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Sestao is a town and municipality of 28,288 inhabitants located in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, northern Spain. It is in the left bank of part of Bilbao's metropolitan area. Sestao was the place of the most important steel industry of Altos Hornos de Vizcaya. Sestao is administratively divided into 13 neighbourhoods or wards: Kasko Kueto Galindo Albiz Urbinaga Rebonza Azeta Simondrogas Txabarri Markonzaga Aizpuru Los Baños Las Llanas Sestao, an industrial area in disuse placed in the province of the Basque Country, is located in the estuary of Bilbao, it appeared due to diverse economic and political forces, but it was the economic strength of the iron industry the most important one. Over the last 20 years the city of Bilbao has transformed its riverbanks, pursuing its urban and economic improvement; the recovery of these old industrial spaces and the relocation of port activities to the outer bay will allow the city to face its river front and start a general process of urban transformation.
The spaces occupied by the shipyards, containers or blast furnaces, will become promenades, art galleries, new neighborhoods and areas of business of high environmental quality. The industrial crisis of the 80 affected Bilbao; the closure and modernization of major industries was a major impact on the whole environment of the river and, at the same time, an opportunity to recover valuable land for urban development of the city. The transformation of the city is creating an economic structure focused on services and new industries; the river banks are now serving an urban strategy for economic improvement. The estuary is therefore the backbone of the area, but it is a strong barrier that separates both margins of the river: one with a much more industrial character and another one much more residential. Sestao is the area that links all this area that will propose a real integral operation of all this area. Although the area seems isolated, thanks to the station Urbinaga, is integrated in the network of Metro Bilbao, connecting Bilbao with the Right Bank and Left, offering an essential service to the future citizens of "La Punta".
La Punta is an abandoned edge of the town. Sestao has the highest unemployment rate in the Basque Country, due to the closure of large companies because of their restructuring. Comparing the residential areas of Sestao and Barakaldo with "La Punta", it seems necessary to densify this area and thus strengthen the bond between Barakaldo and Sestao, the relationship with the right bank of the river; the growth of the town of Sestao is limited by the lack of developable land and limited by natural and artificial barriers. For this reason, it has reached a densified town with a network of small open spaces; the grew of the population was a consequence of the development of the industry, not the industry a consequence of the human presence in the area. This defines the DNA of Sestao, it is a settlement, born by the implantation of the heavy industry. Consumption and land distribution is based on the industry and these industrial areas are located in the best situations the city; the margin facing the estuary is colonized for industry, the least quality areas is intended to construction of workers' housing.
It is proposed that over time the vegetation in the low-lying industrial areas of the Galindo River estuary is restored to a healthy state by cultivating the growth of plants that are resistant to local soil contamination, that improve soil and water quality through bio-remediation. Rather than a tabula rasa to be integrated into the city with a false topography, the industrial areas of Bilbao are in a new natural equilibrium condition. Working with these new natural conditions offers the possibility of an urbanism that combines urban and natural and responds to the fluctuations of the natural ecosystem of the river. Since the appearance of the industry in 1875, the whole estuary became involved in the configuration of an industrial point of reference in the Spanish national scene of heavy industries. Meanwhile, the municipality of Sestao created the largest industrial base of the country. Http://visibleearth.nasa.gov The city will develop a system of small public spaces that provide residents moments of pause, rest and connections between the different urban levels.
