Syrias capital and largest city is Damascus. Religious groups include Sunnis, Alawites, Mandeans, Salafis, Sunni Arabs make up the largest religious group in Syria. Its capital Damascus and largest city Aleppo are among the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, in the Islamic era, Damascus was the seat of the Umayyad Caliphate and a provincial capital of the Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt. The post-independence period was tumultuous, and a number of military coups. In 1958, Syria entered a union with Egypt called the United Arab Republic. Syria was under Emergency Law from 1963 to 2011, effectively suspending most constitutional protections for citizens, Bashar al-Assad has been president since 2000 and was preceded by his father Hafez al-Assad, who was in office from 1970 to 2000. Mainstream modern academic opinion strongly favours the argument that the Greek word is related to the cognate Ἀσσυρία, Assyria, in the past, others believed that it was derived from Siryon, the name that the Sidonians gave to Mount Hermon.
However, the discovery of the inscription in 2000 seems to support the theory that the term Syria derives from Assyria. The area designated by the word has changed over time, since approximately 10,000 BC, Syria was one of centers of Neolithic culture where agriculture and cattle breeding appeared for the first time in the world. The following Neolithic period is represented by houses of Mureybet culture. At the time of the pre-pottery Neolithic, people used vessels made of stone, finds of obsidian tools from Anatolia are evidences of early trade relations. Cities of Hamoukar and Emar played an important role during the late Neolithic, archaeologists have demonstrated that civilization in Syria was one of the most ancient on earth, perhaps preceded by only those of Mesopotamia. The earliest recorded indigenous civilisation in the region was the Kingdom of Ebla near present-day Idlib, gifts from Pharaohs, found during excavations, confirm Eblas contact with Egypt. One of the earliest written texts from Syria is an agreement between Vizier Ibrium of Ebla and an ambiguous kingdom called Abarsal c.2300 BC.
The Northwest Semitic language of the Amorites is the earliest attested of the Canaanite languages, Mari reemerged during this period, and saw renewed prosperity until conquered by Hammurabi of Babylon. Ugarit arose during this time, circa 1800 BC, close to modern Latakia, Ugaritic was a Semitic language loosely related to the Canaanite languages, and developed the Ugaritic alphabet. The Ugarites kingdom survived until its destruction at the hands of the marauding Indo-European Sea Peoples in the 12th century BC, Yamhad was described in the tablets of Mari as the mightiest state in the near east and as having more vassals than Hammurabi of Babylon. Yamhad imposed its authority over Alalakh, the Hurrians states, the army of Yamhad campaigned as far away as Dēr on the border of Elam
Amioun is the capital of the predominantly Greek Orthodox Koura District in the north of Lebanon. The town of Amioun derives its name from the Aramaic language, meaning am Yawan place of the Greeks, Amioun is located on the top of an ancient hill dating back to before the 2nd millennium B. C. and the town was called Amia during this period. The word Amia was cited in the letters of Tell el Amarna, which were sent in the 14th century B. C. by local governors to their overlords, the pharaohs of Egypt. In his etymological study of the names of Lebanon’s towns and villages, historian Anis Freiha asserted that Amia is in turn derived from the Semitic word emun, meaning invincible fort. Amioun has a population of 10,658 most of whom live outside of Lebanon, mainly in Massachusetts in the United States and in Sydney and Melbourne in Australia, almost all the residents are followers of the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch. Amioun is the largest all Eastern Orthodox town in Lebanon and 4th in the whole Levant after Mhardeh, Al-Suqaylabiyah, the major political parties in the town are the Syrian Social Nationalist Party, the Free Patriotic Movement, the Lebanese Communist Party, and the Lebanese Forces.
The inhabitants of the city are of Phoenician, Byzantine Greek, Amioun has eleven Eastern Orthodox churches. There are three public and two private schools, the University of Balamand is located nearby,12 kilometers north. There is a library and a private hospital. Located in the heart of Northern Lebanon, Amioun is the center of Koura District. Amioun is about 330 meters above sea level and approximately 78 kilometers away north-northeast of Beirut and it is about 42 kilometers away from the Cedars of God and 18 kilometers away from Tripoli, capital of the North Governorate. Situated between the sea and the mountains, on a chain of hills that stretch from east to west, Amioun has a distinctive location. Surrounding the hills on which Amioun is situated are olive fields in the north and vineyards, almond orchards, paved roads, including the Beirut-Cedars main highway, run through those hills. Long ago, when the houses that stretched on those hills were few, Amioun can be reached via the highway that passes through Byblos, Batroun and Kfarhazir.
