Tatra is a Czech manufacturer producing vehicles in Kopřivnice. It is owned by the Tatra Truck company, based in Ostrava, the company was founded in 1850 as Ignatz Schustala & Comp. Later renamed Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau-Fabriksgesellschaft when it became a wagon and carriage manufacturer, in 1897, Tatra produced the first motor car in central Europe, the Präsident automobile. During World War II Tatra was instrumental in the production of trucks, production of passenger cars ceased in 1999, but the company still produces a range of primarily all-wheel-drive trucks, from 4×4 to 18x18. The brand is known as a result of Czech truck racer Karel Loprais. Ignác Šustala, founder of the company in Kopřivnice, Moravia, in 1891 he branched out into railroad car manufacture, naming the company Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau-Fabriksgesellschaft, and employed Hugo Fischer von Roeslerstamm as technical director in 1890. After the death of Šustala, von Roeslerstamm took over running the company, using this for inspiration, the company made its first car, the Präsident, which was exhibited in 1897 in Vienna.
Orders were obtained for more cars and under the direction of engineers Hans Ledwinka and Edmund Rumpler, ten improved cars were made. The first car to be designed by Ledwinka came in 1900 with the Type A with rear-mounted 2714 cc engine. This was followed by the Type B with central engine in 1902 and he returned in 1905 and designed a completely new car, the Type S with 3308 cc 4-cylinder engine. Production was badly hit in 1912 with a 23-week strike and Hugo Fischer von Roeslerstam left the company, after World War I Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau was renamed Kopřivnická vozovka, and in 1919 the name Tatra was given to the car range. Leopold Pasching took over control and in 1921 Hans Ledwinka returned again to develop the revolutionary Tatra 11, the new car, launched in 1923 featured a rigid backbone tube with swinging semi-axles at the rear giving independent suspension. The engine, front-mounted, was an air-cooled two-cylinder unit of 1056 cc, the Tatra 11 was replaced in 1926 by the similar Tatra 12 which had four-wheel brakes.
A further development was the 1926 Tatra 17 with a 1,930 cc water-cooled six-cylinder engine, in 1927 the company was renamed Závody Ringhoffer-Tatra a. s. Tatras specialty was luxury cars of an advanced nature, going from air-cooled flat-twins to fours and sixes. The average drag coefficient of a 1,5 model of the fastback Tatra T77 was recorded as 0.2455 and it featured a rear-mounted, air-cooled V8 engine, which was in technical terms very sophisticated for the time. Both Hitler and Porsche were influenced by the Tatras, Hitler was a keen automotive enthusiast, and had ridden in Tatras during political tours of Czechoslovakia. He had dined numerous times with Ledwinka, after one of these dinners Hitler remarked to Porsche, This is the car for my roads
The NW type U is an Edwardian era automobile manufactured by Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau-Fabriks-Gesellschaft A. G. After the success of Type S, models NW T and NW U were launched, both types were again OHC design with hemispherical combustion chambers with the cylinders cast in one piece with the engine block. As the company changed its name the model was renamed to Tatra 10 in 1919, the production version was able to reach 120 kilometres per hour. The Type U was fitted with brakes on all four wheels, probably the first production car in the world with such brake system
A runabout is a car body style that was popular in North America until about 1915. It was a light, basic style with no windshield, top, or doors, runabouts eventually became indistinguishable from roadsters and the term fell out of use in the United States. The approach has evolved into the city car. The runabout was a light, open car with basic bodywork and no windshield, most runabouts had just a single row of seats, providing seating for two passengers. Some had a seat at the rear to provide optional seating for one or two more passengers, those without rumble seats may have had a trunk platform, a box. They differed from buggies and high wheelers mainly by having smaller wheels, early runabouts had their engines under the body toward the middle of the chassis. This sometimes made difficult, as on the Oldsmobile Curved Dash where the body had to be removed in order to access the engine. The Gale runabout dealt with this problem by hinging the body at the rear of the car such that it could be tilted to access the engine, some runabouts had the engine in what became the conventional position at the front of the car.
Runabouts were popular in North America from the late 19th century to about 1915 and they were designed for light use over short distances. By the mid-1910s, they became almost indistinguishable from roadsters, the 1964 GM Runabout was a three wheel concept car first exhibited at Futurama II, part of the 1964 New York Worlds Fair. The car was designed specifically for housewives and had detachable shopping carts built into it, the term runabout is still in use in Britain, denoting a small car used for short journeys. Anderson, Crozier, Gilmour, Grandison, Alice, McKeown, Stibbs, Summers, Elspeth, N.1 a small car used for short journeys Clough, Albert L. New York, NY USA, E. P. Dutton, a general term for a light two-passenger car of the early 1900s. Haajanen, Lennart W. Illustrated Dictionary of Automobile Body Styles, the story of Veteran & Vintage Cars. Chapter One The Pioneer Days 1769 –1904, the Oldsmobile merits its niche in history as the first true example of mass-production, some 3,750 being turned out in 1903 alone.
