Weizmann Institute of Science
The Weizmann Institute of Science is a public research university in Rehovot, established in 1934, 14 years before the State of Israel. It differs from other Israeli universities in that it offers only graduate and postgraduate degrees in the natural and exact sciences, it is a multidisciplinary research center, with around 3,800 scientists, postdoctoral fellows, Ph. D. and M. Sc. students, scientific and administrative staff working at the Institute. As of 2019, 6 Nobel laureates and 3 Turing Award winners have been associated with the Weizmann Institute of Science. Founded in 1934 by Chaim Weizmann and his first team, among them Benjamin M. Bloch, as the Daniel Sieff Research Institute. Weizmann had offered the post of director to Nobel Prize laureate Fritz Haber, but took over the directorship himself after Haber's death en route to Palestine. Before he became President of the State of Israel in February 1949, Weizmann pursued his research in organic chemistry at its laboratories; the institute was renamed the Weizmann Institute of Science in his honor on November 2, 1949, in agreement with the Sieff family.
WEIZAC, one of the world’s first electronic computers was locally built by the institute in 1954–1955 and was recognized by the IEEE in 2006 as a milestone achievement in the history of electrical and electronic engineering. In 1959, the institute set up a wholly owned subsidiary called Yeda Research and Development Company to commercialize inventions made at the institute. By 2013 the institute was earning between $50 and $100 million in royalties annually on marketed drugs including Copaxone and Erbitux; the Weizmann Institute presently has about 2,500 students, postdoctoral fellows and faculty, awards M. Sc. and Ph. D. degrees in mathematics, computer science, chemistry and biology, as well as several interdisciplinary programs. The symbol of the Weizmann Institute of Science is the multibranched Ficus tree. Undergraduates and recent graduates must apply to M. Sc. programs, while those earning an M. Sc. or an MD can apply directly to Ph. D. programs. Full fellowships are given to all students.
In addition to its academic programs, the Weizmann Institute runs programs for youth, including science clubs and competitions. The Bessie F. Lawrence International Summer Science Institute accepts high-school graduates from all over the world for a four-week, science-based summer camp; the Clore Garden of Science, which opened in 1999, is the world’s first interactive outdoor science museum. In 2017, the Weizmann Institute made the Academic Ranking of World Universities at an unspecified place between 101 and 150 and the U. S. News' Best Global Universities list in 104th place. In the 2017 CWTS Leiden Ranking, based on the proportion of a university's scientific papers published between 2012 and 2015 that made the 10% most cited in their field, it was ranked 13th in the world and first in Israel. Chaim Weizmann Meyer Weisgal Abba Eban Meyer Weisgal Albert Sabin Israel Dostrovsky Michael Sela Aryeh Dvoretzky Haim Harari Ilan Chet Daniel Zajfman The nonscientists Abba Eban and Meyer Weisgal were assisted by scientific directors, as was Weizmann himself owing to his duties as the first president of Israel.
The following persons held the position of scientific director: Ernst David Bergmann Amos de-Shalit Shneior Lifson Gerhard M. J. Schmidt List of universities in Israel Science and technology in Israel Weizmann Institute of Science Website
École normale supérieure Paris-Saclay
The École normale supérieure Paris-Saclay ENS Cachan, is a higher education institution located in Cachan within the Val-de-Marne department near Paris, in the Île-de-France region of France. ENS Paris-Saclay is one of the most selective French grandes écoles. Like all other grandes écoles, this elite higher education institution is not included in the mainstream framework of the French public universities. Along with the École normale supérieure, ENS Lyon and ENS Rennes, the school belongs to the informal network of French écoles normales supérieures, forming the top level of research and education in the French higher educational system. In 2014, ENS Paris-Saclay became a founding member of the University of Paris-Saclay consortium, an initiative to integrate and combine resources from a number of different grandes écoles, public universities, research institutions; the school plans to move in 2019 to a new campus located in the commune of Gif-sur-Yvette on the Saclay plateau, France's "Silicon Valley," where it will be near other members of the Paris-Saclay research-intensive and business cluster.
