,000. Manhattan's population density is 66,940 people per square mile, highest of any county in the United States. New York City is multicultural. About 36 % of the city's population is one of the highest among US cities; the eleven nations constituting the largest sources of modern immigration to New York City are the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Mexico, Brazil, Haiti and Tobago, Russia and El Salvador. The New York City metropolitan area is home to the largest Jewish community outside Israel.
It is home to nearly a quarter of the nation's Indian Americans and 15% of all Korean Americans and the largest Asian Indian population in the Western Hemisphere. New York City alone, according to the 2010 Census, has now become home to more than one million Asian Americans, greater than the combined totals of San Francisco and Los Angeles. New York contains the highest total Asian population of any U. S. city proper. 6.0% of New York City is of Chinese ethnicity, with about forty percent of them living in the borough of Queens alone. Koreans make up 1.2% of the city's population, Japanese at 0.3%. Filipinos are the largest southeast Asian ethnic group at 0.8%, followed by Vietnamese who make up only 0.2% of New York City's population. Indians are the largest South Asian group, comprising 2.4% of the city's population, Bangladeshis and Pakistanis at 0.7% and 0.5%, respectively. New York City is one of the main entry points for newly arrived Brazilian immigrants in the United States. West 46th Street between the Fifth and Sixth avenues in Manhattan was designated Little Brazil due to its popularity as a financial center for Brazilians who live or visit New York.
The largest ethnic groups as of the 2005 census estimates are: African American, African or Caribbean, Puerto Ricans, West Indians, Chinese, Irish and German. The Puerto Rican population of New York City is the largest outside Puerto Rico; the New York City metropolitan area is home to the largest Italian population in North America and the third largest Italian population outside of Italy. Italians emigrated to the city in large numbers in the early 20th century, establishing several "Little Italies"; the Irish have a notable presence, along with Germans. New York City has a high degree of income variation. In 2005 the median household income in the highest census tract was reported to be $188,697, while in the lowest it was $9,320; the variance is driven by wage growth in high income brackets, while wages have stagnated for middle and lower income brackets. In 2006 the average weekly wage in Manhattan was $1,453, the highest and fastest growing among the largest counties in the United States.
The borough is experiencing a "baby boom" among the wealthy, unique among U. S. cities. Since 2000, the number of children under age 5 living in Manhattan has grown by more than 32%. In 2000, about 3 out of every 10 New York City housing units were owner-occupied, compared to about 2 owner-occupied units out of every 3 units in the U. S. as a whole. Rental vacancy is between 3% and 4.5%, well below the 5% threshold defined to be a housing emergency, justifying the continuation of rent control and rent stabilization. About 33% of rental units fall under rent stabilization, according to which increases are adjudicated periodically by city agencies. Rent control covers only a small number of rental units; some critics point to New York City's strict zoning and other regulations as partial causes for the housing shortage, but during the city's decline in population from the 1960s through the 1980s, a large number of apartment buildings suffered suspected arson fires or were abandoned by their owners.
Once the population trend was reversed, with rising prospects for rentals and sales, new construction has r
National Treasury Administration
The National Treasury Administration is the agency of the Ministry of Finance of Taiwan in charge of relevant matters in the revenues and management of the Treasury as well as responsible for the management of government debt, fiscal planning, public welfare lottery, the management of public-owned enterprises. Treasury Affairs Management Division Treasury Disbursement Management Division Debt Management Division Financial Planning Division Government -Owned Shares Management Division Tobacco and Alcohol Management Division Secretariat Accounting and Statistics Office Personnel Office Civil Service Ethics Office Information Management Office NTA is accessible within walking distance North West of Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall Station of the Taipei Metro. Ministry of Finance
Administrator of the Northern Territory
The Administrator of the Northern Territory is an official appointed by the Governor-General of Australia to represent the government of the Commonwealth in the Northern Territory. He or she performs functions similar to those of a state governor. Speaking, the appointment of an Administrator is made by the Governor-General-in-Council, that is, the Governor-General acting on the advice of the Commonwealth Government, rather than the advice of the Government of the Northern Territory; the Northern Territory received self-government on 1 July 1978, in accordance with the provisions of the Northern Territory Act 1978. Since the practice has arisen that in making an appointment the Governor-General-in-Council will act on the recommendation of the Northern Territory Government. Unlike an Australian State Governor, the Administrator is not the direct representative of the Queen in the Territory but is instead appointed by the Queen's representative in the Commonwealth, the Governor-General, to administer the Territory in accordance with the Act.
In practice, the Administrator performs a similar constitutional role to that of a state governor and can be considered the Queen's indirect representative in the Territory. The Administrator formally appoints the Chief Minister of the Northern Territory and the members of the Cabinet after every election. In all but a few cases, he or she is required by convention to act on the Cabinet's advice; the Administrator gives royal assent to all bills passed by the Northern Territory Legislative Assembly. Although the Governor-General has the power to veto any territorial bill, in practice this right is never exercised; the office of the Deputy of the Administrator was created in 1997. In 2014, the Governor-General granted current and living former Administrators the title of'The Honourable' for life, following the lead of Governors-General and Governors of New South Wales in granting the title; the present Administrator is Vicki O'Halloran, AM. Government Residents of the Northern Territory when annexed to the colony of South Australia: Administrators and Government Residents of the Northern Territory after transfer of control to the Commonwealth Government: From 1926 to 1931, the Northern Territory was divided into the territories of Central Australia and North Australia, with the border at the 20th parallel south.
