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Willi Gall

Willi Gall was a German communist and resistance fighter against Nazism. Gall was born in Saxony, he worked as a lathe operator and a truck driver, joined the Communist Party of Germany in 1929. Active in the local KPD group in Pethau near Zittau, Gall was elected to the local city council in 1932. After the Nazi Party came to power in 1933, Gall was active in the communist resistance, he emigrated to Czechoslovakia in April 1933, served as a courier between Zittau and Prague from 1934 until 1938. In 1938, he worked as an instructor in the "Zentrum" leadership department of the underground KPD. In 1938–39, he went to Berlin illegally several times from Czechoslovakia and Denmark, where he produced leaflets and held contacts with the workers of various factories and companies. In December 1939, Gall was arrested along with over 100 resistance members from the Adlershof locality of Berlin, he was sentenced to death by the People's Court on 23 January 1941, was executed by guillotine on 25 July 1941 in Plötzensee Prison in Berlin.

Today's Weinauparkstadion in Zittau was named Willi-Gall-Stadion from 1955 until 1990. A street in Mittelherwigsdorf outside Zittau is named Willi-Gall-Straße

Partial concurrent thinking aloud

Partial concurrent thinking aloud is a method used to gather data in usability testing with screen reader users. It is a particular kind of think aloud protocol created by Stefano Federici and Simone Borsci at the Interuniversity Center for Research on Cognitive Processing in Natural and Artificial Systems of University of Rome "La Sapienza"; the partial concurrent thinking aloud is built up in order to create a specific usability assessment technique for blind users, eligible to maintain the advantages of concurrent and retrospective thinking aloud while overcoming their limits. Using PCTA blind users' verbalizations of problems could be more pertinent and comparable to those given by sighted people who use a concurrent protocol. In the usability evaluation with blind people, the retrospective thinking aloud is adopted as a functional solution to overcome the structural interference due to thinking aloud and hearing the screen reader imposed by the classic thinking aloud technique; the use of PCTA could be widened to both summative and formative usability evaluations with mixed panels of users, thus extending the number of problems' verbalizations according to disabled users' divergent navigation processes and problem solving strategies.

In general, in the usability evaluation both retrospective and concurrent TAP could be used according to the aims and goals of the study. When a usability evaluation is carried out with blind people several studies propose to use the retrospective TAP: indeed, using a screen reader and talking about the way of interacting with the computer implies a structural interference between action and verbalization. Undoubtedly, cognitive studies provided a lot of evidence supporting the idea that individuals can listen, verbalize, or manipulate, rescue information in multiple task condition; as Colin Cherry showed, when listening to two different messages from a single loudspeaker, can separate sounds from background noise, recognize the gender of the speaker, the direction, the pitch. At the same time, subjects that must verbalize the content of a message listening to two different message have a reduced ability to report the content of the attended massage, while they are unable to report the content of the unattended message.

Moreover, K. Anders Ericsson and Walter Kintsch showed that, in a multiple task condition, subjects' ability of rescuing information is not compromised by an interruption of the action flow, thanks to the “Long Term Working Memory mechanism” of information retrieval. If users can listen and verbalize multiple messages in a multiple task condition and they can stop and restart actions without losing any information, other cognitive studies underlined that the overlap of activities in a multiple task condition have an effect on the goal achievement: Kemper and Lian, analysing the users' abilities to verbalize actions in a multiple task condition, showed that the fluency of a user's conversation is influenced by the overlap of actions. Adults are to continue to talk as they navigate in a complex physical environment. However, the fluency of their conversation is to change: Older adults are to speak more than they would if resting. Just by reducing length and propositional density adults free up working memory resources.

