Jinpyeong of Silla
Jinpyeong of Silla was the 26th king of the Silla Dynasty, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. King Jinpyeong followed in the footsteps of his predecessor, King Jinji, by reorganizing the central ruling system of Silla. Upon the onset of a multitude of conflicts between Baekje and Goguryeo, he sent emissaries to improve relations and strengthen ties between Silla and the Chinese dynasties Sui and Tang, he is known for his promotion of Buddhism as a spiritual guide for the kingdom and encouraging Buddhist teachings. King Jinpyeong was born as Kim Baek-Jeong, his father, Crowned Prince Dongryun, was the first son of King Jinheung. And his mother, Lady Mano, was the daughter of Kim Reep Jong. Samguk Sagi described King Jinpyeong as someone: big in stature, has a notable face and possessed great determination and sharp intellect as a youth, his father, Prince Dongryun, died before being able to ascend the throne. Four years King Jinheung died, his second son, King Jinji ascended the throne and became the 25th King of Silla.
After 3 years, King Jinji was overthrown and died a year after, King Jinpyeong was proclaimed as Silla's 26th ruler. He married Queen Maya, the daughter of Galmunwang Bokseung, they had three daughters: Princess Cheonmyeong, Princess Deokman and Princess Seonhwa, he had children with his concubines. Samguk Yusa says that he had another wife after Queen Maya, she's called Lady Seungnam who on became his second Queen. According to Hwarang Segi, after Princess Deokman was nominated as King Jinpyeong's successor, Queen Seungnam gave birth to a son which put Princess Deokman's status as a successor at stake. However, her son died shortly for unknown reason. Queen Seungnam blamed Kim Yongchun for the death of her child, it is said that she was forced to leave the palace because of her severe jealousy which caused disturbance to the palace. Princess Deokman became the 27thruler of Silla after him. Princess Cheonmyeong's son, became the 29th ruler of Silla. According to Samguk Yusa, his third daughter Princess Seonhwa, married King Mu of Baekje.
Since King Jinpyeong was only 13 years old when he ascended the throne, Queen Dowager Sado, had to serve as a Regent until he reach the legal age. However, Queen Sado still refused to give him full control of Silla after he reached the legal age, she appointed Noribu, as the Hujik as the head of the Military. Noribu died on December of 588, Sueulbu became the next Sangdaedeung after him. King Jinpyeong relied on these two chief officials to solidify his kingdom in both internal affairs and international relations, he gave the rank of Galmunwang to his brothers Baekban and Gukban, to solidify his power in the court. King Jinpyeong's achievement was the way he strengthened the Kingdom and improved the political system, he named himself, his wife and his younger siblings as people related to the Buddha which made the entire royal family being seen as a especial household for the throne different compared to the rest of the royal nobles. He built different departments for different political purposes, such as: The Ministry of Culture and Tourism and the Ministry of Education.
Buddhism was embraced during this era, as King Jinpyeong sent envoys and monks to China to study and help in diplomatic relations. Buddhism in Silla developed as a nation-protecting religion. Year 594, King Jinpyeong sent a diplomat to Sui dynasty of China in order to establish a diplomatic relationship between their countries. Two years he sent Monk Damyook to Sui in order to study Chinese Buddhism. Year 602, Amak Fortress was invaded by Baekje forces led by General Hae Su; as a result, King Jinpyeong sent thousands of soldiers to fight them back and built fortresses in Cheonsan and Wae Seok. However, King Mu of Baekje fought back by sending 40,000 troops to attack the said fortresses. Silla sent General Mu Eun to fight them back. During the battle, Mu Eun fell into Hae Su's ambush and got killed but was saved by his son Gwisan and Chu Hang, however the two were both killed in the battle; the bravely they have shown in their death raised the morale of Silla's army as a result, Baekje forces had no other choice but to retreat.
Year 603, King Yeongyang of Goguryeo sent his General, Go Seung to attack the north side of Han Fortress. And so, King Jinpyeong succeeded. Year 605, Silla attacked Baekje. However, Goguryeo attacked them as a result. Year 608, King Jinpyeong ordered Monk Won-Gwang to write a letter to Sui Dynasty, asking them for assistance to attack Goguryeo, knowing that the Emperor of Sui wasn't happy about Goguryeo's refusal of paying tributes; when King Yeongyang heard of it, he attacked Silla and took over Woo Myeong fortress and captured 8,000 people of Silla. Year 611, King Jinpyeong asked Sui again to attack Goguryeo again. July of the same year, Kajam fortress was invaded by the Baekje; the next year, Emperor Yang of Sui decided to attack Goguryeo with more than 1 million troops. However, Sui retreated just few months after the attack; the Emperor of Sui Dynasty continued to attack Goguryeo for the next 3 years out embarrassment for their lost, but still ended up in failure. Year 616, Baekje retreated right away.
Year 618, Sui Dynasty was preceded by Tang Dynasty. That same year, King Jinpyeong ordered Byeon Poom to take back Kajam fortress from the Baekje but failed to do so. After that loss, King Jinpyeong sent a diplomat to the new dynasty of Tang, in order to establish a diplomatic relationship between their countries. Year 623, Baekje a
Jinheung of Silla
Jinheung of Silla was the 24th monarch of Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. He was followed by King Jinji. Jinheung was the nephew / grandson of King Beopheung. King Jinheung was one of the greatest kings of Silla, was responsible for expanding Silla territory immensely, he and King Seong 26th king of Baekje, struggled with each other over the Han River valley. Jinheung expanded Silla's territory immensely. King Jinheung of Silla rose to the throne at a young age when his predecessor and paternal uncle / maternal grandfather, died. Since he was too young to rule a kingdom at the time, his mother acted as regent; when he became of age, he began to rule independently. One of his first acts as true king of Silla was to appoint a man named Kim Isabu as Head of Military Affairs, which occurred in 541. Jinheung adopted a policy of peace with the neighbouring kingdom of Baekje Kingdom. In 551, he allied with Baekje; the result of this allied attack on Goguryeo was the conquest of the Han river. The kingdoms of Baekje and Silla kingdom both had agreed on splitting the conquered territory amongst themselves.
During the reign of King Seong of Baekje, King Jinheung allied with Goguryeo and launched an attack on the Han River valley during the year 553. In a secret agreement between Silla and Goguryeo, Silla troops attacked the exhausted Baekje army in late 553. Feeling the betrayal from Silla, King Seong attacked during the year 554, but was caught in an ambush led by a Silla general and was assassinated along with those who were accompanying him. King Jinheung guarded the new territory with a firm hand for seven years before sending General Kim Isabu to conquer Daegaya in 561. King Jinheung constructed a monument in his newly conquered territory and established provinces in the area, he continued to develop culture in his kingdom. In 576, the Hwarang was established, they would play a huge role in the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. King Jinheung died in 576 at the age of 51 after ruling for 37 years of advancement. King Jinheung was succeeded by Prince Geumryun, who became King Jinji of Silla.
Father: Galmunwang Ipjong Grandfather: King Jijeung of Silla Grandmother: Queen Yeonje of the Miryang Park clan Mother: Queen Jiso Grandfather: King Beopheung of Silla Grandmother: Princess Bodo of Silla Consorts and their Respective Issue:Queen Sado of the Park clan Crown Prince Dongryun King Jinji of Silla Kim Gu-Ryun Princess Taeyang Princess Ayang Princess Eunryun Princess Wolryun Princess Sukmyeong Crown Prince Jeongsuk Princess Bomyeong Lady Mishil Prince Sujong Princess Banya Princess Nanya Lady Sobi of Baekje Princess Wolhwa Prince Cheonju Princess Deokmyeong Lady Geumjin Princess Nanseong King Jinheung's achievements for his kingdom established the basis for unification of Korea. He is remembered today by the Korean people as one of the greatest rulers of Silla. Portrayed by Lee Sun-jae in the 2009 MBC TV series Queen Seondeok. Portrayed by Park Hyung-sik in the 2016–2017 KBS2 TV series Hwarang: The Poet Warrior Youth. List of Korea-related topics List of Korean monarchs#Silla History of Korea
Three Kingdoms of Korea
The Three Kingdoms of Korea refers to the three kingdoms of Baekje and Goguryeo. Goguryeo was known as Goryeo, from which the modern name Korea is derived; the Three Kingdoms period is defined as being from 57 BC to 668 AD. The three kingdoms occupied the entire Korean Peninsula and half of Manchuria, located in present-day China and Russia; the kingdoms of Baekje and Silla dominated the southern half of the Korean Peninsula and Tamna, whereas Goguryeo controlled the Liaodong Peninsula and the northern half of the Korean Peninsula. Baekje and Goguryeo originated from Buyeo. In the 7th century, allied with China under the Tang dynasty, Silla unified the Korean Peninsula for the first time in Korean history, forming a united Korean national identity for the first time. After the fall of Baekje and Goguryeo, the Tang dynasty established a short-lived military government to administer parts of the Korean peninsula. However, as a result of the Silla–Tang War, Silla forces expelled the Protectorate armies from the peninsula in 676.
The following period is known as the Unified Later Silla. Subsequently, Go of Balhae, a former Goguryeo general, founded Balhae in the former territory of Goguryeo after defeating the Tang dynasty at the Battle of Tianmenling; the predecessor period, before the development of the full-fledged kingdoms, is sometimes called Proto–Three Kingdoms period. Main primary sources for this period include Samguk sagi and Samguk yusa in Korea, the "Eastern Barbarians" section from the Book of Wei of the Records of the Three Kingdoms in China. Beginning in the 7th century, the name "Samhan" became synonymous with the Three Kingdoms of Korea; the "Han" in the names of the Korean Empire, Daehan Jeguk, the Republic of Korea, Daehan Minguk or Hanguk, are named in reference to the Three Kingdoms of Korea. According to the Samguk Sagi and Samguk Yusa, Silla implemented a national policy, "Samhan Unification", to integrate refugees and migrants from Baekje and Goguryeo. In 1982, a memorial stone dating back to 686 was discovered in Cheongju with an inscription: "The Three Han were unified and the domain was expanded."
During the Later Silla period, the concepts of Samhan as the ancient confederacies and the Three Kingdoms of Korea were merged. In a letter to an imperial tutor of the Tang dynasty, Choe Chiwon equated Byeonhan to Baekje, Jinhan to Silla, Mahan to Goguryeo. By the Goryeo period, Samhan became a common name to refer to all of Korea. In his Ten Mandates to his descendants, Wang Geon declared that he had unified the Three Han, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Samhan continued to be a common name for Korea during the Joseon period and was referenced in the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty. In China, the Three Kingdoms of Korea were collectively called Samhan since the beginning of the 7th century; the use of the name Samhan to indicate the Three Kingdoms of Korea was widespread in the Tang dynasty. Goguryeo was alternately called Mahan by the Tang dynasty, as evidenced by a Tang document that called Goguryeo generals "Mahan leaders" in 645. In 651, Emperor Gaozong of Tang sent a message to the king of Baekje referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea as Samhan.
Epitaphs of the Tang dynasty, including those belonging to Baekje and Silla refugees and migrants, called the Three Kingdoms of Korea "Samhan" Goguryeo. For example, the epitaph of Go Hyeon, a Tang dynasty general of Goguryeo origin who died in 690, calls him a "Liaodong Samhan man"; the History of Liao equates Byeonhan to Silla, Jinhan to Buyeo, Mahan to Goguryeo. The name "Three Kingdoms" was used in the titles of the Korean histories Samguk Sagi and Samguk Yusa, should not be confused with the Three Kingdoms of China; the Three Kingdoms was founded after the fall of Wiman Joseon, conquered and absorbed various other small states and confederacies. After the fall of Gojoseon, the Han dynasty established four commanderies in present Liaoning. Three fell to the Samhan, the last was destroyed by Goguryeo in 313; the nascent precursors of Baekje and Silla expanded within the web of statelets during the Proto Three Kingdoms Period, Goguryeo conquered neighboring state like Buyeo in Manchuria and chiefdoms in Okjeo, Dongye which occupied the northeastern Korean peninsula.
The three polities made the transition from walled-town state to full-fledged state-level societies between 1st – 3rd century AD. All three kingdoms shared a similar language, their original religions appear to have been shamanistic, but they were influenced by Chinese culture Confucianism and Taoism. In the 4th century, Buddhism was introduced to the peninsula and spread briefly becoming the official religion of all three kingdoms. Goguryeo emerged in the wake of Gojoseon's fall; the first mention of Goguryeo in Chinese records dates from 75 BC in reference to a commandery established by the Chinese Han dynasty, although earlier mentions of "Guri" may be of the same state. Evidence indicates Goguryeo was the most advanced, the first established, of the three kingdoms. Goguryeo the largest of the three kingdoms, had several capitals in alternation: two capitals in the upper Yalu area, Nangrang, now part of Pyongyang. At the beginning, the state was located on t
Michu of Silla
Michu of Silla was the thirteenth ruler of the Korean state of Silla. He was the first king of the Kim clan to sit on the Silla throne, he was the son of Gudo, a leading Silla general, the sixth-generation descendant of the clan founder Kim Alji. During Michu's reign, the Samguk Sagi reports numerous attacks from Baekje, does not mention any contact with the other neighboring states. Michu's tomb is preserved in central Gyeongju today. Various legends pertain to this burial mound, known as the Jukjangneung, or "Bamboo chief tomb." Although records of his era are not abundant, he seemed to have large interests on agriculture. In 264, he visited the peasant people to encourage them during a severe famine. In 268, subjects were dispatched by Michu to hear concerns of people. Additionally, he was quite compassionate in that he turned down the requirement of rebuilding palaces for the reason that the people shouldn't labor too much, it is a legend that the spirit of King Michu of the Silla Dynasty helped Silla and protected the country by appeasing the spirit of Kim Yu-shin, who unified the three kingdoms.
During the reign of King Yuriwang of Silla, people from Iseoguk attacked Gyeongju, Silla was powerless. Soldiers with bamboo leaves in their ears appeared and turned the state of war around. After the enemy's retreat, a pile of bamboo leaves piled up in front of the tombs of the king Michu. So, the tomb of Michu was called Jukhyeongneung. Three Kingdoms of Korea Rulers of Korea History of Korea List of Korea-related topics
Naemul of Silla
Naemul of Silla was the 17th ruler of the Korean kingdom of Silla. He was the nephew of King Michu, he married Lady Boban. He is given the title the same one borne by earlier rulers, in the Samguk Sagi, he is the first to bear the title Maripgan in any record. He is the first king to appear by name in Chinese records, it appears that there was a great influx of Chinese culture into Silla in his period, that the widespread use of Chinese characters began in his time. Naemul sent a tribute mission to the king of Early Jin in 381. Naemul's reign was troubled by recurrent invasions by Wa Japan and the northern Malgal tribes; this began with a massive Japanese incursion in 364, repulsed with great loss of life. Three Kingdoms of Korea List of Korean monarchs List of Silla people
Baekje was a kingdom located in southwestern Korea. It was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, together with Silla. Baekje was founded at Wiryeseong. Baekje, like Goguryeo, claimed to succeed Buyeo, a state established in present-day Manchuria around the time of Gojoseon's fall. Baekje alternately battled and allied with Goguryeo and Silla as the three kingdoms expanded control over the peninsula. At its peak in the 4th century, Baekje controlled most of the western Korean peninsula, as far north as Pyongyang, may have held territories in China, such as in Liaoxi, though this view is controversial, it became a significant regional sea power, with political and trade relations with Japan. Baekje was a great maritime power. In 660 it was defeated, by an alliance of Silla and the Chinese Tang Dynasty, submitted to Unified Silla. Baekje was founded in 18 BC by King Onjo, who led a group of people from Goguryeo south to the Han River basin. According to the Chinese Records of the Three Kingdoms, during the Samhan period, one of the chiefdoms of the Mahan confederacy was called Baekje.
The Samguk Sagi provides a detailed account of Baekje's founding. Jumong had left his son Yuri in Buyeo when he left that kingdom to establish the new kingdom of Goguryeo. Jumong became Divine King Dongmyeong, had two more sons with So Seo-no, Onjo and Biryu; when Yuri arrived in Goguryeo, Jumong promptly made him the crown prince. Realizing Yuri would become the next king, So Seo-no left Goguryeo, taking her two sons Biryu and Onjo south to found their own kingdoms with their people, along with ten vassals, she is remembered as a key figure in the founding of both Baekje. Onjo settled in Wiryeseong, called his country Sipje, while Biryu settled in Michuhol, against the vassals' advice; the salty water and marshes in Michuhol made settlement difficult, while the people of Wiryeseong lived prosperously. Biryu went to his brother Onjo, asking for the throne of Sipje; when Onjo refused, Biryu lost. In shame, Biryu committed suicide, his people moved to Wiryeseong, where King Onjo welcomed them and renamed his country Baekje.
King Onjo moved the capital from the south to the north of the Han river, south again all within present Seoul, under pressure from other Mahan states. King Gaeru is believed to have moved the capital north of the river to Bukhansanseong in 132 in present-day Goyang to the northwest of Seoul. Through the early centuries of the Common Era, sometimes called the Proto–Three Kingdoms Period, Baekje gained control over the other Mahan tribes. During the reign of King Goi, Baekje became a full-fledged kingdom, as it continued consolidating the Mahan confederacy. In 249, according to the ancient Japanese text Nihonshoki, Baekje's expansion reached the Gaya confederacy to its east, around the Nakdong River valley. Baekje is first described in Chinese records as a kingdom in 345; the first diplomatic missions from Baekje reached Japan around 367. King Geunchogo expanded Baekje's territory to the north through war against Goguryeo, while annexing the remaining Mahan societies in the south. During Geunchogo's reign, the territories of Baekje included most of the western Korean Peninsula, in 371, Baekje defeated Goguryeo at Pyongyang.
Baekje continued substantial trade with Goguryeo, adopted Chinese culture and technology. Buddhism became the official state religion in 384. Baekje became a sea power and continued mutual goodwill relationships with the Japanese rulers of the Kofun period, transmitting continental cultural influences to Japan; the Chinese writing system, advanced pottery, ceremonial burial, other aspects of culture were introduced by aristocrats, artisans and monks throughout their relationship. During this period, the Han River basin remained the heartland of the country. In the 5th century, Baekje retreated under the southward military threat of Goguryeo, in 475, the Seoul region fell to Goguryeo. Baekje's capital was located at Ungjin from 475 to 538. Isolated in mountainous terrain, the new capital was secure against the north but disconnected from the outside world, it was closer to Silla than Wiryeseong had been, a military alliance was forged between Silla and Baekje against Goguryeo. Most maps of the Three Kingdoms period show Baekje occupying the Chungcheong and Jeolla provinces, the core of the country in the Ungjin and Sabi periods.
In 538, King Seong moved the capital to Sabi, rebuilt his kingdom into a strong state. From this time, the official name of the country was Nambuyeo, a reference to Buyeo to which Baekje traced its origins; the Sabi Period witnessed the flowering of Baekje culture, alongside the growth of Buddhism. Under pressure from Goguryeo to the north and Silla to the east, Seong sought to strengthen Baekje's relationship with China; the location of Sabi, on the navigable Geum River, made contact with China much easier, both trade and diplomacy flourished during his reign and continuing on into the 7th century. In the 7th century, with the growing influence of Silla in the southern and central Korean peninsula, Baekje began its decline. In 660, the coalition troops of Silla and Tang of China attacked Ba