click links in text for more info

NYSE Euronext

NYSE Euronext, Inc. was a Euro-American multinational financial services corporation that operated multiple securities exchanges, including the New York Stock Exchange, Euronext and NYSE Arca. NYSE merged with Archipelago Holdings on March 2006, forming NYSE Group, Inc.. On April 4, 2007, NYSE Group, Inc. merged with Euronext N. V. to form the first global equities exchange, with its headquarters in Lower Manhattan. The corporation was acquired by Intercontinental Exchange, which subsequently spun off Euronext. NYSE Euronext offers a broad and growing array of financial products and services in cash equities, options, exchange-traded products, market data, commercial technology. Spanning multiple asset classes and six countries, the company's exchanges include the New York Stock Exchange, Euronext and NYSE Arca. With more than 8,000 listed issues (which includes 90% of the Dow Jones Industrial Average and 80% of the S&P 500, trading on NYSE Euronext's equity markets represents more than one-third of the world's cash equities volume.

The company manages the leading European derivatives exchange by value of trading. NYSE Euronext is the only exchange operator in the S&P 100 index. NYSE Euronext is a Delaware corporation, though the principal executive office of NYSE Euronext is located at 11 Wall Street, New York, New York 10005; the European headquarters are at 75001 in Paris, France. Below is a list of major NYSE Euronext locations: Amsterdam, Netherlands Belfast, Northern Ireland Brussels, Belgium Chicago, United States of America Lisbon, Portugal London, United Kingdom New York City, New York, United States of America Palo Alto, United States of America Paris, France San Francisco, United States of America The merger between NYSE and Archipelago Holdings was approved in 2005 by a 95% majority of voting NYSE members; the acquisition of Archipelago, which held possession of regarded market technology at the time, was intended to bring automated trading to NYSE markets and increase efficiency. For the first time in its 213-year history, the New York Stock Exchange became a for-profit company, began trading publicly on its own stock exchange under the NYX ticker.

Owners of the 1,366 NYSE seats received 80,177 shares of NYSE Group stock plus $300,000 in cash and $70,571 in dividends for each seat. The completion of this deal created two new branches of the NYSE Group: NYSE Arca and NYSE Arca Europe, which launched after the acquisition of Euronext. In April 2006, NYSE Group and Euronext signed a merger agreement, subject to shareholder vote and regulatory approval. Euronext shareholders gave approval to the transaction on December 19, 2006, shareholders from the NYSE Group followed suit one day later. In April 2007 the Euronext shareholders tendering shares can receive NYSE shares and cash amounting to $11,141 million from NYSE Euronext for their assets. About 94% of the 112,557,259 shares are tendered in the first round; the NYSE Group and Euronext merger on April 4, 2007, signaled the creation of the world's largest and most liquid exchange group—NYSE Euronext. NYSE Euronext, through its wholly owned subsidiary NYSE Technologies, Inc. acquired NYFIX, Inc. for $144 million in November 2009.

NYSE Euronext incorporated NYFIX's trading software into the company's package of offerings to customers. In 2011, Bloomberg reported that the German exchange operator Deutsche Börse was in advanced talks to buy NYSE Euronext for $9.53 billion in a deal that would create the world's largest trading powerhouse. The shares of both companies were temporarily frozen on the news due to the risk of large price movements and clarifications of the deal. A successful deal would see the new company becoming the world's largest stock exchange operator with a market capitalization of listed companies equal to $15 trillion; the proposed group would have dual headquarters, in Deutsche Boerse's newly built green tower near Frankfurt, in New York City at 11 Wall Street. It would be led by a board with seventeen members—fifteen directors plus the Chairman and the CEO. Of the fifteen directors, nine to be designated by Deutsche Boerse and six by NYSE Euronext. Current NYSE Euronext CEO Duncan Niederauer would assume the same role with the newly founded company and would lead an Executive Committee with an equal number of current Deutsche Boerse and NYSE Euronext executives.

On July 7, 2011, NYSE Euronext shareholders voted in favor of the merger, on July 13, 2011, Deutsche Boerse shareholders approved the deal as well. These decisions move the two sides closer to completing the transaction, which must still pass through forty separate regulatory approval processes to be finalized; the merger was subject to review in both the United States and with the European Union for concerns it could create a “de facto monopoly”. In October 2011, CEO Niederauer said the company had received the EU's so-called statement of objections, more than 100 pages long, would be responding within two weeks by asking for the opportunity for an oral hearing with the regulators; the EU examination of the proposal formally began June 29 has said its expanded probe has a Dec. 13 deadline. In March, Joaquin Almunia, the EU's antitrust commissioner, expressed concern that the deal would maybe monopolize the derivatives market due to Deutsche Boerse's “vertical silo” which routes all trade clearing through its own services.