Connection of both margins of the river. Program associated with the existing water activity. Recovery of the convent as a viewpoint; the view shows the contrast between the industrial landscape lined by shipyard cranes and the historic mansions of the Basque bourgeoisie. Integration of the tram connected to the right bank of the river. Rehabilitation of ships in better condition to include public program to allow the language of industrial structures: from jetties, cranes and temporary stairs to pylons. Housing and facilities of social nature. Soriano, Federico, FISURAS 14 VV. AA. Diccionario Metapolis de Arquitectura Avanzada, ACTAR, 2002 Rehabilitación de la Ría de Bilbao. PFC, VVAA. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. 2014 VV. AA. PGOU Plan General de Organización Urbana de Sestao, 2010 VVAA, Slow Urbanism, Sestao. Europan 11, 2011 https://www.google.com/maps?q=SESTAO+BILBAO&gws_rd=ssl&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi80qv7wPXPAhVLFT4KHdGcAfYQ_AUICCgB
Balmaseda is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the Basque Country. Balmaseda is the capital city of the comarca of Enkarterri, in western Biscay and serves an important role in the province thanks to its proximity to the capital city of Bilbao and the regions of Cantabria and Castile and León, its toponomy comes from a union of the Spanish word val, meaning "valley", the Basque mahatseta, which means "vineyard", Val-Mahatseta would mean "valley of vineyards", which would evolve into Valmaseda in use in Spanish, Balmaseda, following the orthographic rules of the Basque language. The lands in which Balmaseda is located had been inhabited since centuries before its official foundation, with evidence of ancient pastoral activity. In the eastern end of the municipality there is a Roman milestone which belonged to the Pisorica-Flaviobriga road, which connected the present-day cities of Castro Urdiales and Herrera de Pisuerga; this road is believed to have been in use at least since the 1st Century, as the milestone is dated 238.
Though the town's old bridge could have been built there are not any evidences of its existence until some centuries later. The territory in which today is located Balmaseda belonged to the valley of Mena, included in the Kingdom of Castile in the 9th Century. Although it was conquered by the Kingdom of Navarre, the Castilians recovered it in 1175, moment when the king handed over the territory to Lope Sánchez de Mena, Lord of Bortedo and kin of the Lord of Biscay. Lope Sánchez founded the village on the same location of a previous settlement, in one of the banks of the river Kadagua, granting the village the fuero of Logroño. Among the reasons for the foundation of the village were its protected location between mountains and the existence of a commercial road connecting to Castile and Biscay; the village was incorporated to the lands of the Lord of Biscay when the Lord Lope Díaz II de Haro married the daughter of Alfonso IX, thus obtaining the territories of Balmaseda and Orduña. In 1234, Lope confirmed the municipal charter establishing Balmaseda as a town.
However, this first union with Biscay would not last much. In 1274 it was given back to Biscay to be once more handed back to Castile in 1288 after the murder of Lope Díaz III in Alfaro following the orders of Sancho IV. Diego López IV would once more reinstate Balmaseda into Biscay. In 1312, after the disputes between Biscay and Castile, Balmaseda was once more reintegrated into the kingdom; the town would be incorporated again in Biscay in 1388. On 5 November 1808 the city was the theatre of the Battle of Valmaseda, part of the Peninsular War, between French and Spanish armies; the municipality of Balmaseda is located in mountainous territory, in southwestern Biscay and 30 kilometers away from the province capital city Bilbao. Balmaseda is located in the comarca of Enkarterri and it borders Artzentales, in the west, with Sopuerta in the north and Zalla in the east. In the south Balmaseda borders with the autonomous community of León, it is surrounded by the Ordunte mountains. Nature park of Valley of Karrantza with Pozalagua Cave situated not far from Balmaseda.
The main river of the municipality is the river Kadagua, which forms the narrow valley where the town is located. The river is joined by several minor streams as the Acebo, Coliza and Angostura; the river Kadagua has had historical importance for the town and still today has an important symbolism, as it is present on the town's coat of arms. Amongst city's landmarks are Puente Viejo Roman Bridge, Ayuntmiento-Town Hall, Cathedral Iglesia de San Severino, Church of Sagrado Corazón, Iglesia San Juan, Iglesia de Santa Clara with museum, Palacio Horcasitas, Balmaseda historical museum, La Encartada beret factory museum, modern court of justice. Balmaseda carries Medieval market in San Severino festival on 23 October. Balmaseda has Sociedad Deportiva Balmaseda Fútbol Club with home La Baluga camp stadium. Balmaseda is connected with the rest of the province of Enkarterri region and the capital city of Bilbao by the BI-636 road and by the narrow-gauge railway Feve and by bus. Pedro Hurtado de Mendoza, an important Jesuit author of theological and philosophical textbooks.
