The Shawnee are an Algonquian-speaking ethnic group indigenous to North America. In colonial times they were a semi-migratory Native American nation inhabiting areas of the Ohio Valley, extending from what became Ohio and Kentucky eastward to West Virginia, Virginia and Western Maryland. Pushed west by European-American pressure, the Shawnee migrated to Kansas. In the 1830s some were removed from the upper Midwest to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River. Other Shawnee did not remove to Oklahoma until after the Civil War. Made up of different historical and kinship groups, today there are three federally recognized Shawnee tribes, all headquartered in Oklahoma: the Absentee-Shawnee Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma, Shawnee Tribe; the Shawnee language, an Algonquian language, was spoken by 200 people in 2002, including over 100 Absentee Shawnee and 12 Loyal Shawnee speakers. The language is written in the Latin script, it has a dictionary and portions of the Bible were translated into Shawnee.
Some scholars believe that the Shawnee are descendants of the people of the precontact Fort Ancient culture of the Ohio region, although this is not universally accepted. Fort Ancient culture flourished from 1000 to 1650 CE among a people who predominantly inhabited lands on both sides of the Ohio River in areas of present-day southern Ohio, northern Kentucky and western West Virginia, they were mound builders. Fort Ancient culture was once thought to have been an extension of the Mississippian culture. But, scholars now believe Fort Ancient culture developed independently and was descended from the Hopewell culture a mound builder people. Uncertainty surrounds the fate of the Fort Ancient people. Most their society, like the Mississippian culture to the south, was disrupted by waves of epidemics from new infectious diseases carried by the first Spanish explorers in the 16th century. After 1525 at Madisonville, the type site, the village's house sizes became smaller and fewer, with evidence showing the people changed from their "horticulture-centered, sedentary way of life".
There is a gap in the archaeological record between the most recent Fort Ancient sites and the oldest sites of the Shawnee. The latter were recorded by European archaeologists as occupying this area at the time of encounter. Scholars accept that similarities in material culture, art and Shawnee oral history linking them to the Fort Ancient peoples, can be used to support the connection from Fort Ancient society and development as the historical Shawnee society; the Shawnee traditionally considered the Lenape of the East Coast mid-Atlantic region, who were Algonquian speaking, as their "grandfathers." The Algonquian nations of present-day Canada regarded the US Shawnee as their southernmost branch. Along the East Coast, the Algonquian-speaking tribes were located in coastal areas, from Quebec to the Carolinas. Algonquian languages have words similar to the archaic shawano meaning "south". However, the stem šawa- does not mean "south" in Shawnee, but "moderate, warm": See Voegelin "šawa MODERATE, WARM.
Cp. šawani'it is moderating...". In one Shawnee tale, "Sawage" is the deity of the south wind. Curtin translates Sawage as ` it thaws'. Šaawaki is attested as the spirit of the South, or the South Wind, in this account, in one of Voegelin's tales, in a song collected by Voegelin. Europeans reported encountering the Shawnee over a wides geographic area. One of the earliest mentions of the Shawnee may be a 1614 Dutch map showing some Sawwanew located just east of the Delaware River. 17th-century Dutch sources place them in this general location. Accounts by French explorers in the same century located the Shawnee along the Ohio River, where the French encountered them on forays from eastern Canada and the Illinois Country. A Shawnee town might have from forty to one hundred bark-covered houses similar in construction to Iroquois longhouses; each village had a meeting house or council house sixty to ninety feet long, where public deliberations took place. According to one English legend, some Shawnee were descended from a party sent by Chief Opechancanough, ruler of the Powhatan Confederacy 1618–1644, to settle in the Shenandoah Valley.
