James Clark Ross
Sir James Clark Ross was a British Royal Navy explorer known for his exploration of the Arctic with Sir William Parry and Sir John Ross, his uncle, in particular, his own expedition to Antarctica. Ross was born in London, the nephew of Sir John Ross, under whom he entered the navy in 1812, accompanying him on Sir John's first Arctic voyage in search of a Northwest Passage in 1818. Between 1819 and 1827, Ross took part in four Arctic expeditions under Sir William Parry, in 1829 to 1833, again served under his uncle on Sir John's second Arctic voyage, it was during this trip that a small party led by James Ross located the position of the North Magnetic Pole on 1 June 1831 on the Boothia Peninsula in the far north of Canada. It was on this trip, that Ross charted the Beaufort Islands renamed Clarence Islands by his uncle. In 1834, Ross was promoted to captain. In December 1835, he offered his services to the Admiralty to resupply 11 whaling ships which had become trapped in Baffin Bay, they accepted his offer, he set sail in HMS Cove in January 1836.
The crossing was difficult, by the time he had reached the last known position of the whalers in June, all but one had managed to return home. Ross found no trace of this last vessel, William Torr, crushed in the ice in December 1835, he returned to Hull in September 1836 with all his crew in good health. From 1835–1839, except for his voyage with Cove, he conducted a magnetic survey of Great Britain with Sir Edward Sabine. Between 1839 and 1843, Ross commanded HMS Erebus on his own Antarctic expedition and charted much of the continent's coastline. Captain Francis Crozier was second-in-command of commanding HMS Terror. Support for the expedition had been arranged by Francis Beaufort, hydrographer of the Navy and a member of several scientific societies. On the expedition was Joseph Dalton Hooker, invited along as assistant ship's surgeon. Erebus and Terror were bomb vessels—an unusual type of warship named after the mortar bombs they were designed to fire and constructed with strong hulls, to withstand the recoil of the mortars, which were to prove of great value in thick ice.
In 1841, James Ross discovered the Ross Sea, Victoria Land, the volcanoes Mount Erebus and Mount Terror, which were named for the expedition's vessels. They sailed for 250 nautical miles along the edge of the low, flat-topped ice shelf they called variously the Barrier or the Great Ice Barrier named the Ross Ice Shelf in his honour; the following year, he attempted to penetrate south at about 55° W, explored the eastern side of what is now known as James Ross Island and naming Snow Hill Island and Seymour Island. Ross reported that Admiralty Sound appeared to him to have been blocked by glaciers at its southern end. Ross's ships arrived back in England on 4 September 1843, he was awarded the Grande Médaille d'Or des Explorations in 1843, knighted in 1844, elected to the Royal Society in 1848. In 1848, Ross was sent on one of three expeditions to find Sir John Franklin; the others were the Rae–Richardson Arctic Expedition and the expedition aboard HMS Plover and HMS Herald through the Bering Strait.
He was given command of HMS Enterprise, accompanied by HMS Investigator, Because of heavy ice in Baffin Bay he only reached the northeast tip of Somerset Island where he was frozen in at Port Leopold. In the spring he and Sir Francis McClintock explored the west coast of the island by sledge, he thought it too ice-choked for Franklin to have used it. The next summer he was blocked by ice and returned to England, he was married to Lady Ann Coulman. He died at Aylesbury five years after his wife. A blue plaque marks Ross's home in Eliot Place, London, his closest friend was Francis Crozier. He lived in the ancient House of the Abbots of St. Albans in Buckinghamshire, he is buried with his wife in Aston Abbotts. In the gardens of the Abbey there is a lake with two islands, named after the ships Terror and Erebus. Ross, played by British actor Richard Sutton, is a secondary character in the 2018 AMC television series The Terror, portrayed in a fictionalized version of his 1848 search for Franklin's lost expedition, as well as in the 2007 Dan Simmons novel on which the series is based.