Despite the Oldsmobiles known reliability, the makers handbook launches out on the first page of text with the alarming suggestion, in Fox, Richard Wightman, Lears, T. J. Jackson. The Power of Culture, Critical Essays in American History, Chicago, IL US, University of Chicago
Tatra 30 is an auto-mobile formerly made by the Czech manufacturer Tatra. It was manufactured between 1926 and 1928, from 1928 to 1931 the car was fitted with newer engine and is therefore called Tatra 30/52. Tatra 30 was powered by an OHV air-cooled four cylinder boxer motor of 1679 cc, positioned at the front, the maximum speed was around 90 km/h. Tatra 30 Sport was powered by engine of similar architecture but with 1910 cc and this version was capable of speeds up to 130 km/h. During the modernization process the 52 engine was fitted and it had 1911 cc and 22 kW. This was a transitory mid-version before the production of the successor fully began and it was manufactured for a period of about one year. Tatra 30 was gradually modernized until it was replaced by Tatra 52, power was delivered to the rear wheels via a four speed gear-box. The drive shaft is situated inside the backbone tube, the gearbox and engine is mounted in front of the backbone tube, while the differential is at the back. Tatra 30 was in the size category.
There were many different versions made from four seat cabriolets to six seat limousines, Tatra 30 has mechanical brakes, while Tatra 52 has hydraulic ones. Tatra 30 is more angular, especially its fenders, however the problem is that in 1940s - 1960s there were many cars rebuilt
The Tatra 26 is a vintage 6x4 automobile produced by the Czech manufacturer Tatra in the late 1920s and early 1930s. It was developed on the basis of the T12, tests showed that the engine from T12 did not have enough power, and it was replaced by the Tatra 30 engine. The car had extreme off-road abilities - reportedly it was able to climb staircases. The Tatra 26 was the sister model of the middle-class type Tatra 30. The vehicle had an air-cooled four-cylinder engine with 1680 cc and 24 hp of power, the maximum attainable speed of the 1,350 kg heavy car was 60–70 km/h. The car uses the Tatra backbone tube and independent half axles, there were many different versions of this car. It was manufactured as a truck, a bus, a firetruck. A version with shortened wheelbase had additional side wheels to improve offroad capabilities
Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau-Fabriksgesellschaft type T was a luxurious car. As the company changed its name the model was renamed to Tatra 20 in 1919 and it was successor to very successful model NW type S. It was made at the time as NW type U until 1925. It is currently a model, with only three existing of it. BMW owns one, while the other is owned by a U. S. car collector, the engine NW T was a four stroke OHC water cooled inline four. It had a capacity of 3563 cc, which gave an output of 33 kW, the first T20s had to be started manually while T20s had Bosch electric starters. The same engine was used in NW TL-2 and NW TL-4 trucks. The car had front and rear axles suspended on leaf springs. It was sold mostly as luxurious limousine, although other variants were made - i. e. ambulance car or a race car
Vienna is the capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austrias primary city, with a population of about 1.8 million, and its cultural, economic and it is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin, Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC. The city is located in the part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic, Slovakia. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region, along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site, apart from being regarded as the City of Music because of its musical legacy, Vienna is said to be The City of Dreams because it was home to the worlds first psycho-analyst – Sigmund Freud. The citys roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval and Baroque city and it is well known for having played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century.
The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, Vienna is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first for the worlds most liveable cities, between 2011 and 2015, Vienna was ranked second, behind Melbourne, Australia. Monocles 2015 Quality of Life Survey ranked Vienna second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world to make a base within, the UN-Habitat has classified Vienna as being the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013. Vienna regularly hosts urban planning conferences and is used as a case study by urban planners. Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna was the worlds number-one destination for international congresses and it attracts over 3.7 million tourists a year. The English name Vienna is borrowed from the homonymous Italian version of the name or the French Vienne. The etymology of the name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning forest stream, which produced the Old High German Uuenia.