Tifariti, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic San Severino Marche, Italy Balmaceda, Chile Balmaceda, an alternate spelling found in Spanish surnames. BALMASEDA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Derio is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, northern Spain. It is part of Greater Bilbao and was part of the municipality of Bilbao until 1983 and hosts Bilbao's biggest municipal cemetery, it has a population of 5,107. The flag of Derio is similar to Quebec's flag DERIO in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Muskiz is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, northern Spain. Muskiz is administratively divided into six neighborhoods or wards: In the 1970s the petrochemical company Petronor built a refinery with a 222 metres tall chimney called La Catalítica. Nicolás de la Quadra MUSKIZ in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Official website
Galdakao is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, northern Spain. It is located in the Greater Bilbao, in the valley of the Ibaizabal river, near the Ganguren mountain range, it is surrounded by some summits such as Arrezurriaga and Santa María in the north and Upo and Mandoia in the south. It is conterminous with Zamudio and Larrabetzu in the north, with Zaratamo and Zeberio in the south, with Amorebieta and Bedia in the east and with Etxebarri and Basauri in the west. Aperribai Arteta Bekea Bengoetxe Berezikoetxe Elexalde Erletxe Olabarrieta-Txistulanda Urreta Usansolo Tximelarre Bekoa Tximelarre Goikoa Muguru Zabalea GALDAKAO in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Official website
Guernica and Basque name Gernika, is a town in the province of Biscay, in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country, Spain. The town of Guernica is united in one municipality with neighbouring Lumo, as Gernika-Lumo; the population of the municipality is 16,224 as of 2009. Gernika is best known to those residing outside the Basque region as the scene of the April 26, 1937, Bombing of Guernica, one of the first aerial bombings by Nazi Germany's Luftwaffe, it inspired the painting Guernica by Pablo Picasso. This village is situated at 10m altitude, in the region of Busturialdea, in the valley of the Oka river, its mouth is known as Urdaibai's estuary's heart. Gernika borders on the following townships: North: Forua and Arratzu. East: Ajangiz South: Muxika West: Errigoiti The town of Guernica was founded by Count Tello on April 28, 1366, at the intersection of the road from Bermeo to Durango with the road from Bilbao to Elantxobe and Lekeitio; the strategic importance of the site was increased by the fact that it lay on a major river estuary, where vessels could dock at the port of Suso.
In time, it took on the typical shape of a Basque town, comprising a series of parallel streets and a transverse street called Santa María, with a church at each end of the built-up area. Life in the town became rigidly structured, with the aim being to preserve the privileges of the dominant middle classes; this pattern continued unaltered until the late 17th century. On a small hillock in the town, stands the Meeting House and the famous Tree of Gernika. By ancient tradition and indeed other peoples in Medieval Europe, held assemblies under a tree an oak, to discuss matters affecting the community. In Biscay, each administrative district had its appointed tree, but over the centuries, the Tree of Guernica acquired particular importance, it stood on a site known as Gernikazarra, beside a small shrine. The laws of Biscay continued to be drawn up under this tree until 1876, with each town and village in the province sending two representatives to the sessions, known as General Assemblies; this early form of democracy was recorded by the philosopher Rousseau, by the poet Wordsworth, by the dramatist Tirso de Molina and by the composer Iparragirre, who wrote the piece called Gernikako Arbola.
When the Domain of Biscay was incorporated into the kingdom of Castile, the king of Castile visited Guernica and swore an oath under the Tree promising to uphold the fueros or local laws of Biscay. The oath of King Ferdinand, known as the "Catholic Monarch", on June 30, 1476, is depicted in a painting by Francisco de Mendieta popularly known as El besamanos. On July 3, 1875, during the Carlist Wars, the pretender to the throne Don Carlos of the house of Hapsburg visited Guernica and swore the oath. Throughout the 19th century, there were frequent meetings under the Tree, including both General Assemblies and other political events. By the 18th century, there was a square at the centre of the town, flanked by the town hall, a public gaol housing prisoners from all over the Lordship of Biscay, a hospital and a poor-house for local people. Day-to-day life comprised agriculture and trade; this was a time of continual conflicts with the neighbouring parish of Lumo over disputed land. These disputes were not settled until 1882, when the two parishes joined together to form Gernika-Lumo.