The party was led by Sheewa-a-nee. Edward Bland, an explorer who accompanied Abraham Wood's expedition in 1650, wrote that in Opechancanough's day, there had been a falling-out between the Chawan chief and the weroance of the Powhatan, he said. The Shawnee were "driven from Kentucky in the 1670s by the Iroquois of Pennsylvania and New York, who claimed the Ohio valley as hunting ground to supply its fur trade; the colonists Batts and Fallam in 1671 reported that the Shawnee were contesting control of the Shenandoah Valley with the Haudenosaunee Confederacy in that year, were losing. Sometime before 1670, a group of Shawnee migrated to the Savannah River area; the English based in Charles Town, South Carolina were contacted by these Shawnee in 1674. They forged a long-lasting alliance; the Savannah River Shawnee were known to the Carolina English as "Savannah Indians". Around the same time, other Shawnee groups migrated to Florida, Maryland and other regions south and east of the Ohio country. D'Iberville, writing in his journal in 1699, describes the Shawnee as "the single nati
The Piscataway or Piscatawa referred to as the Piscataway Indian Nation, are Native Americans, once constituting the most populous and powerful Native polities of the Chesapeake Bay region. They spoke a dialect of Nanticoke. One of their neighboring tribes, with whom they merged after a massive decline of population following two centuries of interactions with European settlers, called them Conoy. Two major groups representing Piscataway descendants received state recognition as Native American tribes in 2012: the Piscataway Indian Nation and Tayac Territory and the Piscataway Conoy Tribe of Maryland. Within the latter group was included the Piscataway Conoy Confederacy and Sub-Tribes and the Cedarville Band of Piscataway Indians. All these groups are located in Southern Maryland. None is federally recognized; the Piscataway were recorded by the English as the Pascatowies, Pazaticans, Paskattaway, Pascatacon and Puscattawy. They were referred to by the names of their villages: Moyaonce, Accotick, or Accokicke, or Accokeek.
Related Algonquian-speaking tribes included the Anacostan, Choptico, Doeg, or Doge, or Taux. More distantly related tribes included the Accomac, Choptank, Patuxent, Pokomoke and Wicomoco; the Piscataway language was part of the large Algonquian language family. Jesuit missionary Father Andrew White translated the Catholic Catechism into Piscataway in 1640, other English missionaries compiled Piscataway-language materials; the Piscataway by 1600 were on the north bank of the Potomac River in what is now Charles, southern Prince George's, some of western St. Mary's counties in southern Maryland, according to John Smith's 1608 map; this notes the several Patuxent River settlements that were under some degree of Piscataway suzerainty. The Piscataway settlements appear in that same area on maps through 1700 Piscataway descendants now inhabit part of their traditional homelands in these areas. None of the three state-recognized tribes noted above has a trust land, their status as "landless" Indians had contributed to their difficulty in proving historical continuity and being recognized as self-governing tribes.
The Piscataway relied more on agriculture than many of their neighbors, which enabled them to live in permanent villages. They lived, their crops included corn, several varieties of beans, pumpkins and tobacco, which were bred and cultivated by women. Men used bows and arrows to hunt bear, elk and wolves, as well as smaller game of beaver, squirrels and wild turkeys, they did fishing and clam harvesting. Women gathered berries and tubers in season to supplement their diets; as was common among the Algonquian peoples, Piscataway villages consisted of several individual houses protected by a defensive log palisade. Traditional houses were rectangular and 10 feet high and 20 feet long, a type of longhouse, with barrel-shaped roofs covered with bark or woven mats. A hearth occupied the center of the house with a smoke hole overhead. A succession of indigenous peoples occupied the Chesapeake and Tidewater region, arriving according to archeologists' estimates from 3,000 to 10,000 years ago. People of Algonquian stock, which coalesced into the Piscataway nation, lived in the Potomac River drainage area since at least AD 1300.
Sometime around AD 800, peoples living along the Potomac had begun to cultivate maize as a supplement to their ordinary hunting-gathering diet of fish and wild plants. Some evidence suggests that the Piscataway migrated from the Eastern Shore, or from the upper Potomac, or from sources hundreds of miles to the north, it is certain, that by the 16th century, the Piscataway were a distinct polity with a distinct society and culture, who lived year-round in permanent villages. The onset of a centuries-long "Little Ice Age" after 1300 had driven Algonquian and Iroquoian peoples from upland and northern communities southward to the warmer climate of the Potomac basin. Growing seasons there were long enough for them to cultivate maize; as more tribes occupied the area, they had increasing conflict. By 1400, the Piscataway and their Algonquian tribal neighbors had become numerous because of their sophisticated agriculture, which provided calorie-rich maize and squash; these crops added surplus to their hunting-gathering subsistence economy and supported greater populations.