The main mission of ENS Paris-Saclay is to train world-class academics, but it is a starting point for public administrative or private executive careers. It recruits from the competitive "classes préparatoires". Students of the ENS Paris-Saclay who passed the entrance exam are civil servants and are known as "normaliens". Normaliens are paid a monthly salary by the French government, are required to work for a French public administration for six years after their four-year curriculum at the ENS is completed. ENS Paris-Saclay recruits other university students. Students follow the standard university curriculum, they are encouraged -though it is not mandatory- to take the Agrégation competitive examination. There are 17 departments: the scientific departments of Biology, Computer Science, Fundamental Physics, Chemistry. ENS Paris-Saclay cooperates with many foreign universities, for example in student exchange programs. One of them is MONABIPHOT developed in cooperation with Wrocław University of Technology in Poland, Complutense or Carlos III University of Madrid in Spain, MIT, Humboldt.
The admission to the ENS Paris-Saclay as normalien is made through a competitive entrance examination, requires at least two years of preparation after high school in Classes Préparatoires. The ENS Paris-Saclay recruits 800 degree seeking students. Though normaliens follow the standard university curriculum, they have the opportunity to pursue their studies in other grandes écoles such as Sciences Po, HEC, École Polytechnique and the ENSAE without having to take an entrance exam. Normaliens can prepare the ENA entrance exam. Philippe Aghion Alain Aspect Laurent Batsch Bernard Charlès Erwan Dianteill Michel Lallement Marie-Noëlle Lienemann Olivier Rubel Marc Yor Gabriel Zucman École Normale Supérieure École Normale supérieure de Lyon Grandes Écoles Classes préparatoires ENS Paris-Saclay website
John Alan Robinson
John Alan Robinson was a philosopher and computer scientist. He was a professor emeritus at Syracuse University. Alan Robinson's major contribution is to the foundations of automated theorem proving, his unification algorithm eliminated one source of combinatorial explosion in resolution provers. Robinson received the 1996 Herbrand Award for Distinguished Contributions to Automated reasoning. Robinson was born in Halifax, England in 1930 and left for the United States in 1952 with a classics degree from Cambridge University, he studied philosophy at the University of Oregon before moving to Princeton University where he received his PhD in philosophy in 1956. He worked at Du Pont as an operations research analyst, where he learned programming and taught himself mathematics, he moved to Rice University in 1961, spending his summers as a visiting researcher at the Argonne National Laboratory's Applied Mathematics Division. He moved to Syracuse University as Distinguished Professor of Logic and Computer Science in 1967 and became professor emeritus in 1993.
It was at Argonne that Robinson became interested in automated theorem proving and developed unification and the resolution principle. Resolution and unification have since been incorporated in many automated theorem-proving systems and are the basis for the inference mechanisms used in logic programming and the programming language Prolog. Robinson was the Founding Editor of the Journal of Logic Programming, has received numerous honours; these include a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1967, the American Mathematical Society Milestone Award in Automatic Theorem Proving 1985, an AAAI Fellowship 1990, the Humboldt Senior Scientist Award 1995, the Herbrand Award for Distinguished Contributions to Automatic Reasoning 1996, the Association for Logic Programming honorary title Founder of Logic Programming in 1997. He has received honorary Doctorates from Katholieke Universiteit Leuven 1988, Uppsala University 1994, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid 2003. Robinson died in Portland, Maine on 5 August 2016 from a ruptured aneurysm following surgery for pancreatic cancer.
Robinson, J. Alan. Handbook of Automated Reasoning. MIT Press. ISBN 0-444-50813-9. Arbib, Michael A.. Natural and Artificial Parallel Computation. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-01120-4. Robinson, J. A.. Logic: Form and Function. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-85224-305-7. Robinson, John Alan. "A Machine-Oriented Logic Based on the Resolution Principle". J. ACM. 12: 23–41. Doi:10.1145/321250.321253. Robinson, John Alan. Causation and Testimony. Princeton University. OCLC 83304635. List of important publications in theoretical computer science Robinson resolvent method John Alan Robinson at DBLP Bibliography Server Books listed by The MIT Press
University of Paris-Sud
Paris-Sud University known as University of Paris — XI, is a French university distributed among several campuses in the southern suburbs of Paris including Orsay, Cachan, Châtenay-Malabry and Kremlin-Bicêtre campuses. The main campus is located in Orsay; this university is a member of the UniverSud Paris and a constituent university of the federal University of Paris-Saclay. Paris-Sud is one of the largest and most renowned French universities in science and mathematics. Four Fields Medalists and two Nobel Prize Winners have been affiliated to the university; the current president of the University is Sylvie Retailleau. Paris-Sud was part of the University of Paris, subsequently split into several universities. After World War II, the rapid growth of nuclear physics and chemistry meant that research needed more and more powerful accelerators, which required large areas; the Université de Paris, the École Normale Supérieure and the Collège de France looked for space in the south of Paris near Orsay.
