The Theodul Glacier is a glacier of the Alps, located south of Zermatt in the canton of Valais. It lies on the Swiss side of the Pennine Alps, although its upper basin touches the Italian region of the Aosta Valley, both branches are part of the Rhone basin, through the rivers Gornera and Vispa. Slightly above the glacier splitting is the Theodul Pass, crossing the border between Switzerland and Italy, and connecting Zermatt to Breuil-Cervinia, on the west, the Theodul Glacier is overlooked by the Matterhorn. Until about 1980s the Lower Theodul Glacier was still connected to the Gorner Glacier, the upper section of the Theodul Glacier consists of a flat plateau at around 3,800 metres, named Breithorn Plateau. The plateau lies between the Breithorn, the Gobba di Rollin and the Klein Matterhorn, the Breithorn Pass separates the Breithorn from the Gobba di Rollin. A3,795 m high saddle lies between the Gobba di Rollin and the Klein Matterhorn, between the Klein Matterhorn and the Breithorn is a distinct glacier, named Klein Matterhorn Gletscher, which joins the Lower Theodul Glacier at about 3,000 metres.
The Breithorn Plateau area can be accessed by several cable cars connecting Zermatt to the Klein Matterhorn. At around 3,500 metres is the Plateau Rosa, whose name derives from the Valdôtain patois term Rosà and this area lies between Testa Grigia and the Klein Matterhorn, south of and slightly above the Theodul Pass. Southeast of Testa Grigia is a saddle named Passo di Ventina Nord and this area can be easily accessed by several cable cars connecting Breuil-Cervinia to Testa Grigia. Most of the glacier is part of the ski area marketed as Matterhorn Glacier Paradise. It is the highest in Europe and largest summer ski area in the world, the culminating point is on the summit of Gobba di Rollin and the lowest is above Trockener Steg. The Matterhorn Glacier Paradise links the ski areas of Zermatt and Breuil-Cervina, ski lifts connect Trockener Steg, Theodul Pass, Testa Grigia, Klein Matterhorn and Gobba di Rollin. A chair lift connects Trockener Steg to the Furggsattel, north of the Theodul Pass, several lakes recently formed at the bottom of the Upper Theodul Glacier, west of Trockener Steg.
The largest, named Theodulgletschersee is 7.76 ha wide and it is the highest lake over 4 ha in Switzerland and the largest lake in the Matter Valley. The second-largest, named Furggsee is 2.57 ha wide and lies at 2,874 metres
The Breithorn is a mountain range of the Pennine Alps with its highest peak of the same name, located on the border between Switzerland and Italy. It lies on the chain of the Alps, approximately halfway between the Matterhorn and Monte Rosa and east of the Theodul Pass. Most of the massif is glaciated and includes several peaks, all located east of the main summit, the Central Breithorn, the western Breithorn Twin, the Gendarm. The main summit is distinguished by the name Western Breithorn. The nearest settlements are Zermatt and St-Jacques, the Breithorn is considered the most easily climbed 4,000 m Alpine peak. This is due to the Klein Matterhorn cable car which takes climbers to over 3,820 m from Zermatt for a starting point. The standard route is from the Italian side of the mountain, inexperienced mountaineers may run into severe difficulty if caution is not taken near cornices or in bad weather. For experienced climbers wanting more of a challenge, the traverse of the Breithorn crest is another option.
The Breithorn was first climbed in 1813 by Henry Maynard, Joseph-Marie Couttet, Jean Gras, Jean-Baptiste Erin, media related to Breithorn at Wikimedia Commons Breithorn on SummitPost Breithorn on Peakware - photos Breithorn on 4000er. de Breithorn on WinterClimb. com - photos, practical info
The Gorner Glacier is a valley glacier found on the west side of the Monte Rosa massif close to Zermatt in the canton of Valais, Switzerland. It is about 12.4 km long and 1 to 1.5 km wide, the entire glacial area of the glacier related to Gorner Glacier is 57 km2, which makes it the second largest glacial system in the Alps after the Aletsch Glacier system. Numerous smaller glaciers connect with the Gorner Glacier and its tributaries are, Monte Rosa Gletscher, Zwillingsgletscher, Schwärzegletscher, Breithorngletscher and Unterer Theodulgletscher. The Grenzgletscher between the central Monte Rosa massif and the Liskamm to the south is nowadays by far the lower Gorner Glaciers main tributary, the Gorner Glaciers upper part is almost already disconnected from its lower part. Also the former tributaries Breithorngletscher and Unterer Theodulgletscher left their connections to the Gorner Glacier during the last century, the Lower Theodul Glacier in the 1980s. An interesting feature of this glacier is the Gornersee, an ice marginal lake at the area of the Gorner-.
This lake fills every year and drains in summer, usually as a Glacial lake outburst flood and this is one of few glacial lakes in the Alps exhibiting this kind of behaviour. There are several interesting features including crevasses and table top forms where large surface boulders have been left stranded above the glaciers surface. Supported by ice that the boulder has sheltered from melting that has effected the more exposed surrounding ice, due to the immense information about the glacier, it is perfect for a glacier project. It is the source of the river Gornera which flows down through Zermatt itself, most of its water gets captured by a water catchment station of the Grande Dixence hydroelectric power plant. This water ends up in the Lac des Dix, the reservoir of Grande Dixence. The glacier as well as the mountains can be seen from the Gornergrat. Like almost all glaciers in the Alps, and most glaciers on the globe as well. And in a dramatic way. Nowadays, Gorner Glacier retreats with about 30 metres every year, since its last major expansion in 1859 it lost more than 2,500 metres in distance.
However, the upper Gorner Glacier traditionally is to be found on the north side, the reason is that the upper part of the Gorner Glacier is currently losing contact with its lower part and now the Grenzgletscher has become its much larger tributary. So it is easy to mismatch the Border Glacier as the upper Gorner Glacier, but this was not the case in earlier times, as the following comparison impressively shows, List of glaciers in Switzerland Gorner Glacier glaciology. ethz. ch Gorner Glacier swisseduc. ch
Embd is a municipality in the district of Visp in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. Embd is first mentioned in 1250 as Emeda, in 1330 it was mentioned as Embda and Emda. Embd has an area, as of 2011, of 13.4 square kilometers, of this area,24. 6% is used for agricultural purposes, while 15. 2% is forested. Of the rest of the land,1. 5% is settled and 58. 7% is unproductive land, the municipality is located in the Visp district, on the steep, left side of the Nikolai valley. It consists of a number of scattered settlements including the hamlet of Flue, which serves as the central settlement, Embd has a population of 302. As of 2008,0. 3% of the population are resident foreign nationals, over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of -13. 6%. It has changed at a rate of -11. 7% due to migration, most of the population speaks German as their first language, French is the second most common and Serbo-Croatian is the third. There is 1 person who speaks Italian, as of 2008, the population was 49. 8% male and 50. 2% female.
The population was made up of 161 Swiss men and 1 non-Swiss men, there were 162 Swiss women and 1 non-Swiss women. Of the population in the municipality,279 or about 79. 0% were born in Embd and lived there in 2000. There were 33 or 9. 3% who were born in the canton, while 24 or 6. 8% were born somewhere else in Switzerland. As of 2000, children and teenagers make up 23. 2% of the population, while adults make up 58. 6%, as of 2000, there were 146 people who were single and never married in the municipality. There were 194 married individuals,13 widows or widowers and individuals who are divorced, as of 2000, there were 123 private households in the municipality, and an average of 2.7 persons per household. There were 26 households that consist of one person and 9 households with five or more people. In 2000, a total of 118 apartments were permanently occupied, the vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2010, was 5. 91%. The historical population is given in the chart, In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the CVP which received 71. 88% of the vote.
The next three most popular parties were the SVP, the SP and the FDP, in the federal election, a total of 137 votes were cast, and the voter turnout was 51. 5%. In the 2009 Conseil dEtat/Staatsrat election a total of 181 votes were cast, the voter participation was 73. 0%, which is much more than the cantonal average of 54. 67%
Randa is a municipality in the district of Visp in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. It is located between the Weisshorn and the Dom in the Matter Valley, Randa is first mentioned in 1305 as Randa. In 1819, the village was almost totally destroyed by the blast from an avalanche that fell nearby. In 1991, a portion of the village was flooded following a rockslide from a cliff above the town. The village is popular for tourists wishing to visit the area, as it is reachable by car and rail, and has a campsite which offers a service to Zermatt. The train-line, known as the Glacier Express connects to Zermatt offering visitors many ways to access the town, Randa has an area, as of 2011, of 54.5 square kilometers. Of this area,8. 0% is used for agricultural purposes, of the rest of the land,0. 6% is settled and 81. 5% is unproductive land. The municipality is located in the Visp district, in the Matter valley and it consists of the village of Randa and the hamlets of Lerch and Attermänze. The blazon of the coat of arms is Divided by a Bend Argent, Gules a Mullet of the First.
Randa has a population of 446, as of 2008,22. 7% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of -9. 7% and it has changed at a rate of -3. 5% due to migration and at a rate of -2. 8% due to births and deaths. Most of the population speaks German as their first language, Albanian is the second most common, there is 1 person who speaks French,1 person who speaks Italian. As of 2008, the population was 46. 7% male and 53. 3% female, the population was made up of 133 Swiss men and 50 non-Swiss men. There were 160 Swiss women and 49 non-Swiss women, of the population in the municipality,240 or about 59. 4% were born in Randa and lived there in 2000. There were 51 or 12. 6% who were born in the canton, while 26 or 6. 4% were born somewhere else in Switzerland. As of 2000, children and teenagers make up 27. 7% of the population, while adults make up 59. 7%, as of 2000, there were 195 people who were single and never married in the municipality.
There were 188 married individuals,16 widows or widowers and 5 individuals who are divorced, as of 2000, there were 146 private households in the municipality, and an average of 2.8 persons per household. There were 40 households that consist of one person and 22 households with five or more people
St. Niklaus, Switzerland
St. Niklaus is a village and a municipality in the Mattertal, part of the district of Visp in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. St. Niklaus is first mentioned in 1233 as chousun, in 1272 it was mentioned as ecclesia Sancti Nicholai de Chouson, Gebreitun de Gazun,1388 in villa sti nicolai de chosun, niu a fr Saint-Nicolas. Josef Marie Lochmatter, his best friend Peter Knubel, his brother-in-law Alois Pollinger, and Josef Imboden and they had a monopoly on Matterhorn ascents. Moreover, as the first Swiss guide, Peter Knubel climbed a mountain outside the Alps in 1874, Alois Pollinger invented the double-rope system of descent with. He used this technique with success at the Ridge of Ferpècle, Josef Imboden was the first Swiss to ascend a 6,000 meter-high in the Himalayas in 1883, where we find the highest mountains in the world. The fathers trained the sons early in their expeditions. The initiators of the new school came out of their ranks for the time, a fact that gave a new input to alpinism.
They werent satisfied to climb a mountain, but they always chose more and more difficult routes. They were the first ski-guides and were pioneers overseas, the mountain guides of St. Niklaus have effected about 300 first ascents a little bit everywhere in the world. In 1995 a monument for all guides of St. Niklaus was built, moreover, in 2000 a museum of the mountain guides was opened in St. Niklaus. St. Niklaus has an area, as of 2011, of 89.3 square kilometers, of this area,9. 8% is used for agricultural purposes, while 21. 5% is forested. Of the rest of the land,1. 5% is settled and 67. 2% is unproductive land, the municipality is located in the Visp district. It is the settlement in the Matter valley. It consists of the settlements of Riedmatten, Stalu, Ze Schwidernu, Herbriggen, Breitmatten on the valley floor and the alpine settlement of Gasenried on the eastern slope. St Niklaus sits in the Mattertal, the valley that runs from Stalden to Zermatt. There are several footpath nets for Alpine hikers leading up on the mountains, the closest hut is the Topali hut at the west side of the village.
The Bordier hut at the east side can be accessed easily from St Niklaus, the highest mountain close to St Niklaus is Brunegghorn, reaching almost 4,000 m. In 1866 the municipality was created through the merger of St. Niklaus Dorf, the municipality is a stop on section of the Matterhorn Gotthard Bahn between Visp railway station and Zermatt railway station
The Pennine Alps, known as the Valais Alps, and formerly called Alpes Poeninae, are a mountain range in the western part of the Alps. They are located in Switzerland and Italy, the Italian side is drained by the rivers Dora Baltea and Toce, tributaries of the Po. The Swiss side is drained by the Rhône, the Great St Bernard Tunnel, under the Great St Bernard Pass, leads from Martigny, Switzerland to Aosta. The main chain runs from west to east on the border between Italy and Switzerland, from Mont Vélan, the first high summit east of St Bernard Pass, the chain rarely goes below 3000 metres and contains many four-thousanders such as Matterhorn or Monte Rosa. Unlike many other ranges, the higher peaks are often located outside the main chain
The Gornergrat is a rocky ridge of the Pennine Alps, overlooking the Gorner Glacier south-east of Zermatt in Switzerland. It can be reached from Zermatt by the Gornergrat rack railway and it is located about three kilometers east of Zermatt in the Swiss canton of Valais. This is the last stop of the Gornergrat train, opened in 1898, at the terminus on the south-western tip of the ridge is a hotel. The station forms part of the Zermatt ski area, at the west side of the Gorner Ridge, nearby the Rotenboden railway station is the peak Riffelhorn. Gornergratbahn Riffelalptram List of mountains of Switzerland accessible by public transport Media related to Gornergrat at Wikimedia Commons
The Matter Valley is located in southwestern Switzerland, south of the Rhone valley in the canton of Valais. The village of Zermatt is the most important settlement of the valley, located in the Pennine Alps, the Matter Valley is drained by the Matter Vispa, a tributary of the Rhone. The valley itself ends at Stalden where it meets the Saas Valley, the resulting Visp Valley continues for a few kilometres until it reaches the town of Visp on the young river Rhone. The valley starts between the high summits south of Zermatt on the border with Italy. The upper side is glaciated, the second largest glacier of the Alps, around the village of Randa are located the Weisshorn and the Dom. The difference of height between the talweg and the summits on both side reaches over 3 km, the total length of the valley is about 40 km. 5,600 inhabitants, is the largest and highest town in the valley, St. Niklaus follows with 2,400 inhabitants. Between them are located the villages of Täsch and Randa. The villages of Grächen, Embd and Törbel are located above the valley, located at the end of the valley, is the lowest village.
Since the end of the century the upper end of the valley is connected by rail from Visp. If the main road connect Zermatt from Visp, it cannot be used between Täsch and Zermatt, the latter being completely car-free, since 1930 the valley is directly connected to St. Moritz by the Glacier Express panoramic train
A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism and these forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode slowly through the action of rivers, weather conditions, a few mountains are isolated summits, but most occur in huge mountain ranges. High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level and these colder climates strongly affect the ecosystems of mountains, different elevations have different plants and animals. Because of the less hospitable terrain and climate, mountains tend to be used less for agriculture and more for resource extraction and recreation, the highest mountain on Earth is Mount Everest in the Himalayas of Asia, whose summit is 8,850 m above mean sea level. The highest known mountain on any planet in the Solar System is Olympus Mons on Mars at 21,171 m, there is no universally accepted definition of a mountain.
Elevation, relief, steepness and continuity have been used as criteria for defining a mountain, whether a landform is called a mountain may depend on local usage. The highest point in San Francisco, California, is called Mount Davidson, notwithstanding its height of 300 m, Mount Scott outside Lawton, Oklahoma is only 251 m from its base to its highest point. Whittows Dictionary of Physical Geography states Some authorities regard eminences above 600 metres as mountains, in addition, some definitions include a topographical prominence requirement, typically 100 or 500 feet. For a while, the US defined a mountain as being 1,000 feet or taller, any similar landform lower than this height was considered a hill. However, the United States Geological Survey concludes that these terms do not have technical definitions in the US, using these definitions, mountains cover 33% of Eurasia, 19% of South America, 24% of North America, and 14% of Africa. As a whole, 24% of the Earths land mass is mountainous, there are three main types of mountains, volcanic and block.
All three types are formed from plate tectonics, when portions of the Earths crust move, compressional forces, isostatic uplift and intrusion of igneous matter forces surface rock upward, creating a landform higher than the surrounding features. The height of the feature makes it either a hill or, if higher and steeper, major mountains tend to occur in long linear arcs, indicating tectonic plate boundaries and activity. Volcanoes are formed when a plate is pushed below another plate, at a depth of around 100 km, melting occurs in rock above the slab, and forms magma that reaches the surface. When the magma reaches the surface, it builds a volcanic mountain. Examples of volcanoes include Mount Fuji in Japan and Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, the magma does not have to reach the surface in order to create a mountain, magma that solidifies below ground can still form dome mountains, such as Navajo Mountain in the US