The women cultivated and processed numerous varieties of maize and other plants, breeding them for taste and other characteristics. The Piscataway and other related peoples were able to feed their growing communities, they continued to gather wild plants from nearby freshwater marshes. The men cleared new fields and fished. By 1600, incursions by the Susquehannock and other Iroquoian peoples from the north had entirely destroyed many of the Piscataway and other Algonquian settlements above present-day Great Falls, Virginia on the Potomac River; the villages below the fall line survived by banding together for common defense. They consolidated authority under hereditary chiefs who exacted tribute, sent men to war, coordinated the resistance against northern incursions and rival claimants to the lands. A hierarchy of places and rulers emerged: hamlets without hereditary rulers paid tribute to a nearby village, its chief, or werowance, appointed a "lesser king" to each dependent settlement. Changes in social s
A monopoly exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity. This contrasts with a monopsony which relates to a single entity's control of a market to purchase a good or service, with oligopoly which consists of a few sellers dominating a market. Monopolies are thus characterized by a lack of economic competition to produce the good or service, a lack of viable substitute goods, the possibility of a high monopoly price well above the seller's marginal cost that leads to a high monopoly profit; the verb monopolise or monopolize refers to the process by which a company gains the ability to raise prices or exclude competitors. In economics, a monopoly is a single seller. In law, a monopoly is a business entity that has significant market power, that is, the power to charge overly high prices. Although monopolies may be big businesses, size is not a characteristic of a monopoly. A small business may still have the power to raise prices in a small industry.
A monopoly is distinguished from a monopsony, in which there is only one buyer of a product or service. A monopoly should be distinguished from a cartel, in which several providers act together to coordinate services, prices or sale of goods. Monopolies and oligopolies are all situations in which one or a few entities have market power and therefore interact with their customers, or suppliers in ways that distort the market. Monopolies can be established by a government, form or form by integration. In many jurisdictions, competition laws restrict monopolies. Holding a dominant position or a monopoly in a market is not illegal in itself, however certain categories of behavior can be considered abusive and therefore incur legal sanctions when business is dominant. A government-granted monopoly or legal monopoly, by contrast, is sanctioned by the state to provide an incentive to invest in a risky venture or enrich a domestic interest group. Patents and trademarks are sometimes used as examples of government-granted monopolies.
The government may reserve the venture for itself, thus forming a government monopoly. Monopolies may be occurring due to limited competition because the industry is resource intensive and requires substantial costs to operate. In economics, the idea of monopoly is important in the study of management structures, which directly concerns normative aspects of economic competition, provides the basis for topics such as industrial organization and economics of regulation. There are four basic types of market structures in traditional economic analysis: perfect competition, monopolistic competition and monopoly. A monopoly is a structure in which a single supplier sells a given product. If there is a single seller in a certain market and there are no close substitutes for the product the market structure is that of a "pure monopoly". Sometimes, there are many sellers in an industry and/or there exist many close substitutes for the goods being produced, but companies retain some market power; this is termed monopolistic competition.
In general, the main results from this theory compare price-fixing methods across market structures, analyze the effect of a certain structure on welfare, vary technological/demand assumptions in order to assess the consequences for an abstract model of society. Most economic textbooks follow the practice of explaining the perfect competition model because this helps to understand "departures" from it; the boundaries of what constitutes a market and what does not are relevant distinctions to make in economic analysis. In a general equilibrium context, a good is a specific concept including geographical and time-related characteristics. Most studies of market structure relax a little their definition of a good, allowing for more flexibility in the identification of substitute goods. Profit Maximizer: Maximizes profits. Price Maker: Decides the price of the good or product to be sold, but does so by determining the quantity in order to demand the price desired by the firm. High Barriers: Other sellers are unable to enter the market of the monopoly.
Single seller: In a monopoly, there is one seller of the good, who produces all the output. Therefore, the whole market is being served by a single company, for practical purposes, the company is the same as the industry. Price Discrimination: A monopolist can change the price or quantity of the product, he or she sells higher quantities at a lower price in a elastic market, sells lower quantities at a higher price in a less elastic market. Monopolies derive their market power from barriers to entry – circumstances that prevent or impede a potential competitor's ability to compete in a market. There are three major types of barriers to entry: economic and deliberate. Economic barriers: Economic barriers include economies of scale, capital requirements, cost advantages and technological superiority. Economies of scale: Decreasing unit costs for larger volumes of production. Decreasing costs coupled with large initial costs, If for example the industry is large enough to support one company of minimum efficient scale other companies entering the industry will operate at a size, less than MES, so cannot produce at an average cost, competitive with the dominant company.
If long-term aver
Virginia the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U. S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna; the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million. The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy.
Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia; the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008, it is unique in how it treats cities and counties manages local roads, prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley. S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.
C. to the north and east. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes; the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court; the Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the James River. Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay; the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the fall line. It includes major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay; the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville.
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet. The Ridge and Valley region includes the Great Appalachian Valley; the region includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, into the Ohio River basin; the Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was felt as far away as Toronto and Florida. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.
Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins. Over 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, sand, or gravel, were mined in Virginia in 2018; the state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns. The climate of Virginia is humid subtropical and becomes warmer and more humid farther south and east. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F in January to average highs of 86 °F in July; the Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summ
Province of Maryland
The Province of Maryland was an English and British colony in North America that existed from 1632 until 1776, when it joined the other twelve of the Thirteen Colonies in rebellion against Great Britain and became the U. S. state of Maryland. Its first settlement and capital was St. Mary's City, in the southern end of St. Mary's County, a peninsula in the Chesapeake Bay and is bordered by four tidal rivers; the province began as a proprietary colony of the English Lord Baltimore, who wished to create a haven for English Catholics in the new world at the time of the European wars of religion. Although Maryland was an early pioneer of religious toleration in the English colonies, religious strife among Anglicans, Puritans and Quakers was common in the early years, Puritan rebels seized control of the province. In 1689, the year following the Glorious Revolution, John Coode led a rebellion that removed Lord Baltimore from power in Maryland. Power in the colony was restored to the Baltimore family in 1715 when Charles Calvert, 5th Baron Baltimore, insisted in public that he was a Protestant.
Despite early competition with the colony of Virginia to its south, the Dutch colony of New Netherland to its north, the Province of Maryland developed along similar lines to Virginia. Its early settlements and population centers tended to cluster around the rivers and other waterways that empty into the Chesapeake Bay and, like Virginia, Maryland's economy became centered on the cultivation of tobacco, for sale in Europe; the need for cheap labor, with the mixed farming economy that developed when tobacco prices collapsed, led to a rapid expansion of indentured servitude, penal transportation, forcible immigration and enslavement of Africans. Maryland received a larger felon quota than any other province; the Province of Maryland was an active participant in the events leading up to the American Revolution, echoed events in New England by establishing committees of correspondence and hosting its own tea party similar to the one that took place in Boston. By 1776 the old order had been overthrown as Maryland citizens signed the Declaration of Independence, forcing the end of British colonial rule.
The Catholic George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore, former Secretary of State to His Majesty, King Charles I, wished to create a haven for English Catholics in the New World. After having visited the Americas and founded a colony in the future Canadian province of Newfoundland called "Avalon", he convinced the King to grant him a second territory in more southern, temperate climes. Upon Baltimore's death in 1632 the grant was transferred to his eldest son Cecil. On 20 June 1632, Charles granted the original charter for Maryland, a proprietary colony of about twelve million acres, to the 2nd Baron Baltimore; some historians view this grant as a form of compensation for Calvert's father's having been stripped of his title of Secretary of State upon announcing his Roman Catholicism in 1625. The charter offered no guidelines on religion, although it was assumed that Catholics would not be molested in the new colony. Whatever the reason for granting the colony to Baltimore, the King had practical reasons to create a colony north of the Potomac in 1632.
The colony of New Netherland begun by England's great imperial rival in this era, the United Provinces claimed the Delaware River valley and was vague about its border with Virginia. Charles rejected all the Dutch claims on the Atlantic seaboard, but was anxious to bolster English claims by formally occupying the territory; the new colony was named after the devoutly Catholic Henrietta Maria of France, the Queen Consort, by an agreement between George Calvert and King Charles I. Colonial Maryland was larger than Maryland; the original charter granted the Calverts a province with a boundary line that started "from the promontory or headland, called Watkin's Point, situate upon the bay aforesaid near the river Wighco on the West, unto the main ocean on the east. From there, the boundary continued south to the southern bank of the Potomac River, continue along the southern river bank to the Chesapeake Bay, "thence by the shortest line unto the aforesaid promontory, or place, called Watkin's Point."p. 38.
Based on this deceptively imprecise description of the boundary, the land may have comprised up to 18,750 square miles. In Maryland, Baltimore sought to create a haven for English Catholics and to demonstrate that Catholics and Protestants could live together peacefully issuing the Act Concerning Religion in matters of religion. Cecil Calvert was himself a convert to Catholicism, a considerable political setback for a nobleman in 17th century England, where Roman Catholics could be considered enemies of the crown and potential traitors to their country. Like other aristocratic proprietors, he hoped to turn a profit on the new colony; the Calvert family recruited Catholic aristocrats and Protestant settlers for Maryland, luring them with generous land grants and a policy of religious toleration. To try to gain settlers, Maryland used what is known as the headright system, which originated in Jamestown. Settlers were given 50 acres of land for each person they brought into the colony, whether as settler, indentured servant, or slave.