It can be reached from Tripoli by way of Bohssas, Dahr-al-Ain, Amioun is known for its olive trees and high grade olive oil. Amioun is a old settlement whose history can be traced back to the Paleolithic period. This is supported by the number of small caves built in the old citys rocks, in the past years, a number of French and German orientalists – foremost of whom was the Frenchman Ernest Renan – visited it, studied its archaeological sites and wrote about them. The ancient Semitic peoples are thought to have arrived in the region around 4000 B. C, in his book “The Monuments of Lebanon”, Father Lamens mentions a number of towns, one of which is “Amia”
Pre-Pottery Neolithic A
Pre-Pottery Neolithic A denotes the first stage in early Levantine and Anatolian Neolithic culture, dating c. 11,500 – c. 10,000 BP. Archaeological remains are located in the Levantine and Upper Mesopotamian region of the Fertile Crescent, the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A and the following Pre-Pottery Neolithic B were originally defined by Kathleen Kenyon in the type site of Jericho. During this time, pottery was not yet in use, PPNA succeeds the Natufian culture of the Epipaleolithic. PPNA archaeological sites are larger than those of the preceding Natufian hunter-gatherer culture. PPNA settlements are characterized by round, semi-subterranean houses with stone foundations, the upper walls were constructed of unbaked clay mudbricks with plano-convex cross-sections. The hearths were small, and covered with cobbles, heated rocks were used in cooking, which led to an accumulation of fire-cracked rock in the buildings, and almost every settlement contained storage bins made of either stones or mud-brick.
One of the most notable PPNA settlements is Jericho, thought to be the worlds first town, the PPNA town contained a population of up to 2, 000–3,000 people, and was protected by a massive stone wall and tower. There is much debate over the function of the wall, for there is no evidence of any serious warfare at this time, one possibility is the wall was built to protect the salt resources of Jericho. PPNA cultures are unique for their practices, and Kenyon characterized them as living with their dead. Kenyon found no fewer than 279 burials, below floors, under household foundations, in the PPNB period, skulls were often dug up and reburied, or mottled with clay and displayed. The lithic industry is based on blades struck from regular cores, sickle-blades and arrowheads continue traditions from the late Natufian culture, transverse-blow axes and polished adzes appear for the first time. Sedentism of this allowed for the cultivation of local grains, such as barley and wild oats. Sites such as Dhra′ and Jericho retained a hunting lifestyle until the PPNB period and this period of cultivation is considered pre-domestication, but may have begun to develop plant species into the domesticated forms they are today.
Deliberate, extended-period storage was possible by the use of suspended floors for air circulation and protection from rodents. This practice precedes the emergence of domestication and large-scale sedentary communities by at least 1,000 years, granaries are positioned in places between other buildings early on c. 11,500 BP. However, beginning around 10,500 BP, they were moved inside houses and this change might reflect changing systems of ownership and property as granaries shifted from a communal use and ownership to become under the control of households or individuals. Moreover, uilding granaries may have been the most important feature in increasing sedentism that required active community participation in new life-ways. With more sites becoming known, archaeologists have defined a number of variants, Sultanian in the Jordan River valley
Berytus was a Roman colonia that was the center of Roman presence in the eastern Mediterranean shores south of Anatolia. Roman Berytus was the capital of Phoenicia during Roman times, in 140 BC the Phoenician village called Biruta was destroyed by Diodotus Tryphon in his contest with Antiochus VII Sidetes for the throne of the Macedonian Seleucid monarchy. Later it was rebuilt on a more conventional Hellenistic plan. The city was conquered by the Romans of Pompey in 64 BC and renamed Berytus, the city was assimilated into the Roman Empire, veteran soldiers were sent there, and large building projects were undertaken. Was made a Roman colony about 14 B. C, Herod the Great, Agrippa I and II, and Queen Berenice built exedras, temples, a forum, a theater and baths here. The new Roman city spread farther S and W, with its Forum near the Place de lEtoile, on its N side was a civic basilica 99 m long with a Corinthian portico of polychrome materials. Some large baths have been uncovered on the E slope of the Colline du Sérail, Some villas in a S suburb facing the sea had mosaic floors.
Some 12 km upstream on the Beirut river are the ruined arches of an aqueduct. Berytus was considered the most Roman city in the provinces of the Roman Empire. It was one of four Roman colonies in the Syria-Phoenicia region, in 14 BC, during the reign of Herod the Great, Berytus became an important Roman colonia. The city was named Colonia Iulia Augusta Felix Berytus in honor of Julia, the veterans of two Roman legions were established in the city of Berytus by emperor Augustus, the fifth Macedonian and the third Gallic. Consequently, the city quickly became fully Romanized, large public buildings and monuments were erected and Berytus enjoyed full status as a part of the empire. But now only ruins remains, in front of the Catholic Cathedral of Beirut. The aqueduct crossed the river at Qanater Zbaydeh and the water reached the place of actual Riad Al Solh Square, there, at the foot of the Serail Hill. An intricate network of lead or clay pipes and channels distributed the water to the pools of the Roman Baths.