Almunia said he preferred a “more open business model” for markets. On December 22, 2011, Deutsche Boerse won U. S. antitrust approval to buy NYSE Euronext, on condition that a Deutsche Boerse subsidiary, the International Securities Exchange, d

Sachsen 3 Pfennige red

The Sachsen 3 Pfennige red called Sachsendreier, issued on 29 June 1850 and valid from 1 July 1850 until 31 December 1867, was the first postage stamp of the Kingdom of Saxony, making this country the second among the German States to issue postage stamps. The begin of the stamp's postal validity coincides with the inauguration of the Austro-German Postal Union which had the aim of simplifying the hitherto diverse postal system in Germany, including the payment of postage and the settlement of postal fees between the members of the union. Postage stamps had by already proven convenient in other countries. With its value of 3 Pfennige the Sachsendreier was meant to frank printed matters, such as newspapers in wrappers. Senders attached the stamp in such a way that half of it stuck to the wrapper, half to its contents, such that the wrappers could not slide off. Most stamps of this issue were destroyed, only less than 1% of the original number has been preserved. Sachsendreier was printed in typography on sheets of five by four stamps.

Altogether, 500,000 stamps in 25,000 sheets were printed in eight different printings which can be distinguished by the colour of the printing ink which varies from a pale brick red to carmine. 463,118 stamps of this issue were sold, the remainder was burned. Only about 3000 – 4000 Sachsendreier stamps have been preserved. Most of them are cancelled by penstroke or postmark, about 10% are unused. One complete sheet has in a restored state, it had been damaged upon removal. It has changed hands several times, last in 1994. A second sheet had been broken up in the 1890s. A block of six stamps is the property of Museum für Kommunikation Berlin, the successor of Reichspostmuseum, a block of four stamps from the lower right corner is in private hands. Due to its rarity, the stamp has been forged, its popularity has made it part of the design of several commemorative stamp issues, around 1900 the private Dresdner Verkehrs-Anstalt Hansa issued a stamp whose design resembles the Sachsendreier. Georg Bühler.

Sachsen 3 Pfennig rot. Friedrich W. Dieck. Handbuch der Freimarken des Königreichs Sachsen. Leipzig. Julius Kaufmann. "Die Sachsen 3 Pfennig". Zwölf berühmte Briefmarken. Tel Aviv. Pp. 93–99. Arnim Knapp. Der "Sachsen-Dreier" der königlich sächsischen Postverwaltung. Wiesbaden: Heinrich Köhler GmbH & Co. KG

The Bridge at Narni

The Bridge at Narni is an 1826 painting of the Ponte d'Augusto at Narni by French artist Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot. The painting is on display at the Musée du Louvre in Paris, it was painted in September 1826 and was the basis for the larger and more finished View at Narni, exhibited at the Salon of 1827 and is in the National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa. The view was not a novel one: in 1821 Corot's teacher, Achille-Etna Michallon had drawn the same scene, as had Corot's friend Ernst Fries in 1826. Corot's study is a reconciliation of traditional and plein air painting objectives: So did Corot admire Claude and Poussin, so did he understand their work, that from the outset he viewed nature in their terms.... In less than a year he had realized his goal of closing the gap between the empirical freshness of outdoor painting and the organizing principles of classical landscape composition

Targeted therapy of lung cancer

Targeted therapy of lung cancer refers to using agents designed to selectively target molecular pathways responsible for, or that drive, the malignant phenotype of lung cancer cells, as a consequence of this selectivity, cause fewer toxic effects on normal cells. Most previous chemotherapy drugs for cancer were nonselective in their activity. Although their exact mechanisms of action were varied and complex, they worked by damaging cells undergoing mitosis, more common in malignant tumors than in most normal tissues. Targeted agents are designed to be selective in their effects by modulating the activity of proteins necessary and essential for oncogenesis and maintenance of cancer enzymes driving the uncontrolled growth, angiogenesis and metastasis characteristic of malignant tumors; the increased differential activity results in fewer troubling side effects for cancer patients less nausea and death of cells in the bone marrow and gastrointestinal tract, increased effectiveness against tumor cells.