A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the Czech and Slovak names of the city, the name of the city in Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian and Ottoman Turkish has a different, probably Slavonic origin, and originally referred to an Avar fort in the area. Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River, evidence has been found of continuous habitation since 500 BC, when the site of Vienna on the Danube River was settled by the Celts. In 15 BC, the Romans fortified the city they called Vindobona to guard the empire against Germanic tribes to the north
The Czechoslovakian Tatra 77 is the first serial-produced, truly aerodynamically-designed automobile. It was developed by Hans Ledwinka and Paul Jaray, the Zeppelin aerodynamic engineer, launched in 1934, the Tatra 77 is a coach-built automobile constructed on a central tube-steel chassis and is powered by a 75 horsepower rear-mounted 3. 4-litre air-cooled V8 engine. The average drag coefficient of a 1,5 model of Tatra 77 was recorded as 0.2455, the Tatra Company began manufacturing cars in 1897 in Kopřivnice, todays Czech republic, making it the third oldest still existing automobile manufacturer in the world. Under the direction of Hans Ledwinka, the company employed many genius minds of history, including Erich Übelacker and consultant Paul Jaray. Paul Jaray first worked at Luftschiffbau Zeppelin where he gained experience in the design of airships. He used his access to LZs wind tunnels and subsequently established streamlining principles for car design, in 1927 he founded a company specializing in developing streamlined car bodies and selling issuing licences to major vehicle manufacturers.
Tatra was the manufacturer to incorporate Jarays streamlining principles into their series car production. Before designing the large, luxurious T77, Jaray designed a body for the Tatra 57. This prototype was not further developed and failed to reach production, Jaray constructed two prototypes for a concept designated as the Tatra V570, which more closely conformed to his aerodynamic streamlining principles, featuring a beetle-shaped body. Ledwinkas team subsequently stopped work on the V570 and concentrated on designing large, Tatra aimed at making state-of-the-art cars that would be fast, nearly silent and built to the most rigorous engineering standards, as well as reflect modern aerodynamic research. Hans Ledwinka was the designer responsible for the development of the new car. Development was very secretive until the last moments of the presentation on March 5,1934 at Tatras offices in Prague. That same year the T77 was presented at the Paris motor show, director Maurice Elvey was so amazed by the looks of the car that he used the T77a in his science-fiction movie The Transatlantic Tunnel.
It is a sensation when it comes to its construction, to its appearance, however, it isnt a sensation that has just fallen from the skies, but is a logical extension of roads, which Hans Ledwinka made thirteen years ago. The ideological principle of the new Tatra is an understanding that the car is moving along the line between the ground and the air. The car maintained 145km/h, it has astonishing handling, it drives through curves with speeds that are both mad and safe, and it seems just to float on any kind of road and it is a car which opens new perspectives to car construction and automotive practice. Vilém Heinz, Motor Journal,1934 That is the car for my highways, adolf Hitler to Ferdinand Porsche See Volkswagen controversy The Tatra 77 was the particular favourite of Tatra design engineer Erich Übelacker, who owned and used a T77 himself since 1934. A number of designers around the world were trying to construct a car at the time
Salzburg is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of the federal state of Salzburg. Salzburgs Old Town is internationally renowned for its architecture and is one of the best-preserved city centers north of the Alps. It was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1997, the city has three universities and a large population of students. Tourists visit Salzburg to tour the historic center and the scenic Alpine surroundings, Salzburg was the birthplace of 18th-century composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. In the mid‑20th century, the city was the setting for the musical play, traces of human settlements have been found in the area, dating to the Neolithic Age. The first settlements in Salzburg continuous with the present were apparently by the Celts around the 5th century BC, around 15 BC the Roman Empire merged the settlements into one city. At this time, the city was called Juvavum and was awarded the status of a Roman municipium in 45 AD, Juvavum developed into an important town of the Roman province of Noricum.
After the Norican frontiers collapse, Juvavum declined so sharply that by the late 7th century it became a ruin. The Life of Saint Rupert credits the 8th-century saint with the citys rebirth, when Theodo of Bavaria asked Rupert to become bishop c. 700, Rupert reconnoitered the river for the site of his basilica, Rupert chose Juvavum, ordained priests, and annexed the manor Piding. He traveled to evangelise among pagans, the name Salzburg means Salt Castle. The name derives from the barges carrying salt on the Salzach River, the Festung Hohensalzburg, the citys fortress, was built in 1077 by Archbishop Gebhard, who made it his residence. It was greatly expanded during the following centuries, independence from Bavaria was secured in the late 14th century. Salzburg was the seat of the Archbishopric of Salzburg, a prince-bishopric of the Holy Roman Empire, as the reformation movement gained steam, riots broke out among peasants in the areas in and around Salzburg. The city was occupied during the German Peasants War, and the archbishop had to flee to the safety of the fortress It was besieged for three months in 1525.