Under Nero the son of a roman colonist, Marcus Valerius Probus, was known in all the empire as a Latin grammarian, after the 551 Beirut earthquake the students were transferred to Sidon. Since the third century, the city had an important law college and it was here that the great codification of Roman Law, which was to be propagated by emperors like Theodosius II and Justinian, was prepared. Furthermore, the ecumenical Christian councils of the fifth and sixth centuries AD were unsuccessful in settling religious disagreements within the surviving community, Berytus became a Christian See at an early date, and was a suffragan of Tyre in Phoenicia Prima, a province of the Patriarchate of Antioch. In antiquity its most famous bishop was Eusebius, afterwards Bishop of Nicomedia, from 451 AD Berytus was an exempt metropolis depending directly on the Patriarch of Antioch
Afqa is a village and municipality located in the Jbeil District of the Mount Lebanon Governorate,71 kilometres northeast of Beirut in Lebanon. It has an elevation of 1,200 meters above sea level. Its inhabitants are predominantly Shia Muslims and it is the site of one of the finest waterfalls in the mountains of the Middle East, which feeds into the Adonis River, and forms Lake Yammoune, with which it is associated by legend. In Greek mythology Adonis was born and died at the foot of the falls in Afqa, the ruins of the celebrated temple of Aphrodite Aphakitis— the Aphrodite particular to this site— are located there. Sir Richard Francis Burton and Sir James Frazer further attribute the temple at Afqa to the honouring of Astarte or Ishtar, Afqa is aligned centrally between Baalbek and Byblos, pointing to the summer solstice sunset over the Mediterranean. It is from Byblos that the myth was told of an ark that came ashore containing the bones of Osiris. The ark became stuck in a swamp until Isis found it, the waterfall at Afqa is the source for the River Adonis and is located on a 600-foot bluff that forms an immense natural amphitheatre.
The river emerges from a limestone cave in the cliff wall which stores and channels water from the melted snow of the mountains before releasing it into springs. At Afqa, several watery threads flow from the cave to form numerous cataracts, the cave has over two miles of known passageways inside. A great and ancient temple is located here, where prostitution was practicised until the time of Constantine. Sir James Frazer attributes its construction to the legendary forebear of King Cinyras, the site was finally abandoned during the reign of Theodosius I. Massive hewn blocks and a column of Syenite granite still mark the site. The remains of a Roman aqueduct that carried the waters of the River Adonis to the ancient inhabitants of Jebail are located here. Edward Robinson and Eli Smith camped at the site in 1852, merely remarking on its shapeless ruins, the hamlet stands among groves of noble walnut-trees on the brink of the lyn. A little way off the river rushes from a cavern at the foot of a mighty amphitheatre of towering cliffs to plunge in a series of cascades into the depths of the glen.
There is something delicious, almost intoxicating, in the freshness of these waters, in the sweetness and purity of the mountain air. Marvin H. Pope identified the home of El in the Ugaritic texts of ca, in classical Greek mythology, Afqa is associated with the cult of Aphrodite and Adonis. According to the myth, the King of Cyprus seduced his daughter Myrrha who was transformed into a tree that bears her name, after several months, the tree split open and the child Adonis emerged
Pre-Pottery Neolithic B
Pre-Pottery Neolithic B is a division of the Neolithic developed by Kathleen Kenyon during her archaeological excavations at Jericho in the West Bank. In addition the flint tool kit of the period is new, one of its major elements is the naviform core. This is the first period in which architectural styles of the southern Levant became primarily rectilinear, earlier typical dwellings were circular, pyrotechnology was highly developed in this period. During this period, one of the features of houses is evidenced by a thick layer of white clay plaster floors highly polished. It is believed that the use of plaster for floor. The earliest proto-pottery was White Ware vessels, made from lime and gray ash, built up around baskets before firing, sites from this period found in the Levant utilizing rectangular floor plans and plastered floor techniques were found at Ain Ghazal and Abu Hureyra. The period is dated to between ca.10,700 and ca.8,000 BP or 7000 -6000 BCE. Danielle Stordeurs recent work at Tell Aswad, an agricultural village between Mount Hermon and Damascus could not validate Henri de Contensons earlier suggestion of a PPNA Aswadian culture.