Some of the teaching activity of the Faculty of Sciences in Paris was transferred to Orsay. The rapid increase of students led to the independence of the Orsay Center on March 1, 1965. Now it hosts a great number of laboratories on its large campus. Many of the top French laboratories are among them in particle physics, nuclear physics, atomic physics and molecular physics, condensed matter physics, theoretical physics and nanoscience and nanotechnology. University of Paris-Sud comprises some 104 research units. About 30,000 students are enrolled. Pierre-Gilles de Gennes and Albert Fert, two Nobel Prize winners of physics, were affiliated to the University of Paris-Sud. A number of most renowned French mathematicians are or were affiliated to the University of Paris-Sud as well. Among them are the Fields medalists Laurent Lafforgue, Jean-Christophe Yoccoz, Wendelin Werner and Ngô Bảo Châu. Paris-Sud comprises biology and chemistry laboratories and technology schools and has established partnerships with many of the surrounding technology centres and Grandes Ecoles.
It includes Schools of Law and Management. Jean-Christophe Yoccoz Laurent Lafforgue Wendelin Werner Ngô Bảo Châu Pierre-Gilles de Gennes Albert Fert Agnès Barthélémy, expert on nanostructures Louis-Marie de Blignières, Traditionalist Catholic priest Charles Édouard Bouée, CEO of Roland Berger Consulting Olivier Bohuon, Chief Executive of Smith & Nephew plc Bertrand Serlet, Former Senior Vice President of Software Engineering at Apple Inc Anne Dambricourt-Malassé, paleoanthropologist Jean-Marc Fontaine, mathematician Henri Kagan, Wolf Prize in Chemistry Serge Latouche, economist Adrien Douady, mathematician Jean Ginibre, mathematician Étienne-Émile Baulieu, chemist André Lagarrigue, physicist Marielle Chartier, physicist André Neveu, physicist Thierry Derrien, President and CEO of Safran Helicopter Engines In October 2015, The University of Paris Sud has been ranked 10th best university worldwide in the Times Higher Education Under 50, ranking of the world top 100 universities under 50 years old.
Paris-Sud is ranked 2nd in France, 10th in Europe and 41st worldwide by the 2017 Academic Ranking of World Universities.. QS Ranking has ranked the University 241th in the world, 95th in Natural Science, 173th in Medicine and 305th in Engineering. Parc botanique de Launay Institute of Space and Telecommunications Law University of Paris Paris-Sud University official website Paris-Sud University official website
A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings. In some contexts, the word "thesis" or a cognate is used for part of a bachelor's or master's course, while "dissertation" is applied to a doctorate, while in other contexts, the reverse is true; the term graduate thesis is sometimes used to refer to both master's theses and doctoral dissertations. The required complexity or quality of research of a thesis or dissertation can vary by country, university, or program, the required minimum study period may thus vary in duration; the word "dissertation" can at times be used to describe a treatise without relation to obtaining an academic degree. The term "thesis" is used to refer to the general claim of an essay or similar work; the term "thesis" comes from the Greek θέσις, meaning "something put forth", refers to an intellectual proposition. "Dissertation" comes from the Latin dissertātiō, meaning "discussion".
Aristotle was the first philosopher to define the term thesis. "A'thesis' is a supposition of some eminent philosopher that conflicts with the general opinion...for to take notice when any ordinary person expresses views contrary to men's usual opinions would be silly". For Aristotle, a thesis would therefore be a supposition, stated in contradiction with general opinion or express disagreement with other philosophers. A supposition is a statement or opinion that may or may not be true depending on the evidence and/or proof, offered; the purpose of the dissertation is thus to outline the proofs of why the author disagrees with other philosophers or the general opinion. A thesis may be arranged as a thesis by publication or a monograph, with or without appended papers though many graduate programs allow candidates to submit a curated collection of published papers. An ordinary monograph has a title page, an abstract, a table of contents, comprising the various chapters, a bibliography or a references section.