The Ross seal, one of the four Antarctic phocids, first described during the Ross expedition The James Ross Strait, Ross Bay, Ross Point, Rossoya in the Arctic are all named after him. RRS James Clark Ross is a British Antarctic Survey research ship; the crater Ross on the Moon is named after him. Ross's gull, a small gull, the only species in its genus, that breeds in the high arctic of northernmost North America and northeast Siberia Ross Dependency, Ross Island, Ross Ice Shelf and Ross Sea in the Antarctic are all named after him. European and American voyages of scientific exploration E. C. Coleman, The Royal Navy in Polar Exploration From Frobisher to Ross. ISBN 0752436600. Ray Edinger, Fury Beach: The Four-Year Odyssey of Captain John Ross and the Victory. ISBN 0425188450. "Ross, John". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. 1900. Media related to James Clark Ross at Wikimedia Commons Works by or about James Clark Ross at Internet Archive
Southern Norway is the geographical region along the Skagerrak coast of southern Norway. The region is an informal description, it corresponds to the old petty kingdom of Agder as well as the two present-day counties of Vest-Agder and Aust-Agder. The total combined area of Vest-Agder and Aust-Agder counties is 16,493 square kilometres; the name is new, having first been used in Norway around 1900. The region includes coastal areas along the Skagerrak and extends inland to the Setesdalsheiene mountains. There are many large valleys running from the mountains to the south and east to the sea; the highest point in the region is Sæbyggjenuten at 1,507 m. Sørlandet refers to the region along the Skaggerak in southeastern Norway; this name should not be confused with the Norwegian term Sør-Norge which means South Norway. This region was called Agder and it was a petty kingdom centuries ago; the name Agder was known in Old Norse as "Agðir", is assumed to be connected to the word ǫgd. Southern Norway is the "youngest" of the many old regions within Norway.
The name Sørlandet was first used by the author Vilhelm Krag. Krag proposed that Sørlandet should have been bigger than it is today, he suggested from Egersund to Grenland; the present day use of Sørlandet refers to an area smaller than that, but there is no official border. All the way back in 1865, it was talked about "the southern Norway boats"; the name and modern concept of this part of the country being considered as a separate region was introduced as late as 1902 by the local author Vilhelm Krag. Prior to this, the area was considered part of Western Norway. Southern Norway coincides with the historic petty kingdom of Agder, which lends its name to the two constituent counties: Vest-Agder and Aust-Agder, as well as the University of Agder. If defined as an informal region, Southern Norway is more properly defined as the Skagerrak coastal belt, thus excluding the inland valleys to the north. Adjacent parts of the county of Rogaland and Telemark might be considered part of this region, as well.
Traditionally, the easternmost border of Agder was Rygjarbit, thought to be Gjernestangen in the present-day municipality of Risør, but it could be the strait between Askerøya and Lyngør in Tvedestrand. The Arendal Airport, Gullknapp is a general aviation airport located outside of Arendal city; the airport was founded in 1984 with a 500-metre long runway. Arendal Airport, Rådhuskaien is a former water airport in the cove of downtown Arendal, but it is now closed. Farsund Airport, Lista is a former public airport located with Lista, it opened in 1941 and closed in 1999. The airport was located at Lista. Mandal Airfield is a former military owned airport, now closed. Kristiansand Airport, Kjevik is the only public airport in Southern Norway, in 2014 there were over 1 million travelers from the airport. Kjevik Airport has destinations to charter places, European cities and some of the largest Norwegian cities; the Airport opened in 1918 and is located at Tveit, 16 kilometres from downtown Kristiansand, Kvadraturen.
The IATA code is KRS and ICAO is ENCN. It is owned by Avinor. Kristiansand Airport, Kongsgårdbukta is a former water-airport located at Lund from 1934 to 1939. Kristiansand Naval Air Station is a former water-airport located at Tangen from 1919 to 1949. All bus lines and buses in Southern Norway are owned by Agder Kollektivtrafikk. Nettbuss serves the Kristiansand Region with local blue buses. In Kristiansand, the city buses are in service every day from 4:00 AM until 1:00 AM, extra night buses during the weekend and direct/extra buses during the rush hours. Setesdal Bilruter serves the Setesdal, Østre Agder, Lillesand areas. Line 100 goes connects Arendal–Grimstad–Lillesand–Kristiansand. Bus lines from Setesdal go to both Kristiansand. Line 150 goes from Arendal to Risør. Sørlandsruta serves the coastal villages in Vest-Agder county. Line 200 is the main line going from Kristiansand to Mandal, Vigeland and Farsund; some of the buses collaborate with the local buses from Lyngdal to Kvinesdal. The European route E18 highway goes through Aust-Agder county to the east side of Kristiansand.
The E18 ends at Kristiansand. The European route E39 highay starts at the Kristiansand ferry port where it connects to Denmark and from the ferry port it heads west through Vest-Agder county; the E39 follows the shore and coastal towns all the way to Stavanger and beyond in Western Norway. Norwegian National Road 9 starts in Kristiansand and up through Setesdal. Norwegian National Road 41 starts in Tveit in Kristiansand, goes past the Airport, it continues to Birkenes and Åmli in Aust-Agder and continues to Telemark county. Norwegian County Road 43 goes from Lista to Lyngdal and Eiken in Hægebostad. From the Kristiansand harbour, there are ferries from Kristiansand to Hirtshals in Denmark three times daily. In Arendal, there are local ferries to the island of Tromøya. Trains from Oslo to Stavanger go through the entire Southern Norway region. There are trains from Oslo Central Station to Kristiansand Station and from Stavanger Station to Kristiansand Station. From Nelaug Station there is a local train going to Arendal Station, since the main railroad runs inland and not along the coast at Arendal.
Key industries in Southern Norway are forestry and tourism. Tourism is important in the summer due to the mild climate
Arctic exploration is the physical exploration of the Arctic region of the Earth. It refers to the historical period during which mankind has explored the region north of the Arctic Circle. Historical records suggest that humankind have explored the northern extremes since 325 BC, when the ancient Greek sailor Pytheas reached a frozen sea while attempting to find a source of the metal tin. Dangerous oceans and poor weather conditions fetter explorers attempting to reach polar regions and journeying through these perils by sight and foot has proven difficult; some scholars believe that the first attempts to penetrate the Arctic Circle can be traced to ancient Greece and the sailor Pytheas, a contemporary of Aristotle and Alexander the Great, who, in c. 325 BC, attempted to find the source of the tin that would sporadically reach the Greek colony of Massilia on the Mediterranean coast. Sailing past the Pillars of Hercules, he reached Brittany and Cornwall circumnavigating the British Isles. From the local population, he heard news of the mysterious land of Thule farther to the north.
After six days of sailing, he reached land at the edge of a frozen sea, described what is believed to be the aurora and the midnight sun. Some historians claim that this new land of Thule was either the Norwegian coast or the Shetland Islands based on his descriptions and the trade routes of early British sailors. While no one knows how far Pytheas sailed, he may have crossed the Arctic Circle, his tales were regarded as fantasy by Greek and Roman authorities, such as the geographer Strabo. The first Viking to sight Iceland was Gardar Svavarsson, who lost his route due to harsh conditions when sailing from Norway to the Faroe Islands; this led to a wave of colonization. Not all the settlers were successful however in the attempts to reach the island. In the 10th century, Gunnbjörn Ulfsson got lost in a storm and ended up within sight of the Greenland coast, his report spurred Erik the Red, an outlawed chieftain, to establish a settlement there in 985. While they flourished these settlements foundered due to changing climatic conditions.
They are believed to have survived until around 1450. Greenland's early settlers sailed westward, in search of better hunting grounds. Modern scholars debate the precise location of the new lands of Vinland and Helluland that they discovered; the Scandinavian peoples pushed farther north into their own peninsula by land and by sea. As early as 880, the Viking Ohthere of Hålogaland rounded the Scandinavian Peninsula and sailed to the Kola Peninsula and the White Sea; the Pechenga Monastery on the north of Kola Peninsula was founded by Russian monks in 1533. They explored north by boat, discovering the Northern Sea Route, as well as penetrating to the trans-Ural areas of northern Siberia, they founded the settlement of Mangazeya east of the Yamal Peninsula in the early 16th century. In 1648 the Cossack Semyon Dezhnyov opened the now famous Bering Strait between Asia. Russian settlers and traders on the coasts of the White Sea, the Pomors, had been exploring parts of the northeast passage as early as the 11th century.
By the 17th century they established a continuous sea route from Arkhangelsk as far east as the mouth of Yenisey. This route, known as Mangazeya seaway, after its eastern terminus, the trade depot of Mangazeya, was an early precursor to the Northern Sea Route. Exploration to the north of the Arctic Circle in the Renaissance was both driven by the rediscovery of the Classics and the national quests for commercial expansion, hampered by limits in maritime technology, lack of stable food supplies, insufficient insulation for the crew against extreme cold. A seminal event in Arctic exploration occurred in 1409, when Ptolemy's Geographia was translated into Latin, thereby introducing the concepts of latitude and longitude into Western Europe. Navigators were better able to chart their positions, the European race to China, sparked by interest in the writings of Marco Polo, commenced; the Inventio Fortunata, a lost book, describes in a summary written by Jacobus Cnoyen but only found in a letter from Gerardus Mercator, voyages as far as the North Pole.
One disputed claim is that two brothers from Venice and Antonio Zeno made a map of their journeys to that region, which were published by their descendants in 1558. The Northwest Passage connects the Pacific Oceans via the Arctic Ocean. Since the discovery of the American continent was the product of the search for a route to Asia, exploration around the northern edge of North America continued for the Northwest Passage. John Cabot's initial failure in 1497 to find a Northwest Passage across the Atlantic led the British to seek an alternative route to the east. Interest re-kindled in 1564 after Jacques Cartier's discovery of the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River. Martin Frobisher had formed a resolution to undertake the challenge of forging a trade route from England westward to India. In 1576 - 1578, he took three trips to. Frobisher Bay is named after him. In July 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, who had written a treatise on the discovery of the passage and was a backer of Frobisher's, claimed the territory of Newfoundland for the English crown.
On August 8, 1585, under the employ of Elizabeth I the English explorer John Davis entered Cumberland Sound, Baffin Island. Davis rounded Greenland before dividing his four ships into separate expeditions to search for a passage
Shetland called the Shetland Islands and Zetland, is a subarctic archipelago of Scotland that lies northeast of the mainland of Scotland. The islands lie some 80 km to the northeast of Orkney, 168 km from the Scottish mainland and 280 km southeast of the Faroe Islands, they form part of the division between the Atlantic Ocean to the North Sea to the east. The total area is 1,466 km2, the population totalled 23,210 in 2011. Comprising the Shetland constituency of the Scottish Parliament, Shetland Islands Council is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland; the largest island, known as the "Mainland", has an area of 967 km2, making it the third-largest Scottish island and the fifth-largest of the British Isles. There are an additional 15 inhabited islands; the archipelago has an oceanic climate, a complex geology, a rugged coastline and many low, rolling hills. Humans have lived in Shetland since the Mesolithic period; the earliest written references to the islands date to Roman times. The early historic period was dominated by Scandinavian influences from Norway, the islands did not become part of Scotland until the 15th century.
When Scotland became part of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707, trade with northern Europe decreased. Fishing has continued to be an important aspect of the economy up to the present day; the discovery of North Sea oil in the 1970s boosted Shetland's economy and public sector revenues. The local way of life reflects the Scottish and Norse heritage of the isles, including the Up Helly Aa fire festival, a strong musical tradition the traditional fiddle style; the islands have produced a variety of writers of prose and poetry in the distinct Shetland dialect of Scots. There are numerous areas set aside to protect the local fauna and flora, including a number of important sea bird nesting sites; the Shetland pony and Shetland Sheepdog are two well-known Shetland animal breeds. Other local breeds include the Shetland sheep, cow and duck; the Shetland pig, or grice, has been extinct since about 1930. The islands' motto, which appears on the Council's coat of arms, is "Með lögum skal land byggja"; the Old Norse original of this Icelandic phrase is taken from the Danish 1241 Basic Law, Code of Jutland, is mentioned in Njáls saga, means "By law shall land be built".
The name of Shetland is derived from the Old Norse words and land. In AD 43 and 77 the Roman authors Pomponius Mela and Pliny the Elder referred to the seven islands they called Haemodae and Acmodae, both of which are assumed to be Shetland. Another possible early written reference to the islands is Tacitus' report in Agricola in AD 98, after describing the discovery and conquest of Orkney, that the Roman fleet had seen "Thule, too". In early Irish literature, Shetland is referred to as Insi Catt—"the Isles of Cats", which may have been the pre-Norse inhabitants' name for the islands; the Cat tribe occupied parts of the northern Scottish mainland and their name can be found in Caithness, in the Gaelic name for Sutherland. The oldest version of the modern name Shetland is Hetlandensis, the Latinised adjectival form of the Old Norse name recorded in a letter from Harald, Count of Shetland in 1190, becoming Hetland in 1431 after various intermediate transformations, it is possible. It became Hjaltland in the 16th century.
As Norn was replaced by Scots in the form of the Shetland dialect, Hjaltland became Ȝetland. The initial letter is the Middle Scots letter, the pronunciation of, identical to the original Norn sound, /hj/; when the use of the letter yogh was discontinued, it was replaced by the similar-looking letter z, hence Zetland, the form used in the name of the pre-1975 county council. This is the source of the ZE postcode used for Shetland. Most of the individual islands have Norse names, although the derivations of some are obscure and may represent pre-Norse Pictish or pre-Celtic names or elements. Shetland is around 170 kilometres north of mainland Scotland, covers an area of 1,468 square kilometres and has a coastline 2,702 kilometres long. Lerwick, the capital and largest settlement, has a population of 6,958 and about half of the archipelago's total population of 23,167 people live within 16 kilometres of the town. Scalloway on the west coast, the capital until 1708, has a population of less than 1,000.
Only 16 of about 100 islands are inhabited. The main island of the group is known as Mainland; the next largest are Yell and Fetlar, which lie to the north, Bressay and Whalsay, which lie to the east. East and West Burra, Muckle Roe, Papa Stour and Vaila are smaller islands to the west of Mainland; the other inhabited islands are Foula 28 kilometres west of Walls, Fair Isle 38 kilometres south-west of Sumburgh Head, the Out Skerries to the east. The uninhabited islands include Mousa, known for the Broch of Mousa, the finest preserved example in Scotland of an Iron Age broch. Shetland's location means that it provides a number of such records: Muness is the most northerly castle in the United Kingdom and Skaw the most northerly settlement. The
Willem Barentsz was a Dutch navigator and Arctic explorer. He went on three expeditions to the far north in search for a Northeast passage. During his third expedition, the crew was stranded on Novaya Zemlya for a year. Barentsz died on the return voyage in 1597. In the 19th century, the Barents Sea was named after him. Willem Barentsz was born around 1550 on the island Terschelling in the Seventeen Provinces, present-day Netherlands. Barentsz was not his surname but rather his patronymic name, short for Barentszoon "Barent's son". A cartographer by trade, Barentsz sailed to Spain and the Mediterranean to complete an atlas of the Mediterranean region, which he co-published with Petrus Plancius, his career as an explorer was spent searching for the Northeast passage, which he reasoned must exist as clear, open water north of Siberia since the sun shone 24 hours a day, which he believed would have melted any potential ice. On 5 June 1594, Barentsz left the island of Texel aboard the small ship Mercury, as part of a group of three ships sent out in separate directions to try to enter the Kara Sea, with the hopes of finding the Northeast passage above Siberia.
Between 23 and 29 June, Barentsz stayed at Kildin Island. On 9 July, the crew encountered a polar bear for the first time. After shooting it with a musket when it tried to climb aboard the ship, the seamen decided to capture it with the hope of bringing it back to Holland. Once leashed and brought aboard the ship however, the bear had to be killed; this occurred in Williams Island. Upon discovering the Orange Islands, the crew came across a herd of 200 walruses and tried to kill them with hatchets and pikes. Finding the task more difficult than they imagined, they left with only a few ivory tusks. Barentsz reached the west coast of Novaya Zemlya, followed it northward before being forced to turn back in the face of large icebergs. Although they did not reach their ultimate goal, the trip was considered a success; the following year, Prince Maurice of Orange was filled with "the most exaggerated hopes" on hearing of Barentsz' previous voyage, named him chief pilot and conductor of a new expedition, accompanied by six ships loaded with merchant wares that the Dutch hoped to trade with China.
Setting out on 2 June 1595, the voyage went between Vaygach Island. On 30 August, the party came across 20 Samoyed "wild men" with whom they were able to speak, due to a crewmember speaking their language. 4 September saw a small crew sent to States Island to search for a type of crystal, noticed earlier. The party was attacked by a polar bear, two sailors were killed; the expedition turned back upon discovering that unexpected weather had left the Kara Sea frozen. This expedition was considered to be a failure. In 1596, disappointed by the failure of previous expeditions, the States-General announced they would no longer subsidize similar voyages – but instead offered a high reward for anybody who navigated the Northeast Passage; the Town Council of Amsterdam purchased and outfitted two small ships, captained by Jan Rijp and Jacob van Heemskerk, to search for the elusive channel under the command of Barentsz. They set off on 10 May or 15 May, on 9 June discovered Bear Island, they discovered Spitsbergen on 17 June.