Instead, they found evidence of a fully established PPNB culture at 8700 BC at Aswad, similar sites to Tell Aswad in the Damascus Basin of the same age were found at Tell Ramad and Tell Ghoraifé. How a PPNB culture could spring up in this location, practicing domesticated farming from 8700 BC has been the subject of speculation. Like the earlier PPNA people, the PPNB culture developed from the Earlier Natufian but shows evidence of a northerly origin, work at the site of Ain Ghazal in Jordan has indicated a Pre-Pottery Neolithic C period which existed between 8,200 and 7,900 BP. Cultures practicing this lifestyle spread down the Red Sea shoreline and moved east from Syria into southern Iraq
The Khiamian is a period of the Near-Eastern Neolithic, marking the transition between the Natufian and the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A. Some sources date it from about 10,000 to 9,500 BCE and it currently dates between 10,200 and 8800 BC according to the ASPRO chronology. They have served to identify sites of this period, which are found in Israel, as well as in Jordan, aside from the appearance of El Khiam arrow heads, the Khiamian is placed in the continuity of the Natufian, without any major technical innovations. However, for the first time houses were built on the level itself. Otherwise, the bearers of the El Khiam culture were still hunter-gatherers, the Khiamien sees a change occur in the symbolic aspects of culture, as evidenced by the appearance of small female statuettes, as well as by the burying of aurochs skulls. According to Jacques Cauvin, it is the beginning of the worship of the Woman, zivilisationen – wie die Kultur nach Sumer kam. The birth of the gods and the origins of agriculture, catastrophic early Holocene sea level rise, human migration and the Neolithic transition in Europe
The Anti-Lebanon Mountains are a southwest-northeast-trending mountain range that forms the majority of the border between Syria and Lebanon. The border is defined along the crest of the range. Most of the lies in Syria. Its Western name Anti-Lebanon comes from the Greek and Latin Antilibanus, derived from its position opposite, to the west of the Anti-Lebanon lie valleys that separate it from Mount Lebanon in central Lebanon, Baalbeks Beqaa Valley in the north and the Hasbani River valley in the south. To the east, in Syria, lies the Eastern Plateau, the Anti-Lebanon range is approximately 150 kilometres in length. To the north, it extends to almost the latitude of the Syrian city of Homs. To the south, the range coalesces with the Golan Heights plateau but includes the highest peaks of Mount Hermon, at 2,814 metres and these peaks are snow-covered for much of the year and are located on the Lebanese-Syrian border. There are various endemic flora found and named after the region, Euphorbia antilibanotica, Teucrium antilibanoticum, Valerianella antilibanotica, and Iris antilibanotica
Batroun is a coastal city in northern Lebanon and one of the oldest cities in the world. It is the city of Batroun District. The name Batroun derives from the Arabic al-Batroun, itself from the Greek, other historians believe that the name of the town is derivative of the Phoenician words, beit truna, which translates to house of the chief. Batroun is a major tourist destination in North Lebanon, the town boasts historic churches from Roman Catholicism and Greek Orthodox. The town is a beach resort with a vibrant nightlife that includes pubs and nightclubs. Citrus groves surround Batroun, and the town has been famous for its fresh lemonade sold at the cafés, in 2009, the Batroun International Festival was born. It started hosting leading local and international artists, the festival takes place usually in July and/or August of each year in the old harbor area. The people of Batroun are mainly Maronite and Greek Orthodox Christians, Batroun is a Roman Catholic Titular See Batroun is likely the Batruna mentioned in the Amarna letters dating to the 14th century B. C.
Batroun was mentioned by the ancient geographers Strabo, Ptolemy, Stephanus Byzantius, the Phoenicians founded Batroun on the southern side of the promontory called in Antiquity and during the Byzantine Empire, Cape Lithoprosopon. Batroun is said to have founded by Ithobaal I, king of Tyre. The city was under Roman rule to Phoenicia Prima province, in 551, Batroun was destroyed by an earthquake, which caused mudslides and made the Cape Lithoprosopon crack. Historians believe that Batrouns large natural harbor was formed during the earthquake, three Greek Orthodox bishops are known to have come from Batroun, Porphyrius in 451, Elias about 512 and Stephen in 553. According to a Greek Notitia episcopatuum, the Greek Orthodox See has existed in Batroun since the century when the city was called Petrounion. After the Muslim conquests of the region, the name was Arabicized to Batroun, under Ottoman rule, Batroun was the centre of a caza in the mutessariflik of Lebanon and the seat of a Maronite diocese, suffragan to the Maronite patriarchate.
Since 1999 it has been the seat of the Maronite eparchy
Ain Aata, Ain Ata, Ain Ata or Ayn Aata is a village and municipality situated southwest of Rashaya,99 kilometres south-east of Beirut, in the Rashaya District of the Beqaa Governorate in Lebanon. The name is thought to mean gift spring, there is a remarkably cold spring in the area. Eusebius in his work Onomasticon, placed it 9 miles from Dora, beth-Anath has been translated to mean temple of Anat, a canaanite goddess linked to a Sumerian predecessor called Ninhursag. Recent epigraphic surveys have confirmed the ruins of a Roman temple and columns of a ruined temple complex in the woods near the village were recorded by William McClure Thomson, who thought them to have once been called Kubrikha. He remarked that the neighborhood is crowded with ancient but deserted sites
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker