Ujjain is a city in Ujjain district of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is the fifth largest city in Madhya Pradesh by population and is the administrative centre of Ujjain district and Ujjain division, it is a known Hindu pilgrimage centre with the Kumbh Mela held here every 12 years. An ancient city situated on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River, Ujjain was the most prominent city on the Malwa plateau of central India for much of its history, it emerged as the political centre of central India around 600 BCE. It was the capital of one of the sixteen mahajanapadas, it remained an important political and cultural centre of central India until the early 19th century, when the British administrators decided to develop Indore as an alternative to it. Ujjain continues to be an important place of pilgrimage for Shaivites and followers of Shakta. Ujjain has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission.
Excavations at Kayatha have revealed chalcolithic agricultural settlements dating to around 2000 BCE. Chalcolithic sites have been discovered at other areas around Ujjain, including Nagda, but excavations at Ujjain itself have not revealed any chalcolithic settlements. Archaeologist H. D. Sankalia theorized that the chalcolithic settlements at Ujjain were destroyed by the Iron Age settlers. According to Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, whose capital was Ujjain, "was one of the earliest outposts in central India" and showed signs of early incipient urbanisation around 700 BCE. Around 600 BCE, Ujjain emerged as the political and cultural centre of Malwa plateau; the ancient walled city of Ujjain was located around the Garh Kalika hill on the bank of river Kshipra, in the present-day suburban areas of the Ujjain city. This city covered an irregular pentagonal area of 0.875 km2. It was surrounded by a 12 m high mud rampart; the archaeological investigations have indicated the presence of a 45 m wide and 6.6 m deep moat around the city.
According to F. R. Allchin and George Erdosy, these city defences were constructed between 6th and 4th centuries BCE. Dieter Schlingloff believes that these were built before 600 BCE; this period is characterised by structures made of stone and burnt-brick and weapons made of iron, black and red burnished ware. According to the Puranic texts, a branch of the legendary Haihaya dynasty ruled over Ujjain. In the 4th century BCE, the Mauryan emperor Chandragupta annexed Avanti to his empire; the edicts of his grandson Ashoka mention four provinces of the Mauryan empire, of which Ujjain was the capital of the Western province. During the reign of his father Bindusara, Ashoka served as the viceroy of Ujjain, which highlights the importance of the town; as the viceroy of Ujjain, Ashoka married the daughter of a merchant from Vedisagiri. According to the Sinhalese Buddhist tradition, their children Mahendra and Sanghamitra, who preached Buddhism in modern Sri Lanka, were born in Ujjain. From the Mauryan period, Northern Black Polished Ware, copper coins, terracotta ring wells and ivory seals with Brahmi text have been excavated at Ujjain.
Ujjain emerged as an important commercial centre because it lay on the trade route connecting north India to the Deccan, starting from Mathura. It emerged as an important center for intellectual learning among Jain, early Buddhist and Hindu traditions. After the Mauryans, Ujjain was controlled by a number of empires and dynasties, including local dynasties, the Shungas, the Western Satraps, the Satavahanas, the Guptas. Ujjain remained as an important city of the Guptas during the 5th centuries. Kalidasa, the great Indian classical poet of the 5th century who lived in the times of the Gupta king Vikramaditya wrote his epic work Meghadūta in which he describes the richness of Ujjain and its people. In the 6th century CE the Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang visited India, he describes the ruler of Avanti as a king, generous to the poor and presented them with gifts. Bharthari is said to have written his great epics, Virat Katha, Neeti Sataka, the love story of Pradyot Princess Vasavadatta and Udayan in Ujjayini, as the city was called during his times.
The writings of Bhasa are set in Ujjain, he lived in the city. Kalidasa refers to Ujjain multiple times, it appears that he spent at least a part of his life in Ujjain. Mrichchhakatika by Shudraka is set in Ujjain. Ujjain appears in several stories as the capital of the legendary emperor Vikramaditya. Somadeva's Kathasaritsagara mentions that the city was created by Vishwakarma, describes it as invincible and full of wonderful sights; the Paramaras shifted the region's capital from Ujjain to Dhar. In 1235 CE, Iltutmish of Delhi Sultanate plundered the city, destroyed its temples. With the decline of the Paramara kingdom, Ujjain came under the Islamic rule, like other parts of north-central India; the city continued to be an important city of central India. As late as during the times of the Mughal vassal Jai Singh II, who constructed a Jantar Mantar in the city, Ujjain was the largest city and capital of the Malwa Subah. During the 18th century, the city became the capital of Scindia state of the Maratha confederacy, when Ranoji Scindia established his capital at Ujjain in 1731.
But his successors moved to Gwalior, where they ruled the Gwalior State in the latter half of the 18th century. The struggle of supremacy between the Holkars of Indore and Scindias led to rivalry between the merchants of the two cities. On 18 July 1801, the Holkars defeated the Scindias at the Battle o
Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik
Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik was the 10th Umayyad caliph who ruled from 724 until his death in 743. When he was born in 691 his mother named him after her father. Inheriting the caliphate from his brother Yazid II, Hisham was ruling an empire with many different problems, he would, however, be effective in attending to these problems, in allowing the Umayyad empire to continue as an entity. His long rule was an effective one, it saw a rebirth of reforms that were originated by Umar bin Abd al-Aziz. Like his brother al-Walid I, Hisham was a great patron of the arts, he again encouraged arts in the empire, he encouraged the growth of education by building more schools, most by overseeing the translation of numerous literary and scientific masterpieces into Arabic. He returned to a stricter interpretation of the Sharia as Umar had, enforced it upon his own family, his ability to stand up to the Umayyad clan may have been an important factor in his success, may point to why his brother Yazid was ineffective.
On the military front his empire suffered a series of setbacks in the Caucasus against the Khazars and in Transoxiana against the Turgesh. Hisham sent armies to end the Hindu rebellion in Sindh, was successful when the Hindu ruler Jai Singh was killed; this allowed the Umayyads to reassert their rule over some portions of their provinces in India. Under Hisham's rule, regular raids against the Byzantine Empire continued. One regular commander of Arab forces was Hisham's half-brother, he fought the Byzantines in A. H. 107 and the next year captured Caesarea Mazaca. He fought the Khazars in the Caucasus. In A. H. 110 he defeated him. Hisham's son Mu'awiyah ibn Hisham was another Arab commander in the annual raids against the Byzantine Empire. In A. H. 110. The next year Mu'awiyah thrust Sa'id ibn Hisham right. In addition there was a sea raid. In A. H. 112 Mu'awiyah captured Kharsianon in Cappadocia. Mu'awiyah raided the Byzantine Empire in A. H. 113. The next year he captured Aqrun. Mu'awiyah raided Byzantium in A.
H. 115, 116, 117 and 118. In A. H. 119 al Walid ibn al Qa'qa al-Absi led the raid against the Byzantines. The next year Sulayman ibn Hisham captured Sindirah. In A. H. 121 Maslama captured some of Cappadocia and raided the Avars. Theophanes the Confessor states that while some Arabs raided in 739 and returned home safely, others were soundly defeated at the Battle of Akroinon, he records that internal Byzantine strife facilitated Arab raids by Sulayman ibn Hisham in 741-742 that resulted in many Byzantines made Arab captives. Al-Tabari refers to the same raid. In North Africa, Kharijite teachings combined with natural local restlessness to produce a significant Berber revolt. In 740 A large Berber force surrounded a loyal army at Wadi Sherif; the loyalists fought to the death. Hisham dispatched a force of 27,000 Syrians; this was destroyed in 741. In 742 Handhala ibn Safwan began but soon was besieged in Qairawan, he led a desperate sortie from the city that scattered the Berbers, killing thousands and re-establishing Umayyad rule.
Hisham faced a revolt by the armies of Zayd bin Ali, grandson of Husayn bin Ali, put down because of the betrayal of the Kufans. The Kufans encouraged Zayd to revolt. Zayd was ordered to leave Kufah and though he appeared to set out for Mecca, he returned and dwelt secretly in Kufah moving from house to house and receiving the allegiance of many people. Yusuf ibn Umar al-Thaqafi, Iraq's governor, learned of the plot, commanded the people to gather at the great mosque, locked them inside and began a search for Zayd. Zayd with some troops called on people to come out, he pushed back Yusuf's troops, but was felled by an arrow. Although his body was buried, the spot was pointed out and it was extracted and the head sent to Hisham and to Medina. In Spain, the internal conflicts of the years past were ended, Hisham's governor, Abd ar Rahman ibn Abdallah, assembled a large army that went into France, he pushed to the Loire. This marked the limit of Arabic conquest in Western Europe; the wave was halted at the Battle of Tours by Charles Martel.
Blankinship, Khalid Yahya, ed.. The History of al-Ṭabarī, Volume 25: The End of Expansion: The Caliphate of Hishām, A. D. 724–738/A. H. 105–120. SUNY series in Near Eastern studies. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-88706-569-9. Blankinship, Khalid Yahya, The End of the Jihâd State: The Reign of Hishām ibn ʻAbd al-Malik and the Collapse of the Umayyads, Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-7914-1827-8 Hawting, G. R; the First Dynasty of Islam: The Umayyad Caliphate AD 661–750, London and New York: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-24072-7
R. C. Majumdar
Ramesh Chandra Majumdar was a historian and professor of Indian history. Coming from a Baidya family, Majumdar was born in Khandarpara, Bengal Presidency, British India on 4 December 1884, to Haladhara Majumdar and Bidhumukhi. In 1905, he passed his Entrance Examination from Cuttack. In 1907, he passed F. A. joined Presidency College, Calcutta. Graduating in B. A. and M. A. from Calcutta University in 1909 and 1911 he won the Premchand Roychand scholarship from the University of Calcutta for his research work in 1913. Majumdar started his teaching career as a lecturer at Dacca Government Training College. Since 1914, he spent seven years as a professor of history at the University of Calcutta, he got his doctorate for his thesis "Corporate Life in Ancient India". In 1921 he became professor of history in newly established University of Dacca, he served, until he became its vice chancellor, as the head of the Department of History as well as the dean of the Faculty of Arts. Between 1924 and 1936 he was Provost of Jagannath Hall.
He became the vice chancellor of that University, for five years from 1937 to 1942. From 1950, he was Principal of the College of Benares Hindu University, he was elected the general president of the Indian History Congress and became the vice president of the International Commission set up by the UNESCO for the history of mankind. Majumdar started his research on ancient India. After extensive travels to Southeast Asia and research, he wrote detailed histories of Champa and Kambuja Desa. On the initiative of Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, he took up the mantle of editing a multi-volume tome on Indian history. Starting in 1951, he toiled for twenty six long years to describe the history of the Indian people from the Vedic Period to the present day in eleven volumes. In 1955, Majumdar joined as principal. In 1958-59, he taught Indian history in the University of University of Pennsylvania, he was the president of the Asiatic Society and the Bangiya Sahitya Parishad the Sheriff of Calcutta. When the final volume of "The History and Culture of the Indian People" was published in 1977, he had turned eighty-eight.
He edited the three-volume history of Bengal published by Dacca University. His last book was "Jivaner Smritidvipe"; when the Government of India set up an editorial Committee to author a history of the freedom struggle of India, he was its principal member. But, following a conflict with the Education Minister Maulana Abul Kalam Azad on the Sepoy Mutiny, he left the government job and published his own book; the Sepoy Mutiny & Revolt of 1857. According to him the origins of India's freedom struggle lie in the English-educated Indian middle-class and the freedom struggle started with the Banga Bhanga movement in 1905, his views on the freedom struggle are found in his book History of the Freedom Movement in India. He was an admirer of Ramakrishna Paramahamsa; the Early History of Bengal, Dacca, 1924. Champa, Ancient Indian Colonies in the Far East, Vol. I, Lahore, 1927. ISBN 0-8364-2802-1 Suvarnadvipa, Ancient Indian Colonies in the Far East, Vol. II, The History of Bengal, 1943. ISBN 81-7646-237-3 Kambuja Desa Or An Ancient Hindu Colony In Cambodia, Madras, 1944 An Advanced History of India.
London, 1960. ISBN 0-333-90298-X The History and Culture of the Indian People, Bombay, 1951–1977. Ancient India, 1977. ISBN 81-208-0436-8 History of the Freedom movement in India, Calcutta, ISBN 81-7102-099-2. Vakataka – Gupta Age Circa 200–550 A. D. ISBN 81-208-0026-5 Main currents of Indian history ISBN 81-207-1654-X Classical accounts of India Hindu Colonies in the Far East, Calcutta, 1944, ISBN 99910-0-001-1 India and South-East Asia, I. S. P. Q. S. History and Archaeology Series Vol. 6, 1979, ISBN 81-7018-046-5. The History of Ancient Lakshadweep, 1979 Corporate Life in Ancient India, Calcutta. Interview with Majumdar
Amoghavarsha I was a Rashtrakuta emperor, the greatest ruler of the Rashtrakuta dynasty, one of the great emperors of India. His reign of 64 years is one of the longest dated monarchical reigns on record. Many Kannada and Sanskrit scholars prospered during his rule, including the great Indian mathematician Mahaviracharya who wrote Ganita-sara-samgraha, Virasena and Sri Vijaya. Amoghavarsha I was scholar, he wrote the Kavirajamarga, the earliest extant literary work in Kannada, Prashnottara Ratnamalika, a religious work in Sanskrit. During his rule he held such titles as Nrupathunga, Veeranarayana and Srivallabha, he moved the Rashtrakuta regal capital from Mayurkhandi in the Bidar district to Manyakheta in the Gulbarga district in the modern Karnataka state. He is said to have built the regal city to "match that of Lord Indra"; the capital city was planned to include elaborately designed buildings for the royalty using the finest of workmanship. The Arab traveler Sulaiman described Amoghavarsha as one of the four great kings of the world.
Sulaiman wrote that Amoghavarsha respected Muslims and that he allowed the construction of mosques in his cities. For his religious temperament, his interest in the fine arts and literature and his peace-loving nature, historian Panchamukhi has compared him to the legendary emperor Ashoka and given him the honorific "Ashoka of the South". Amoghavarsha seems to have entertained the highest admiration for the language and culture of the Kannada people as testified to in the text Kavirajamarga. Amoghavarsha I was born in 800 CE in Sribhavan on the banks of the river Narmada during the return journey of his father, Emperor Govinda III, from his successful campaigns in northern India; this information is available from the Manne inscription of 803 and the Sanjan plates of 871, both important sources of information about Amoghavarsha I. The Sirur plates further clarify that Amoghavarsha I ascended to the throne in 815 at the age of 14 after the death of his father. All his inscriptions thereafter refer to him as Amoghavarsha I.
His guardian during his early years as emperor was his cousin, Karka Suvarnavarsha of the Gujarat branch of the empire. A revolt led by some of his relatives together with feudatories of the empire temporarily unseated Amoghavarsha I, with the help of his guardian and cousin called Patamalla, re-established himself as the emperor by 821; this information comes from the Surat records and the Baroda plates of 835. The first to revolt was the Western Ganga feudatory led by King Shivamara II. In the series of battles that followed, Shivamara II was killed in 816, but Amoghavarsha I's commander and confidant, was defeated in Rajaramadu by the next Ganga king, Rachamalla. Due to the resilience of the Western Gangas, Amoghavarsha I was forced to follow a conciliatory policy, he gave in marriage his daughter, Chandrabbalabbe, to the Western Ganga King Butuga, another daughter, Revakanimmadi, to prince Ereganga. More revolts occurred between 818 and 820, but by 821 Amoghavarsha I had overcome all resistance and established a stable kingdom to rule.
Vijayaditya II of the Eastern Chalukya family overthrew Bhima Salki, the ruling Rashtrakuta feudatory at Vengi, took possession of the throne and continued his hostilities against the Rashtrakutas. He captured a Rashtrakuta stronghold. From the Cambay and Sangli plates it is known that Amoghavarsha I overwhelmingly defeated the Vengi Chalukyas and drove them out of their strongholds in the battle of Vingavalli; the Bagumra records mention a "Sea of Chalukyas" invading the Ratta kingdom which Amoghavarsha I defended. After these victories he assumed the title Veeranarayana. Tranquility was restored temporarily by a marriage between Vijayaditya II's son, Vishnuvardhana V, the Ratta princess Shilamahadevi, a sister of Karka of the Gujarat Rashtrakuta branch. However, Vishnuvardhana V attacked the northern Kalachuri feudatory of the Rashtrakutas in Tripuri, central India, captured Elichpur near Nasik. Amoghavarsha I killed Vishnuvardhana V in 846 but continued a friendly relationship with the next Eastern Chalukya ruler Gunaga Vijayaditya III, suppressed the recalcitrant Alupas of South Canara under prince Vimaladitya in 870.
Amoghavarsha I maintained friendly interactions with the Pallava who were busy keeping the Pandyas at bay. The Pallavas had marital ties with the Rashtrakutas as well. Nandivarman was married to a Ratta princess and their son was called "Nripathunga"; this has prompted historians to suggest that the Pallava king must have married Nrupatunga Amoghavarsha I's daughter. The Sanjan inscriptions of 871 claim Amoghavarsha I made a great effort to overthrow the kingdom of the Dravidas and that the mobilization of his armies struck terror in the hearts of the kings of Kerala, Chola, Magadha and Pallava; the record states that Amoghavarsha I imprisoned for life the Gangavamshi ruler and those in his own court who had carried out plots against him. Amoghavarsha's reign lasted till 877 AD. Amoghavarsha I preferred to remain friendly with all his neighbours and feudatories and avoided taking an aggressive posture against them, it is still debated. He cared for his subjects and once when a calamity threatened to harm them, he offered his finger as a sacrifice to the goddess Mahalakshmi of Kolhapur.
For this benevolent act the Sanjan inscriptio
Sindh is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country, the historical home of the Sindhi people. Sindh is the third largest province of Pakistan by area, second largest province by population after Punjab. Sindh is bordered by Balochistan province to the west, Punjab province to the north. Sindh borders the Indian states of Gujarat and Rajasthan to the east, Arabian Sea to the south. Sindh's landscape consists of alluvial plains flanking the Indus River, the Thar desert in the eastern portion of the province closest to the border with India, the Kirthar Mountains in the western part of Sindh. Sindh has Pakistan's second largest economy, while its provincial capital Karachi is Pakistan's largest city and financial hub, hosts the headquarters of several multinational banks. Sindh is home to a large portion of Pakistan's industrial sector and contains two of Pakistan's commercial seaports, Port Bin Qasim and the Karachi Port; the remainder of Sindh has an agriculture based economy, produces fruit, food consumer items, vegetables for the consumption other parts of the country.
Sindh is known for its distinct culture, influenced by Sufism, an important marker of Sindhi identity for both Hindus and Muslims in the province. Several important Sufi shrines are located throughout the province which attract millions of annual devotees. Sindh's capital, Karachi, is Pakistan's most ethnically diverse city, with Muhajirs, or descendants of those who migrated to Pakistan from India after 1947 and throughout the 1950s and 1960s, making up the majority of the population. Karachi and other urban centres of Sindh have seen ethnic tensions between the native Sindhis and the Muhajirs boil over into violence on several occasions. Sindh is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites – the Historical Monuments at Makli, the Archaeological Ruins at Moenjodaro; the word Sindh is derived from the Sanskrit term Sindhu, a reference to Indus River. The official spelling "Sind" was discontinued in 1988 by an amendment passed in Sindh Assembly; the Greeks who conquered Sindh in 325 BC under the command of Alexander the Great rendered it as Indós, hence the modern Indus.
The ancient Iranians referred to everything east of the river Indus as hind. Sindh's first known village settlements date as far back as 7000 BCE. Permanent settlements at Mehrgarh in Balochistan, to the west expanded into Sindh; this culture blossomed over several millennia and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization around 3000 BCE. The Indus Valley Civilization rivalled the contemporary civilizations of Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia in size and scope, numbering nearly half a million inhabitants at its height with well-planned grid cities and sewer systems; the primitive village communities in Balochistan were still struggling against a difficult highland environment, a cultured people were trying to assert themselves at Kot Diji. This was one of the most developed urban civilizations of the ancient world, it flourished between the 25th century BCE and 1500 BCE in the Indus valley sites of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa. The people had a high standard of art and craftsmanship and a well-developed system of quasi-pictographic writing which remains un-deciphered.
The ruins of the well planned towns, the brick buildings of the common people, public baths and the covered drainage system suggest a organized community. According to some accounts, there is no evidence of large palaces or burial grounds for the elite; the grand and holy site might have been the great bath, built upon an artificially created elevation. This indigenous civilization collapsed around 1700 BCE; the cause may have been a massive earthquake, which dried up the Ghaggar River. Skeletons discovered in the ruins of Moan Jo Daro were thought to indicate that the city was attacked and the population was wiped out, but further examinations showed that the marks on the skeletons were due to erosion and not of violence; the ancient city of Roruka, identified with modern Aror/Rohri, was capital of the Sauvira Kingdom, finds mentioned early Buddhist literature as a major trading center. Sindh finds mention in the Hindu epic Mahabharata as being part of Bharatvarsha. Sindh was conquered by the Persian Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BC.
In the late 4th century BC, Sindh was conquered by a mixed army led by Macedonian Greeks under Alexander the Great. Alexander described his encounters with these trans-Indus tribes of Sindh: "I am involved in the land of lions and brave people, where every foot of the ground is like a well of steel, confronting my soldier. You have brought only one son into the world, but everyone in this land can be called an Alexander." The region remained under control of Greek satraps for only a few decades. After Alexander's death, there was a brief period of Seleucid rule, before Sindh was traded to the Mauryan Empire led by Chandragupta in 305 BC. During the rule of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka, the Buddhist religion spread to Sindh. Mauryan rule ended in 185 BC with the overthrow of the last king by the Shunga Dynasty. In the disorder that followed, Greek rule returned when Demetrius I of Bactria led a Greco-Bactrian invasion of India and annexed most of the northwestern lands, including Sindh. Demetrius was defeated and killed by a usurper, but his descendants continued to rule Sindh and other lands as the Indo-Greek Kingdom.
Under the reign of Menander I, many Indo-Greeks converted to Buddhism. In the late 2nd century BC, Scythian tribes shattered the Greco-Bactrian empire and invaded the Indo-Greek lands. Unable to take the P
The Chalukya dynasty was a Classical Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. During this period, they ruled as three individual dynasties; the earliest dynasty, known as the "Badami Chalukyas", ruled from Vatapi from the middle of the 6th century. The Badami Chalukyas began to assert their independence at the decline of the Kadamba kingdom of Banavasi and rose to prominence during the reign of Pulakeshin II. After the death of Pulakeshin II, the Eastern Chalukyas became an independent kingdom in the eastern Deccan, they ruled from Vengi until about the 11th century. In the western Deccan, the rise of the Rashtrakutas in the middle of the 8th century eclipsed the Chalukyas of Badami before being revived by their descendants, the Western Chalukyas, in the late 10th century; these Western Chalukyas ruled from Kalyani until the end of the 12th century. The rule of the Chalukyas marks an important milestone in the history of South India and a golden age in the history of Karnataka.
The political atmosphere in South India shifted from smaller kingdoms to large empires with the ascendancy of Badami Chalukyas. A Southern India-based kingdom took control and consolidated the entire region between the Kaveri and the Narmada rivers; the rise of this empire saw the birth of efficient administration, overseas trade and commerce and the development of new style of architecture called "Chalukyan architecture". Kannada literature, which had enjoyed royal support in the 9th century Rashtrakuta court found eager patronage from the Western Chalukyas in the Jain and Veerashaiva traditions; the 11th century saw the patronage of Telugu literature under the Eastern Chalukyas. While opinions vary regarding the early origins of the Chalukyas, the consensus among noted historians such as John Keay, D. C. Sircar, Hans Raj, S. Sen, Kamath, K. V. Ramesh and Karmarkar is that the founders of the empire at Badami were native to the modern Karnataka region. A theory that they were descendants of a 2nd-century chieftain called Kandachaliki Remmanaka, a feudatory of the Andhra Ikshvaku was put forward.
This according to Kamath has failed to explain the difference in lineage. The Kandachaliki feudatory call themselves Vashisthiputras of the Hiranyakagotra; the Chalukyas, address themselves as Harithiputras of Manavyasagotra in their inscriptions, the same lineage as their early overlords, the Kadambas of Banavasi. This makes them descendants of the Kadambas; the Chalukyas took control of the territory ruled by the Kadambas. A record of Eastern Chalukyas mentions the northern origin theory and claims one ruler of Ayodhya came south, defeated the Pallavas and married a Pallava princess, she had a child called Vijayaditya, claimed to be the Pulakeshin I's father. However, according to the historians K. V. Ramesh and Sastri, there are Badami Chalukya inscriptions that confirm Jayasimha was Pulakeshin I's grandfather and Ranaraga, his father. Kamath and Moraes claim it was a popular practice in the 11th century to link South Indian royal family lineage to a Northern kingdom; the Badami Chalukya records.
While the northern origin theory has been dismissed by many historians, the epigraphist K. V. Ramesh has suggested that an earlier southern migration is a distinct possibility which needs examination. According to him, the complete absence of any inscriptional reference of their family connections to Ayodhya, their subsequent Kannadiga identity may have been due to their earlier migration into present day Karnataka region where they achieved success as chieftains and kings. Hence, the place of origin of their ancestors may have been of no significance to the kings of the empire who may have considered themselves natives of the Kannada speaking region; the writing of 12th century Kashmiri poet Bilhana suggests the Chalukya family belonged to the Shudra caste while other sources claim they were Kshatriyas. The historians Jan Houben and Kamath, the epigraphist D. C. Sircar note the Badami Chalukya inscriptions are in Sanskrit. According to the historian N. L. Rao, their inscriptions call them Karnatas and their names use indigenous Kannada titles such as Priyagallam and Noduttagelvom.
The names of some Chalukya princes end with the pure Kannada term arasa. The Rashtrakuta inscriptions call the Chalukyas of Badami Karnatabala, it has been proposed by the historian S. C. Nandinath that the word "Chalukya" originated from Salki or Chalki, a Kannada word for an agricultural implement. Inscriptions in Sanskrit and Kannada are the main source of information about Badami Chalukya history. Among them, the Badami cave inscriptions of Mangalesha, Kappe Arabhatta record of c. 700, Peddavaduguru inscription of Pulakeshin II, the Kanchi Kailasanatha Temple inscription and Pattadakal Virupaksha Temple inscription of Vikramaditya II provide more evidence of the Chalukya language. The Badami cliff inscription of Pulakeshin I, the Mahakuta Pillar inscription of Mangalesha and the Aihole inscription of Pulakeshin II are examples of important Sanskrit inscriptions written in old Kannada script; the reign of the Chalukyas saw the arrival of Kannada as the predominant language of inscriptions along with Sanskrit, in areas of the Indian peninsula outside what is known as Tamilaham.
Several coins of the Badami Chalukyas with Kannada legends have been found. All this indicates. Travelogues of contemporary foreign travellers have provided useful information about the Chalukyan