They differ in their structure in accordance with the many different areas of study and the differences between them. In a thesis by publication, the chapters constitute an introductory and comprehensive review of the appended published and unpublished article documents. Dissertations report on a research project or study, or an extended analysis of a topic; the structure of a thesis or dissertation explains the purpose, the previous research literature impinging on the topic of the study, the methods used, the findings of the project. Most world universities use a multiple chapter format: a) an introduction, which introduces the research topic, the methodology, as well as its scope and significance. Degree-awarding institutions define their own house style that candidates have to follow when preparing a thesis document. In addition to institution-specific house styles, there exist a number of field-specific and international standards and recommendations for the presentation of theses, for instance ISO 7144.
Other applicable international standards include ISO 2145 on section numbers, ISO 690 on bibliographic references, ISO 31 on quantities or units. Some older house styles specify that front matter must use a separate page number sequence from the main text, using Roman numerals; the relevant international standard and many newer style guides recognize that this book design practice can cause confusion where electronic document viewers number all pages of a document continuously from the first page, independent of any printed page numbers. They, avoid the traditional separate number sequence for front matter and require a single sequence of Arabic numerals starting with 1 for the first printed page. Presentation requirements, including pagination, layout and color of paper, use of acid-free paper, paper size, order of components, citation style, will be checked page by page by the accepting officer before the thesis is accepted and a receipt is issued. However, strict standards are not always required.
Most Italian universities, for example, have only general requirements on the character size and the page formatting, leave much freedom for the actual typographic details. A thesis or dissertation committee is a committee. In the US, these committees consist of a primary supervisor or advisor and two or more committee members, who supervise the progress of the dissertation and may act as the examining committee, or jury, at the oral examination of the thesis. At most universities, the committee is chosen by the student in conjunction with his or her primary adviser after completion of the comprehensive examinations or prospectus meeting, may consist of members of the comps committee; the committee members are doctors in their field (whether a PhD or other des
French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation
The National Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation is a French national research institution focusing on computer science and applied mathematics. It was created under the name Institut de recherche en informatique et en automatique in 1967 at Rocquencourt near Paris, part of Plan Calcul, its first site was the historical premises of SHAPE. In 1979 IRIA became INRIA. Since 2011, it has been styled inria. Inria is a Public Scientific and Technical Research Establishment under the double supervision of the French Ministry of National Education, Advanced Instruction and Research and the Ministry of Economy and Industry. Inria has 8 research centers and contributes to academic research teams outside of those centers. Before December 2007, the three centers of Bordeaux and Saclay formed a single research center called INRIA Futurs. In October 2010, INRIA, with Pierre and Marie Curie University and Paris Diderot University started IRILL, a center for innovation and research initiative for free software.
Inria employs 3800 people. Among them are 1300 researchers, 1000 Ph. D. students and 500 postdoctorates. Inria does both applied research in computer science. In the process, it has produced many used programs, such as Bigloo, a Scheme implementation CADP, a tool box for the verification of asynchronous concurrent systems Caml, a language from the ML family Caml Light and OCaml implementations ChorusOS, distributed operating system Contrail Coq, a proof assistant Eigen Esterel, a programming language for State Automata Geneauto — code-generation from model Gudhi — A C++ library with Python interface for computational topology and topological data analysis Graphite, a research platform for computer graphics, 3D modeling and numerical geometry medInria, a medical image processing software, popularly used for MRI images. OpenViBE, a software platform dedicated to designing and using brain-computer interfaces. Pharo, an open-source dynamic and reflective language influenced by Smalltalk. Scilab, a numerical computation software package SimGrid SmartEiffel, a free Eiffel compiler SOFA, an open source framework for multi-physics simulation with an emphasis on medical simulation.
TOM, a pattern matching language ViSP, an open source visual servoing platform library XtreemFS XtreemOS Beltran, Alain. Histoire d'un pionnier de l'informatique: 40 ans de recherche à l'Inria. EDP Sciences. ISBN 2-86883-806-5. Official website
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem is Israel's second oldest university, established in 1918, 30 years before the establishment of the State of Israel. The Hebrew University has one in Rehovot; the world's largest Jewish studies library is located on its Edmond J. Safra Givat Ram campus; the university has 5 affiliated teaching hospitals including the Hadassah Medical Center, 7 faculties, more than 100 research centers, 315 academic departments. As of 2018, a third of all the doctoral candidates in Israel were studying at the Hebrew University; the first Board of Governors included Albert Einstein, Sigmund Freud, Martin Buber, Chaim Weizmann. Four of Israel's prime ministers are alumni of the Hebrew University; as of 2018, 15 Nobel Prize winners, 2 Fields Medalists, 3 Turing Award winners have been affiliated with the University. One of the visions of the Zionist movement was the establishment of a Jewish university in the Land of Israel. Founding a university was proposed as far back as 1884 in the Kattowitz conference of the Hovevei Zion society.