Each territory was administered by a Government Resident located in Alice Springs and in Darwin. Both territories were reincorporated as the Northern Territory in 1931; the office of the Deputy of the Administrator was established in 1997. Government House, Darwin Governors of the Australian states Darwin Rebellion Government House, Northern Territory, Office of the Administrator – official site
Newton Abbot railway station
Newton Abbot railway station serves the town of Newton Abbot in Devon, England. It is 20 miles 13 chains down the line from Exeter St Davids and 214 miles 5 chains measured from London Paddington via Bristol Temple Meads, at the junction for the branch to Paignton; the station today is managed by Great Western Railway, who provide the train service along with CrossCountry. For many years, it was the junction for Moretonhampstead and the site of a large locomotive workshop; the station was opened by the South Devon Railway Company on 30 December 1846 when its line was extended from Teignmouth railway station. It was opened through to Totnes on 20 June 1847 and a branch to Torquay was added on 18 December 1848; the Moretonhampstead and South Devon Railway opened its branch line on 26 June 1866. All these railways used the 7 ft broad gauge. Approaching the station from the town along Queen Street, people first saw. On the opposite side of the line was the pumping house for the atmospheric railway system that powered the trains for a short while.
The passenger station was situated to the south of these buildings. It consisted to two – three – small train sheds covering separate platforms for trains running in each direction to Exeter and Torquay, it was rebuilt in 1861. On 1 February 1876 the South Devon Railway, which had amalgamated with the Moretonhampstead company, was amalgamated into the Great Western Railway; the station was known as just "Newton" but this was changed to "Newton Abbot" on 1 March 1877. The last broad gauge train ran on 20 May 1892, after which all the lines in the area were converted to 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge over the space of a weekend; the workshops at Newton Abbot played a part in converting broad gauge locomotives and wagons to standard gauge over the following months. Plans were put forward to rebuild the station with four platforms, but World War I delayed the plans; the goods facilities were moved onto the Moretonhampstead branch line on 12 June 1911, some sidings were laid at Hackney on 17 December 1911 to replace those near the engine shed.
These alterations paved the way for the expansion of the station following the war, the rebuilt station being opened by Lord Mildmay of Flete on 11 April 1927. The station, built to the designs of the Chief Architect of the Great Western Railway, Percy Emerson Culverhouse, now faced the town along Queen Street rather than the old wooden goods shed. An old broad gauge 0-4-0 locomotive, was put on display on the station platform to provide a link with the past; the southbound platform had to be rebuilt again following an air raid on 20 August 1940, during World War II. Six bombs were dropped killing 14 people; the Moretonhampstead line lost its passenger trains on 28 February 1959. Goods trains were cut back to Bovey railway station from 6 April 1964 and from 6 July 1970 were run no further than Heathfield; the final regular traffic ran in 1996. The last trains used the former Platform 4 on 24 April 1987. Removed were the loop lines that allowed fast trains to pass the station without passing a platform.
Resignalling was completed over the following bank holiday weekend. Full operation was now controlled from the panel signal box at Exeter. A new junction was installed for the Paignton branch and the signals now allow trains to run either way on each track; some of the signalling equipment was taken to the Newton Abbot Town and GWR Museum, where it forms part of an interactive display that shows how the railway shaped the town. It was at about this time that Tiny was removed from its position on the platform and moved to Buckfastleigh railway station where it is displayed in the museum of the South Devon Railway Trust; the remaining section of the Moretonhampstead line was taken out of use in 2009 when'temporary stop blocks' were placed on the line 53 chains from the junction at Newton Abbot. The line to Heathfield has since been re-opened, seeing daily timber trains in 2012 to Chirk in Wales. South West Trains ran services until December 2009 between London Waterloo and Plymouth and Paignton, before withdrawing services west of Exeter to form an hourly service from Exeter St Davids to London Waterloo.
The station was'open' for many years after the staffed ticket gate was removed from the ticket office but in August 2017 ticket barriers were installed again, this time in a new building on the platform. Newton Abbot has proved to be an accident-prone station. On 22 August 1851 the locomotive Brigand was derailed and Switchman Bidgood had to pay one pound towards its repairs; the investigation into a collision in August 1875 revealed that it was normal practice at Newton to ignore the signal that controlled movements from the siding to the main line, as a result of which it was decided to interlock the signals and points here, one of the first such installations to be authorised on the South Devon Railway. On 21 October 1892 an engine fell on its side. In more recent times, a collision occurred on 25 March 1994 when a Class 158 DMU, working a Paignton to Cardiff service, ran into the back of a Class 43 standing in the platform with a Penzance to Edinburgh train. Thirty-one people were injured.
In June 1997 a similar train from London was derailed by a broken axle as it was slowing down on its approach to the station. The main entrance is on the west side of the station, facing Courtenay Park and Queen Street which