Of the 200 or so initial settlers who traveled to Maryland on the ships Ark and Dove, the majority were
The Powhatan people are an Indigenous group traditionally from Virginia. In some instances, The Powhatan may refer to one of the leaders of the people; this is most the case in historical writings by the English. The Powhatans have been known as Virginia Algonquians, as the Powhatan language is an eastern-Algonquian language known as Virginia Algonquian, it is estimated that there were about 14,000–21,000 Powhatan people in eastern Virginia, when the English colonized Jamestown in 1607. In the late 16th and early 17th centuries, a mamanatowick named Wahunsenacawh created a powerful organization by affiliating 30 tributary peoples, whose territory was much of eastern Virginia, they called this area Tsenacommacah. Wahunsenacawh came to be known by the English as "The Powhatan"; each of the tribes within this organization had its own weroance, but all paid tribute to The Powhatan. After Wahunsenacawh's death in 1618, hostilities with colonists escalated under the chiefdom of his brother, who sought in vain to drive off the encroaching English.
His large-scale attacks in 1622 and 1644 met strong reprisals by the English, resulting in the near elimination of the tribe. By 1646, what is called the Powhatan Paramount Chiefdom by modern historians had been decimated. More important than the ongoing conflicts with the English settlements was the high rate of deaths the Powhatan suffered due to new infectious diseases carried to North America by Europeans, such as measles and smallpox; the Native Americans did not have any immunity to these, endemic in Europe and Asia for centuries. The wholesale deaths weakened and hollowed out the Native American societies. By the mid-17th century, the leaders of the colony were desperate for labor to develop the land. Half of the English and European immigrants arrived as indentured servants; as settlement continued, the colonists imported growing numbers of enslaved Africans for labor. By 1700, the colonies had one-twelfth of the population, it was common for black slaves to join the surrounding Powhatan.
Africans and whites lived together. After Bacon's Rebellion in 1676, the colony enslaved Indians for control. In 1691, the House of Burgesses abolished Indian slavery. In the 21st century, eight Indian tribes are recognized by Virginia, as having ancestral ties to the Powhatan confederation; the Pamunkey and Mattaponi are the only two peoples who have retained reservation lands from the 17th century. The competing cultures of the Powhatan and English settlers were united through unions and marriages of members, the most well known of, Pocahontas and John Rolfe, their son Thomas Rolfe was the ancestor of many Virginians. Some survivors of the Powhatan confederacy have relocated elsewhere. Beginning in the late 19th century, individual people identifying collectively as the Powhatan Renape Nation settled a tiny subdivision known as Morrisville and Delair, in Pennsauken Township, New Jersey, their ancestry is from the Rappahannock tribe of Virginia and the related Nanticoke tribe of Delaware. They have been recognized as a tribe by the state of New Jersey.
The name "Powhatan" is the name of the native town of Wahunsenacawh. The title "Chief" or "King" Powhatan, used by the English is believed to have been derived from the name of this site. Although the specific site of his home village is unknown, in modern times the Powhatan Hill neighborhood in the East End portion of the modern-day city of Richmond, Virginia is thought by many to be in the general vicinity of the original village. Tree Hill Farm, situated in nearby Henrico County a short distance to the east, is considered as the possible site. "Powhatan" was the name used by the natives to refer to the river where the town sat at the head of navigation. The English colonists chose to name it for their own leader, King James I; the English colonists named many features in the early years of the Virginia Colony in honor of the king, as well as for his three children, Elizabeth and Charles. Although portions of Virginia's longest river upstream from Columbia were much named for Queen Anne of Great Britain, in modern times, it is called the James River.