On 20 June they saw the entrance of a large bay called Raudfjorden. On 21 June they anchored between Cloven Cliff and Vogelsang, where they "set up a post with the arms of the Dutch upon it." On 25 June they entered Magdalenefjorden, which they named Tusk Bay, in light of the walrus tusks they found there. The following day, 26 June, they sailed into the northern entrance of Forlandsundet, but were forced to turn back because of a shoal, which led them to call the fjord Keerwyck. On 28 June they rounded the northern point of Prins Karls Forland, which they named Vogelhoek, on account of the large number of birds they saw there, they sailed south, passing Isfjorden and Bellsund, which were labelled on Barentsz's chart as Grooten Inwyck and Inwyck. The ships once again found themselves at Bear Island on 1 July, which led to a disagreement between Barentsz and Van Heemskerk on one side and Rijp on the other, they agreed with Barentsz continuing northeast, while Rijp headed due north. Barentsz reached Novaya Zemlya on 17 July.
Anxious to avoid becoming entrapped in the surrounding ice, he intended to head for the Vaigatch Strait, but became stuck within the many icebergs and floes. Stranded, the 16-man crew was forced to spend the winter on the ice, along with their young cabin boy. After a failed attempt to melt the permafrost, the crew used lumber from their ship to build a 7.8×5.5 metre lodge they called Het Behouden Huys. Dealing with extreme cold, the crew realised that their socks would burn before their feet could feel the warmth of a fire – and took to sleeping with warmed stones and cannonballs. In addition, they used the merchant fabrics aboard the ship to make additional blankets and clothing; the ship bore salted beef, cheese, barley, beans, flour, vinegar, salt, wine, hardtack, smoked bacon and fish. Much of the beer froze. By 8 November Gerrit de Veer, the ships carpenter who kept a diary, reported a shortage of beer and bread, with wine being rationed four days later. In January 1597, De Veer became the first person to witness and record the atmospheric anomaly known as the Novaya Zemlya effect.
Proving successful at hunting, the group caught 26 Arctic foxes in primiti
Erik the Red
Erik Thorvaldsson, known as Erik the Red, was a Norse explorer, remembered in medieval and Icelandic saga sources as having founded the first settlement in Greenland. According to Icelandic sagas, he was born in the Jæren district of Rogaland, Norway, as the son of Thorvald Asvaldsson, he therefore appears, patronymically, as Erik Thorvaldsson. The appellation "the Red" most refers to his hair color and the color of his beard. Leif Erikson, the famous Icelandic explorer, was Erik's son. Erik the Red's father, Thorvald Asvaldsson, was banished from Norway because of some killings, he left with his son Erik to northwest Iceland, where he died before 980. According to the Greenland saga: "There was a man called Thorvald, the father of Eirik the Red, he and Eirik left their home in Jaederen, in Norway, because of some killings and went to Iceland, extensively settled by then. He settled in Hornstrandir in northwestern Iceland; the Icelanders sentenced Erik to exile for three years for killing Eyiolf the Foul around the year 982.
After marrying Thjodhild, Erik moved to Haukadalr. The initial confrontation occurred when his thralls started a landslide on the neighboring farm belonging to Valthjof. Valthjof's friend, Eyiolf the Foul, killed the thralls. In retaliation, Erik killed Holmgang-Hrafn. Eyiolf's kinsmen demanded his banishment from Haukadal. Erik moved to the island of Oxney, he asked Thorgest to keep his setstokkr – inherited ornamented beams of significant mystical value, which his father had brought from Norway. When he had finished his new house, he went back to get them, but they "could not be obtained". Erik went to Breidabolstad and took them; these are to have been Thorgest's setstokkr, although the sagas are unclear at this point. Thorgest gave chase, in the ensuing fight Erik slew both Thorgest's sons and "a few other men". After this, each of them retained a considerable body of men with him at his home. Styr gave Erik his support, as did Eyiolf of Sviney, Vifil's son, the sons of Thorbrand of Alptafirth.
The dispute was resolved at the Thing, which outlawed Erik for three years. Though popular history credits Erik as the first person to discover Greenland, the Icelandic sagas suggest that earlier Norsemen discovered and tried to settle it before him. Tradition credits Gunnbjorn Ulfsson with the first sighting of the land-mass. Nearly a century before Erik, strong winds had driven Gunnbjorn towards a land he called Gunnbjorn's skerries, but the accidental nature of Gunnbjorn's discovery has led to his neglect in the history of Greenland. After Gunnbjorn, Snaebjorn Galti had visited Greenland. According to records from the time, Galti headed the first Norse attempt to colonize Greenland, which ended in disaster. Erik the Red was the first permanent European settler. In this context, about 982, Erik sailed to a somewhat little-known land, he sailed up the western coast. He reached a part of the coast that, for the most part, seemed ice-free and had conditions—similar to those of Iceland—that promised growth and future prosperity.
According to the Saga of Erik the Red, he spent his three years of exile exploring this land. The first winter he spent on the second winter he passed in Eiriksholmar. In the final summer he explored as far north into Hrafnsfjord; when Erik returned to Iceland after his exile had expired, he is said to have brought with him stories of "Greenland". Erik deliberately gave the land a more appealing name than "Iceland" in order to lure potential settlers, he explained, "people would be attracted to go there if it had a favorable name". He knew that the success of any settlement in Greenland would need the support of as many people as possible, his salesmanship proved successful, as many people became convinced that Greenland held great opportunity. After spending the winter in Iceland, Erik returned to Greenland in 985 with a large number of colonists. Out of 25 ships that left for Greenland only 14 arrived, 11 were lost at sea; the Icelanders established two colonies on the southwest coast: the Eastern Settlement or Eystribyggð, in modern-day Qaqortoq, the Western Settlement, close to present-day Nuuk.
The Eastern and Western Settlements, both established on the southwest coast, proved the only two areas suitable for farming. During the summers, when the weather favored travel more, each settlement would send an army of men to hunt in Disko Bay above the Arctic Circle for food and other valuable commodities such as seals, ivory from walrus tusks, beached whales. In the Eastern Settlement, Erik built the estate of Brattahlid, near present-day Narsarsuaq, he held the title of paramount chieftain of Greenland and became both respected and wealthy. The settlement flourished, growing to 5,000 inhabitants spread over a considerable area along Eriksfjord and neighboring fjords. Groups of immigrants escaping overcrowding in Iceland joined the original party. However, one group of immigrants which arrived in 1002 brought with it an epidemic that ravaged the colony, killing many of its leading citizens, including Erik him
Faroese people or Faroe Islanders are a North Germanic ethnic group and nation native to the Faroe Islands. The Faroese are of mixed Gaelic origins. About 21,000 Faroese live in neighbouring countries in Denmark and Norway. Most Faroese are citizens of the Kingdom of Denmark, in which the Faroe Islands are a constituent nation; the Faroese language is one of the North Germanic languages and is related to Icelandic and to western Norwegian varieties. The first known colonists were Gaelic Monks who arrived in the 6th century. From the ninth century onwards the Norse-Gaels came and brought Norse culture and language to the islands. Little is known about this period. A single source mentions the Icelandic Færeyinga saga, it was written sometime around 1200 and explains events taking place 300 years prior. According to the saga, many Norsemen objected to the Norwegian king's unification politics and thus fled to other countries, including the newfound places in the west. Historians have understood since the time of the Færeyinga saga that the Viking Grímur Kamban was the first settler in the Faroes.
The Norwegians must have known about the isles before leaving Norway. If Grímur Kamban had settled sometime earlier, this could explain the Norwegians knowing about them. Another, more logical explanation might be that the Norwegians came to know about the islands by the Gaels of Scotland and Ireland. While Grímur is an Old Norse first name, Kamban indicates a Celtic origin, thus he could have been a man from Ireland, Scotland or Isle of Man, where the Vikings had settlements. Some place names from the oldest settlements on the Faroes suggest that some of the settlers came from the Scottish islands and the British coast. Recent DNA analyses have revealed; the studies show. List of Faroese people Demographics of the Faroe Islands Culture of the Faroe Islands Flag of the Faroe Islands Faroese Dane