We do not know how and how much the content of verbalizations could be influenced by the strategy of verbalization. Anyway, we well know that users in the concurrent thinking aloud verbalize the problems in a more accurate and pertinent way in the retrospective one; the pertinence is granted to the user by the proximity of action-verbalization-next action. However, for blind users this time proximity between action and verbalization is lost: the use of the screen reader, in fact, increase the time for verbalization. PCTA method is composed of two sections, one concurrent and one retrospective: The first section is a modified concurrent protocol built up according to the three concurrent verbal protocols criteria described by K. Anders Ericsson and Herbert A. Simon: The second PCTA section is a retrospective one in which users analyse those problems verbalized in a concurrent way; the memory signs, created by users ringing the desk-bell, overcome the limits of classic retrospective analysis.

Comparison of usability evaluation methods Protocol analysis Think aloud protocol

The Sound and the Fury

The Sound and the Fury is a novel by the American author William Faulkner. It employs several narrative styles, including stream of consciousness. Published in 1929, The Sound and the Fury was Faulkner's fourth novel, was not successful. In 1931, when Faulkner's sixth novel, was published—a sensationalist story, which Faulkner claimed was written only for money—The Sound and the Fury became commercially successful, Faulkner began to receive critical attention. In 1998, the Modern Library ranked The Sound and the Fury sixth on its list of the 100 best English-language novels of the 20th century; the Sound and the Fury is set in Mississippi. The novel centers on the Compson family, former Southern aristocrats who are struggling to deal with the dissolution of their family and its reputation. Over the course of the 30 years or so related in the novel, the family falls into financial ruin, loses its religious faith and the respect of the town of Jefferson, many of them die tragically; the novel is separated into four narratives.

The first, April 7, 1928, is written from the perspective of Benjamin "Benjy" Compson, an intellectually disabled 33-year-old man. Benjy's section is characterized by a disjointed narrative style with frequent chronological leaps; the second section, June 2, 1910, focuses on Quentin Compson, Benjy's older brother, the events leading up to his suicide. This section is written in the stream of consciousness style and contains frequent chronological leaps. In the third section, set a day before the first, on April 6, 1928, Faulkner writes from the point of view of Jason, Quentin's cynical younger brother. In the fourth and final section, set a day after the first, on April 8, 1928, Faulkner introduces a third person omniscient point of view; this last section focuses on Dilsey, one of the Compsons' black servants, her relations with Jason and "Miss" Quentin Compson, with glimpses of the thoughts and deeds of everyone in the family. In 1945, Faulkner wrote a "Compson Appendix" to be included with future printings of The Sound and the Fury.

It contains a 30-page history of the Compson family from 1699 to 1945. The first section of the novel is narrated by Benjamin "Benjy" Compson, a source of shame to the family due to his diminished mental capacity, his narrative voice is characterized predominantly by its nonlinearity: spanning the period 1898–1928, Benjy's narrative is a series of non-chronological events presented in a stream of consciousness. The presence of italics in Benjy's section is meant to indicate significant shifts in the narrative. Faulkner meant to use different colored inks to signify chronological breaks; this nonlinearity makes the style of this section challenging, but Benjy's style develops a cadence that, while not chronologically coherent, provides unbiased insight into many characters' true motivations. Moreover, Benjy's caretaker changes to indicate the time period: Luster in the present, T. P. in Benjy's teenage years, Versh during Benjy's infancy and childhood. In this section we see Benjy's three passions: fire, the golf course on land that used to belong to the Compson family, his sister Caddy.

But by 1928 Caddy has been banished from the Compson home after her husband divorced her because her child was not his, the family has sold his favorite pasture to a local golf club in order to finance Quentin's Harvard education. In the opening scene, accompanied by Luster, a servant boy, watches golfers on the nearby golf course as he waits to hear them call "caddie"—the name of his favorite sibling; when one of them calls for his golf caddie, Benjy's mind embarks on a whirlwind course of memories of his sister, focusing on one critical scene. In 1898 when their grandmother died, the four Compson children were forced to play outside during the funeral. In order to see what was going on inside, Caddy climbed a tree in the yard, while looking inside, her brothers—Quentin and Benjy—looked up and noticed that her underwear was muddy; this is Benjy's first memory, he associates Caddy with trees throughout the rest of his arc saying that she smells like trees. Other crucial memories in this section are Benjy's change of name in 1900 upon the discovery of his disability.