It forms at the confluence of the Jackson and Cowpasture rivers near the present-day town of Clifton Forge, flowing east to Hampton Roads.. The only water body in Virginia to retain a name related to the Powhatan peoples is Powhatan Creek, located in James City County near Williamsburg. Powhatan County and its county seat at Powhatan, Virginia were honorific names established years in locations west of the area populated by the Powhatan peoples; the county was formed in March 1777. Various tribes each held some individual powers locally, each had a chief known as a weroance or, more a weroansqua, meaning "commander"; as early as the era of John Smith, the individual tribes of this grouping were recognized by the English as falling under the greater authority of the centralized power led by the chiefdom of Powhatan, whose proper name was Wahunsenacawh or Wahunsunacock. At the time of the 1607 English Settlement at Jamestown, he ruled pr
Stafford County, Virginia
Stafford County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. It is a suburb outside of Washington D. C, it is 40 miles south of D. C; as of the 2010 census, the population was 128,961. Its county seat is Stafford. Located across the Rappahannock River from the City of Fredericksburg, Stafford County is part of the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area. In 2006, again in 2009, Stafford was ranked by Forbes magazine as the 11th highest-income county in the United States. For thousands of years, various cultures of indigenous peoples succeeded each other in their territories along the Potomac River and its tributaries. By the time of English colonization, there were 32 Algonquian-speaking American Indian tribes in the present-day coastal Tidewater Virginia area, including those of the Patawomeck and numerous tribes that were part of the Powhatan Confederacy; the former small tribe, still centered in Stafford County, was recognized by the state of Virginia in 2010.
The Native Americans' first recorded encounter with Europeans in this area was in 1608, with John Smith of the Jamestown Settlement. During a time of recurring tension between the early English colonists and local Native Americans, the colonists led by Samuel Argall captured Chief Powhatan's daughter, while she was living with her husband, Kocoum; the colonists took her from the eastern part of this county, to a secondary English settlement, known as Henricus. Alexander Whitaker converted Pocahontas to Christianity during her captivity, he renamed her as "Rebecca" at her baptism. Rebecca/Pocahontas married English colonist John Rolfe on April 1614 in Jamestown, their mixed-race descendants were among the First Families of Virginia. The English colonial government of Virginia imposed its own order on peoples. In 1664 it established Stafford County from territory part of Westmoreland County, it was named after England. As delineated, Stafford County included a much larger area than its current borders.
As population grew, the following counties and jurisdictions were created: Arlington and Prince William counties, the City of Alexandria. It is part of the area now considered Northern Virginia. George Washington spent much of his childhood in the lower part of the county at his family's home Ferry Farm, along the Rappahannock River across from Fredericksburg. Colonial Forge High School was built on a tract of land owned in colonial times by his father Augustine Washington. George Mason, another Founding Father lived in Stafford during his formative years,Aquia Church, built in 1757, is unusual among local structures for having been designed on the plan of a Greek cross rather than the more standard Roman Cross design. In addition, Aquia Church has a rare three-tiered pulpit; the Episcopal church continues to be active today. Stafford County industry and resources were important to early nation. During the Revolutionary War, the Stafford ironworks furnished arms for the colonial rebel soldiers.
Aquia Creek sandstone, quarried from Government Island, was used to build the White House and the U. S. Capitol. During the American Civil War, the county was part of the battlegrounds, occupied by more than 100,000 troops for several years. In 1862, before and after the Battle of Fredericksburg, some 10,000 African-American slaves left area plantations and city households to cross the Rappahannock River, reaching the Union lines and gaining freedom; this exodus and Trail of Freedom is commemorated by historical markers on both sides of the river, in Fredericksburg and in Stafford County. The Battle of Aquia Creek took place in the Aquia Harbour area. Both the Union Army and Confederate Army struggled to control the strategic Potomac Creek Bridge at various times during the war. Falmouth, a town bordering Fredericksburg, was the home of late-19th century American Impressionist artist Gari Melchers, his house, still stands and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Stafford County has developed as part of the Washington, D.
C. metropolitan area, the seat of government and numerous major defense installations. Marine Corps Base Quantico in neighboring Prince William County, occupies northern areas of this county. Many residents commute north to work there and in other defense and federal facilities, as well as private companies, in Washington, DC and its environs on Interstate Highway 95, U. S. Route 1, by Virginia Railway Express. In the early morning hours of May 9, 2008, a tornado touched down in the southern part of the county damaging about 140 suburban homes; the county was affected by "Snowmageddon," the massive blizzards of December 2009 and February 2010. Stafford received some of the heaviest snow in the D. C. metropolitan area, with about 25 inches of snow in December, 19 inches in February. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 280 square miles, of which 269 square miles is land and 11 square miles is water; the Potomac River flows along part of the eastern border of the county, while the Rappahannock River runs along the extent of the county's southern border.
The independent city of Fredericksburg developed at the fall line of the river, supporting mills run by water power. To the northwest of there is the Piedmont area. Aquia Creek empties into the tidal segment of the Potomac River at Brent Point in Stafford County. Rappahannock River Potomac River Aquia Creek The county is divided into seven magisterial districts: George Washington, Falmouth, Griff