Lung cancer is an heterogeneous family of malignant neoplasms, with well over 50 different histological variants recognized under the 4th revision of the World Health Organization typing system the most used lung cancer classification scheme. Because these variants have differing genetic and clinical properties, including response to treatment, correct classification of lung cancer cases are necessary to assure that lung cancer patients receive optimum management. 98% of lung cancers are carcinoma, a term describing malignancies derived from transformed cells exhibiting characteristics of epithelium. About 2% of all lung cancers are non-carcinoma (mainly sarcoma, tumors of hematopoietic origin, or germ cell tumors; these forms of lung cancer are treated differently from carcinomas. Because of the ubiquity of lung carcinomas, the term "lung cancer" refers to carcinomas in everyday clinical practice. Despite the large number of histological variants of lung carcinoma, oncologists have long tended to favor a dichotomous division into small cell and non-small cell forms, based on differences in clinical behavior and response to treatment.

Most small cell lung carcinomas metastasize to distant organs early on in their course, rendering surgery ineffective in curing the cancer. In contrast, non-small cell lung carcinomas are more to remain localized to the thorax during development, are thus more amenable to cure using radical surgical resection. Additionally, SCLC's are much more sensitive to chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy than are NSCLC's. Therefore, current traditional treatment guidelines and standards of care recommend, when possible, the use of surgery for NSCLC, chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy for SCLC. While a large number of agents targeting various molecular pathways are being developed and tested, the main classes and agents that are now being used in lung cancer treatment include: Inhibitors of Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors:erlotinib gefitinib osimertinib monoclonal antibody against EGFR: cetuximab Inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor bevacizumab Inhibitor of EML4-ALK crizotinib shows benefit in a subset of non-small cell lung cancer, characterized by the EML4-ALK fusion oncogene, found in some young, never or light smokers with adenocarcinoma.

Targeted agents are beginning to permit the design of more rational treatment regimens for non-small cell lung cancer, which comprises about 80% to 85% of all lung cancers. While there have been no randomized clinical trials of targeted agents in combined small-cell lung carcinoma, some small case series suggest that some may be useful in c-SCLC. Many targeted agents appear more active in certain NSCLC variants. Given that c-SCLC contains components of NSCLC, that the chemoradioresistance of NSCLC components impact the effectiveness of c-SCLC treatment, these agents may permit the design of more rational treatment regimens for c-SCLC. EGFR-TKI's have been found to be active against variants exhibiting certain mutations in the EGFR gene. While EGFR mutations are rare in "pure" SCLC, they are more common in c-SCLC in non-smoking females whose c-SCLC tumors contain an adenocarcinoma component; these patients are much more to have classical EGFR mutations in the small cell component of their tumors as well, their tumors seem to be more to respond to treatment with EGFR-TKI's.

EGFR-targeted agents appear effective in papillary adenocarcinoma, non-mucinous bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, adenocarcinoma with mixed subtypes. Bevacizumab may improve some measures of survival in both SCLC and non-squamous cell variants of NSCLC. Pemetrexed, although not classified as a targeted agent, has been shown to have improve survival in non-squamous cell NSCLC, is the first drug to reveal differential survival benefit in large cell lung carcinoma. C-SCLC appear to express female hormone receptors in a high proportion of cases, similar to breast carcinomas However, it is at present unknown whether blockade of these receptors affects the growth of c-SCLC. Several studies have shown that EGFR-TKI's are active in papillary and non-mucinous bronchioloalveolar carcinoma variants of adenocarcinoma. Bevacizumab is contraindicated in its variants. Pemetrexed has been approved for treating non-squamous lung carcinomas, is the first drug, specifically

Cunningham Motorsports

Cunningham Motorsports was an American professional stock car racing team that competed in the ARCA Racing Series, but in the NASCAR Camping World Truck Series and Busch Series. At various points, the team had driver development links to Dodge, Ganassi Racing Team Penske and Roush Fenway Racing, won the 2016 ARCA Racing Series championship with Roush driver Chase Briscoe. After 2017, the team was sold to crew chief Chad Bryant, which fields the Nos. 22 and 77 in ARCA competition. Cunningham formed in 1997 as CSG Motorsports as a three-way partnership between Briggs Cunningham, Kerry Scherer and Mark Gibson. After driving three years for the team, Gibson split from Cunningham and Scherer in early 2000; the team ran in the ARCA Racing Series but dabbled in Busch Series competition. In 2007, Cunningham and Scherer brought on Eddie Hartman to form CHS Motorsports, which competed in the Camping World Truck Series. CHS lasted three years before Hartman formed a partnership with Eddie Sharp; the team focused on ARCA competition and signed a developmental contract with Team Penske in 2008.