Readers report trouble understanding this portion of the novel due to its impressionistic language necessitated by Benjamin's mental abilities, as well as its frequent shifts in time and setting. Quentin, the most intelligent of the Compson children, gives the novel's best example of Faulkner's narrative technique. We see him as a freshman at Harvard, wandering the streets of Cambridge, contemplating death, remembering his family's estrangement from his sister Caddy. Like the first section, its narrative is not linear, though the two interweaving threads, of Quentin at Harvard on the one hand, of his memories on the other, are discernible. Quentin's main obsession is Caddy's purity, he is obsessed with Southern ideals of chivalry and is protective of women his sister. When Caddy engages in sexual promiscuity, Quentin is horrified, he turns to his father for help and counsel, but the pragmatic Mr. Compson tells him that virginity is invented by men and should not be taken seriously, he tells Quentin that time will heal all.

Quentin spends much of his time trying to prove his father wrong, bu

Church of São Salvador (Bravães)

The Church of São Salvador is a Romanesque era Portuguese religious building located in the civil parish of Bravães, municipality of Ponte da Barca, in the northern Portuguese district of Viana do Castelo. The date indicated for the foundation of the institution in Bravães was 1080. An 1140/1141 letter between D. Afonso Henriques and Prior Egeas on the transaction for the monastery of Vila Nova de Muia, suggests a level of importance for the monastery. By 28 July 1180, the monastery at Bravães was autonomous. In the 1258 Inquirões identified it as a Couto granted by D. Afonso Henriques to D. Pelágio Velasquez. By the end of the 13th century, following an inscription in the church, prior D. Rogrigo ordered the construction of the northern tower; the Commandery of Bravães was transferred from the Order of the Knights Templar to the Order of Christ, who remained at the site until the beginning of the 15th century. Of the monastery of Bravães, only the church remains, was reconstructed during the first half of the 13th century.

By letter dated 1420, Bishop of Braga D. Martinho V secularized the institution's monastic and instructional services, resulting in the institutionalization by D. Fernando da Guerra of a secular rectory, it was succeeded on 12 February 1434 by the de-institutionalization of the monastery to the status of parochial church. Around 1500 the mural painting with the depiction of São Salvador was completed. Between 1540 and 1550, other mural paintings were executed, most notably the Martírio de São Sebastião, by the end of the last quarter of the 15th century, the probable work on the main chapel and the execution of the pictorial composition of the religious patron and paintings along the nave. A triptych over the main chapel was added at the beginning of the 16th century, along with grotesque 1535 Romanesque paintings and other paintings in the nave. In 1639, the lands alongside the main chapel were annexed by local. On 27 November 1755, there was a contract signed to remodel the church between Francisco Vieira Pinto and carpenter Tomás de Araújo and Jerónimo da Costa for 147$000 rési.

The work included adjustments to the church roof, a staircase to the choir and all the church's interior woods, to be completed in chestnut: the painting of the ceiling would be the responsibility of carpenters. This work became a function of the civil parish of Bravães as on 12 January 1843, they established a budget to be used in the maintenance of the parochial church. In the middle of the 20th century, work on the church was carried-out under the direction of architect Baltazar de Castro. Beginning in 1931, the DGEMN Direcção-Geral de Edifícios e Monumentos Nacionais started various restoration works on the church; this included the construction of a larger annex. In the course of these repairs, in 1936, a study was made of the frescoes within the church, two years the cemetery was moved. Restoration work was carried-out in 1946 along with repairs to the roof, two years later. Between 1951 and 1952, the tabernacle from the cathedral of Miranda do Douro were moved and adapted to the church.