It was in the 17th century that Italian architects rebuilt the city center as it is today along with many palaces,21,475 citizens refused to recant their beliefs and were expelled from Salzburg. Most of them accepted an offer by King Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia, the rest settled in other Protestant states in Europe and the British colonies in America. In 1772–1803, under archbishop Hieronymus Graf von Colloredo, Salzburg was a centre of late Illuminism, in 1803, the archbishopric was secularised by Emperor Napoleon, he transferred the territory to Ferdinando III of Tuscany, former Grand Duke of Tuscany, as the Electorate of Salzburg
Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for innumerable purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details commonly used classification schemes in use worldwide, vehicles can be categorized in numerous ways. Regulatory agencies may establish a vehicle classification system for determining a tax amount, in the United Kingdom, a vehicle is taxed according to the vehicles construction, weight, type of fuel and emissions, as well as the purpose for which it is used. Other jurisdictions may determine vehicle tax based upon environmental principles, such as the user pays principle, another standard for road vehicles of all types that is used internationally, is ISO 3833-1977. In the United States, since 2010 the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety uses a scheme it has developed that takes into account a combination of both shadow and weight. The United States Federal Highway Administration has developed a scheme used for automatically calculating road use tolls.
There are two categories depending on whether the vehicle carries passengers or commodities. Vehicles that carry commodities are further subdivided by number of axles and number of units, the United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed a classification scheme used to compare fuel economy among similar vehicles. Passenger vehicles are classified based on a total interior passenger. Trucks are classified based upon their gross vehicle weight rating, heavy duty vehicles are not included within the EPA scheme. A similar set of classes is used by the Canadian EPA, in Australia, the Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries publishes its own classifications. This is a table listing several different methods of vehicle classification. Straddling the boundary between car and motorbike, these vehicles have engines under 1.0 litre, typically only two passengers, and are sometimes unorthodox in construction. Some microcars are three-wheelers, while the majority have four wheels, microcars were popular in post-war Europe, where their appearance led them to be called Bubble cars.
More recent microcars are often electric powered, the size of ultracompact cars will be less than minicars, but have engine greater than 50cc displacement and able to transport 1 or 2 persons. Ultracompact cars cannot use standard, because of strict safety standards for minicars. The regulation about running capacity and safety performance of cars will be published in early autumn. Today, there are smaller than ultracompact cars, called category-1 motorized vehicles which it has 50cc displacement or less
The Tatra T11 was the first Tatra model to use the unique combination of major components that are still in use on the trucks produced by Tatra to this day. Hans Ledwinka created the design of the T11 while working for Steyr in Austria and he believed there was a need for a small car, and carried out the work in his own time. His design offered to the Steyr management was rejected and he left the company soon after to work for a previous employer, Nesseldorfer, in Moravia, soon to become Tatra. This was in 1921 and the development of the T11 started soon after, the T11 was produced between 1923 and 1927 with 3,847 examples made. It was replaced by the T12 a development of the design,7,222 being produced by 1936 when it was discontinued. The Tatra T11 had its engine and gearbox in unit, bolted to the front of a tubular backbone with propeller shaft enclosed, the T11s engine was an air-cooled horizontally opposed twin cylinder engine with overhead valves. It had a capacity of 1,057 cc and was located above the front beam axle which was attached to it by a transverse leaf spring.
From 1931 the T12 was joined the T57 with a 1155 cc air-cooled flat four engine, only 486 T54 models were produced by 1936 when production stopped. The T57 was developed as the T57A, T57B, and T57K versions, remaining in production until 1948, by time over twenty seven thousand had been produced
Tatra 17 is a vintage automobile produced by the Czech manufacturer Tatra from 1925 to 1929. It was the companys top-end model which was alongside the economy car Tatra 12. Originally, the car was fitted with a liquid-cooled six-cylinder OHC in-line Tatra 17 engine with 1,930 cc and 35 hp power, the block was made from silumin and cylinder heads from aluminium. It was the first Tatra with an ignition battery, the maximum attainable speed of the 1,130 kg heavy car was 100 km/h. Altogether 205 vehicles were made before 25 September 1926, another engine used was from even more up-market Tatra 31. It was a liquid-cooled six-cylinder in-line OHC, however this time with 2,310 cc and 39,4 hp power, the maximum speed was raised to 110 km/h. 250 vehicles were made with this engine, Tatra 17/31 was for some time manufactured alongside the successor model Tatra 31, of which 300 vehicles were made. Model 17 was the first luxury Tatra with a backbone tube, unlike model 11, the Tatra 17 had independent suspension not only of the rear half axles, but independent suspension of the front axles.
The cars driveshaft is inside the tube and the box and engine are mounted in the front of the tube. Tatra 17 was a car for demanding clients. There were many different versions made, from a two-seater roadster to sis-seater limousines, there were a few fire engines made. One of them remains in application as honorary fire engine of Svatý Jan nad Malší firefighters, tatraportakl. sk - Tatra 17 Tatra 17/31 Fire engine video