The cornerstone for the university was laid on July 24, 1918. Seven years on April 1, 1925, the Hebrew University campus on Mount Scopus was opened at a gala ceremony attended by the leaders of the Jewish world, distinguished scholars and public figures, British dignitaries, including the Earl of Balfour, Viscount Allenby and Sir Herbert Samuel; the University's first Chancellor was Judah Magnes. By 1947, the University had become a large teaching institution. Plans for a medical school were approved in May 1949, in November 1949, a faculty of law was inaugurated. In 1952, it was announced that the agricultural institute founded by the University in 1940 would become a full-fledged faculty. During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, attacks were carried out against convoys moving between the Israeli-controlled section of Jerusalem and the University; the leader of the Arab forces in Jerusalem, Abdul Kader Husseini, threatened military action against the university Hadassah Hospital "if the Jews continued to use them as bases for attacks."
After the Hadassah medical convoy massacre, in which 79 Jews, including doctors and nurses, were killed, the Mount Scopus campus was cut off from Jerusalem. British soldier Jack Churchill coordinated the evacuation of 700 Jewish doctors and patients from the hospital; when the Jordan government denied Israeli access to Mount Scopus, a new campus was built at Givat Ram in western Jerusalem and completed in 1958. In the interim, classes were held in 40 different buildings around the city; the Terra Santa building in Rehavia, rented from the Franciscan Custodians of the Latin Holy Places, was used for this purpose. A few years together with the Hadassah Medical Organization, a medical science campus was built in the south-west Jerusalem neighborhood of Ein Kerem. By the beginning of 1967, the students numbered 12,500, spread among the two campuses in Jerusalem and the agricultural faculty in Rehovot. After the unification of Jerusalem, following the Six-Day War of June 1967, the University was able to return to Mount Scopus, rebuilt.
In 1981 the construction work was completed, Mount Scopus again became the main campus of the University. On July 31, 2002, a member of a terrorist cell detonated a bomb during lunch hour at the University's "Frank Sinatra" cafeteria when it was crowded with staff and students. Nine people—five Israelis, three Americans, one dual French-American citizen—were murdered and more than 70 wounded. World leaders, including Kofi Annan, President Bush, the President of the European Union issued statements of condemnation. In 2017 the Hebrew University of Jerusalem launched a marijuana research center, intended to "conduct and coordinate research on cannabis and its biological effects with an eye toward commercial applications." Mount Scopus, in the north-eastern part of Jerusalem, is home to the main campus, which contains the Faculties of Humanities, Social Sciences, Jerusalem School of Business Administration, Baerwald School of Social Work, Harry S. Truman Research Institute for the Advancement of Peace, Rothberg International School, the Mandel Institute of Jewish Studies.
The Rothberg International School features Jewish/Israeli studies. Included for foreign students is a mandatory Ulpan program for Hebrew language study which includes a mandatory course in Israeli culture and customs. All Rothberg Ulpan classes are taught by Israeli natives. However, many other classes at the Rothberg School are taught by Jewish immigrants to Israel; the land on Mt. Scopus was purchased before World War I from Sir John Gray-Hill, along with the Gray-Hill mansion; the master plan for the university was designed by Patrick Geddes and his son-in-law, Frank Mears in December 1919. Only two buildings of this original design were built: the David Wolffsohn University and National Library, the Mathematics Institute, with the Physics Institute being built on the designs of their Jerusalem-based partner, Benjamin Chaikin. Housing for students at Hebrew University who live on Mount Scopus is located at the three dormitories located near the university; these are the Maiersdorf dormitories, the Bronfman dormitories, the Kfar HaStudentim.
Nearby is the Nicanor Cave, an ancient cave, planned to be a national pantheon. The Givat Ram campus is the home of the Faculty of Science including the Einstein Institute of Mathematics.