Yet, the following year, urgent work was needed in the ceiling of the nave. The spaces were modernized in 1960, with the installation of electrical lighting in the structure, that were expanded in 1961. Along with repairs to the ceiling and painting of the doors in 1968, corbels were installed in 1967, to install images. Work on the roof and ceiling were ongoing in the next few years, that included a major cleaning and repair between 1970 and 1971 in 1972, following damage caused by a storm. Work in 1973 churchyard. While the remainder of the 1970s, work was instituted to conserve the stonework and cornerstones, in order to offset erosion. Meanwhile, in the interior, work was undertaken to preserve the various frescoes; this work lead to the 1995 project by the IPPAR to restore two frescoes that flanked the triumphal archway, in addition to consolidation and cleaning. The municipal council of Ponte da Barca continues to study the possibility of creating a museological centre alongside the church, along with many of the frescoes that were removed to the Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga.

The rural church is located in the Lima valley along the main roadway between Ponte da Barca and Ponte de Lima. The church courtyard is encircled by a stone wall and the southern extent includes a belltower with other structures situated around the building; the longitudinal plan of the church is composed of a single-nave and rectangular presbytery, with northern sacristy a

Andrea Maria Schenkel

Andrea Maria Schenkel is a German writer. She published her debut novel Tannöd in 2006. Based on the Hinterkaifeck murder in the 1920s, Schenkel's fictional account takes place in the 1950s, she describes, in ghastly and suspenseful detail, how a small Bavarian village, called Tannöd, became the unlikely site of a horrific crime. In her novel, a whole family – the farmer, his wife and children, the maidservants and farm laborers – are all killed in one night. Nobody had liked the family: they had been unfriendly and crabby, but now after the outrage, fear dominates life in the village. Nobody knows the murderer. Anxious and shocked every witness gives his statement. Speculation and assumptions about the case are described in a direct and impressive manner. With her debut novel, Andrea Schenkel presents not only thrilling fiction, she draws the pitiless portraits of a bigoted and unromantic rural society influenced by traumatic relations that lead to death. More than one million copies were sold in Germany.

The work has been published in more than 20 languages, with foreign rights sold to France, the Netherlands, Sweden and Denmark. In 2009, Constantin Film released Tannöd, starring Volker Bruch, her first novel won the Deutscher Krimi Preis in the category "Best National Crime Thriller 2007". In 2008, Tannöd won Sweden's Martin Beck Award, given to the best detective story translated into Swedish; the English translation of the novel was released by Quercus Publishing on 5 June 2008. The title is The Murder Farm. Quercus released a paperback edition of "The Murder Farm" on 26 December 2008. In June 2014, Quercus published the work in the United States, which The New York Times announced in a profile of Schenkel. In August 2007, Schenkel published her second novel, which focuses on a serial killer in 1930s Germany, it is set in Munich where female bodies keep surfacing around the city and the circumstantial evidence points to the unassuming and married Joseph Kalteis. Kalteis won the Deutscher Krimi Preis in the category "Best National Crime Thriller 2008" – the first time an author won the award for two consecutive years.

Her third book, "Bunker," was published by Nautilus in 2009. Her novel, "Tauscher," was published by Hoffmann und Campe in 2013. In June 2015, Quercus US published "Kalteis" under the title "Ice Cold," and in March 2016, Hoffman und Campe will publish her next work, "Als die Liebe endlich war", which takes readers from 1930s Germany to World War II-era Shanghai to 21st-century America, her most recent novel, Als die Liebe endlich war, was published by Hoffmann und Campe in 2016. Andrea Maria Schenkel lives with her family near Regensburg; the Murder Farm, Quercus Publishing, London, ISBN 1-84724-366-5 Ice Cold, Quercus Publishing, London Bunker, Quercus Publishing, London Finsterau, Hoffmann und Campe Täuscher, Hoffmann und Campe Als die Liebe endlich war, Hoffmann und Campe Article in Der Spiegel Reading excerpt Website of Andrea Maria Schenkel Interview on Täuscher Quercus and Quercus USA Publisher's websites