The team won several Rookie of the Year awards in the late 2000s and early 2010s before winning the ARCA championship in 2016 with Chase Briscoe. Due to the ailing health of owner Cunningham, the team closed at the end of the 2017 ARCA Racing Series season. On January 9, 2018, the sale of the team was announced. Longtime crew chief Chad Bryant bought the assets of the team to form Chad Bryant Racing. Bryant kept the same numbers and personnel from the old Cunningham team and signed Bo LeMastus and Joe Graf Jr. as his first drivers. Team driver Justin Labonte ran a race at Michigan in 2003; the Craftsman Truck Series branch of the organization was named CHS Motorsports with additional co-owner Eddie Hartman. The team aligned itself with Ganassi Racing in late 2007 to give Dario Franchitti his first NASCAR start, which he did not finish. Under the direction of Hartman the team ran in a part-time capacity for the next two years, starting with Tayler Malsam and Ryan Mathews in 2008; the team parked in 2009 with various drivers.

In 2010 Hartman and Cunningham parted ways and Hartman formed a partnership with Eddie Sharp and ran two full races with Steve Park behind the wheel of the Toyota Tundra No. 41. The team was going to attempt a partial schedule in the 2017 NASCAR Camping World Truck Series season but the effort fell through. Marc Brenner drove a partial schedule in the car in 2000 with backing from Outdoor Channel, he ran in the mid-teens, cracking the top ten at Michigan and Kentucky. With Brenner driving the superspeedways, Roger Blackstock ran the short tracks, making the top ten at Flat Rock and Winchester. Justin Labonte signed a driver development contract to pilot the No. 4 car at select superspeedways in 2001. Labonte attempted five races in 2001, finding success at Nashville, leading fifty-two laps before problems mired him to finish in the mid-teens, he scaled back his schedule with the team in 2002. Besides Labonte, the early years of the team were tumultuous times, with a wide range of drivers who start and parked.

The team still ran a bit under half of the schedule as a full-distance team in 2001, with drivers such as Blackstock, Ronnie Hornaday, Kevin Belmont, others. The team's lone top ten finish of the year came with an eighth at Kansas; the team delved farther into start and parking in 2002, running only three full races: one with Labonte, one with Jeff Caudell and one with rising sixteen year old Justin Allgaier in an association with his family team. The next three years saw the team run a limited schedule of races as a start and park team as NASCAR team Morgan–McClure Motorsports was using the number four for among other drivers Eric McClure; the No. 4 entry returned full-time in 2005 in association with Hantz Group Racing and Mike Guerity Racing. Michael Guerity was the team's primary driver, recording top tens at both restrictor plate tracks, both Pocono races and was the runner-up finish of the Michigan race; the team rotated Dodge drivers on most of the short tracks. He ran two races for the team.

He turned in a best finish of eighth at Lanier Speedway in the other. Steve Wallace ran two races for the team and scored as many top tens while running a partial Truck schedule. Other drivers rotated in without much success, the exception being Bob Strait who led a lap and finished second at a dirt track race. After a successful 2005 season Cunningham aligned themselves with Evernham Motorsports and Ganassi Racing, both as part of a Dodge development program; the partnership included drivers Scott Lagasse Jr. Chase Miller and A. J. Foyt IV. Foyt never made a start for the team, but Lagasse ran ten races alongside a NASCAR Camping World Truck Series schedule, he led 50 laps at Kansas before running out of fuel and breaking the transmission trying to restart the car. He started on the outside pole at Kentucky and Chicagoland and recorded top ten finishes in each of those races. Miller ran a combination of short-tracks and superspeedways, scoring a pole at Gateway and winning at Pocono, becoming the youngest winner in the ARCA series.

Brake issues sidelined him in the Gateway race but he still finished in the top ten in two of his other four races, including another Pocono one where a dropped cylinder in the stages eliminated Miller. Bob

Ferenc Gömbös

Dr. Ferenc Gömbös was a Hungarian dentist and politician, member of the National Assembly for Sárvár between 1990 and 1994, he served as Mayor of Jánosháza from 1998 until his death. He graduated as a dentist from the Medical University of Budapest, he resided Jánosháza since 1967. He joined Hungarian Democratic Forum in January 1989, he became its leader. He was elected as Member of Parliament for Sárvár during the first democratic parliamentary election in 1990, he became a member of the Committee on Human Rights and Religious Affairs on June 15, 1993. He unsuccessfully ran for a parliamentary seat in the 1994 legislative election. Between 1994 and 1998 he politicized in the General Assembly of Vas County, where he worked in the Committee on Health, he served as President of the Vas County Board of the MDF from 1992 to 1997. Gömbös was elected mayor of Jánosháza in 1998. During his term the construction of sewage systems were completed, roads were renovated and public lighting were modernized. He, among others, joined Hungarian Democratic People's Party.

He served as president of the party until 2002. He died in a car accident on July 17, 2003