The first industrial concerns were set up in the early years of the 20th century. This encouraged population growth, the town grew from 4,500 inhabitants in 1920 to 6,000 in 1936. On April 26, 1937, during the Spanish Civil War, Guernica was the scene of the Bombing of Guernica by the Condor Legion of Nazi Germany's Luftwaffe and the Italian Aviazione Legionaria. According to official Basque figures, 1,654 civilians were killed, but German sources report a round figure of 300 civilians killed in the bombing, according to the German Bundeswehr Magazine; the raid was requested by Francisco Franco to aid in his overthrowing the Basque Government and the Spanish Republican government. The town was devastated, though the Oak of Guernica survived; the Bombing of Guernica is considered to be the beginning of the Luftwaffe doctrine of terror bombing, where civilian targets were selected to demoralize the enemy. Pablo Picasso painted his famous Guernica painting to commemorate the horrors of the bombing and René Iché made a violent sculpture the day after the bombing.
The bombing went on continuously for three hours. Celebrations were staged in 1966 to mark the 600th anniversary of the founding of the town; as part of these celebrations, a statue of Count Tello, made by local sculptor Agustín Herranz, was set up in the Fueros square. At present, Gernika-Lumo has 16,244 inhabitants, it is a town with a prosperous service sector, is home to industrial companies, as well as good cultural and educational amenities. Guernica is the seat of the parliament of the province of Biscay, whose executive branch is located in nearby Bilbao. In prior centuries, Lumo had been the meeting place of the traditional Biscayan assembly, Urduña and chartered towns like Guernica were under the direct authority of the Lord of Biscay, Enkarterri and the Durango area had separate assemblies. All would hold assemblies under local big trees; as time passed, the role of separate assemblies was superseded by the single assembly in Guernica, by 1512, its oak, known as the Gernikako Arbola
Santurtzi is a port town in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, Spain. It is located in the Bilbao Abra bay, near the mouth of the Nervión river, on its left bank, 14 km downriver from Bilbao and forms part of the Greater Bilbao agglomeration, it has a population of 47,320 and a land area of 6.77 km². The district of Santurce of the city of San Juan, Puerto Rico derives its name from Santurtzi. Santurce has a rough orography although excluding Mount Serantes - one of its most symbolic topographic elements, it is not at high altitude, the significant heights being spurs of the Serantes: The Mallet and the Fortified heights, its relief is within the north flank of the anticline of Biscay. It is a relief of a structural type corresponding to a series of materials of the Cretaceous period throughout Punta Lucero-Serantes smoothly inclined towards the Estuary of Bilbao; the climate in Santurce is of the humid oceanic climate type. The temperatures are moderate throughout the year, with more frequent rains in spring and autumn, winters are benign and summers not excessively warm.
The average temperature is 8 °C in winter. The beauty of the landscape and the quality of the gastronomy along with the hospitality of the Santurtziarrak are some of the attractions which the visitor can enjoy. Santurce is a marine town that has succeeded in conserving many of its traditions, in spite of its great growth; the life in this area is focused on the sea, which inspires its leisure. Fishing boat and rowing boat races, the celebrations of the Virgin of the Carmen keep their traditions alive. Gastronomy is based on fish sardines. Easter Monday - Pascua - Cornites April 23, San Jorge June 24, San Juan, San Juan neighbourhood June 29, San Pedro July 16, Virgen del Carmen September 8, Virgen del Mar San Jorge church House Toasts Town Hall Monument to Cristóbal Murrieta Patronato Santa Eulalia Home and clinical San Juan de Dios Oriol Palace Science of navigation school and Hijas de la Cruz college Virgen del Mar church Fishermen Confraternity Town Park and Central Kiosk Mamariga fountain Monument to the Sardinera Fishing Port and Virgin of Carmen Museum of Sculptures Monument to Miguel de Unamuno Señorío de Vizcaya Square Official website Santurce-Santurtzi in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia