Chợ Lớn, Ho Chi Minh City
Chợ Lớn Anglicized as "Cholon" in English sources, is a quarter of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. It lies on the west bank of the Saigon River. Chợ Lớn consists of the western half of District 5 as well as several adjoining neighborhoods in District 6 and District 11; the quarter has long been inhabited by Chinese people, is considered the largest Chinatown in the world by area. The Vietnamese name Chợ Lớn means "big" "market"; the Chinese name is 堤岸 (pronounced Tai-Ngon in Cantonese and Dī'àn in Mandarin, which means "embankment". The Vietnamese reading of the Chinese name is Đê Ngạn, but this is used. Vietnamese speakers use the name Chợ Lớn, while Chinese speakers are the only users of the original Chinese name; the city of Chợ Lớn was established by the Hoa community. The Lê dynasty, the ruling family in the sixteenth century began to decline in power and two rival families, the Trinh and Nguyen families began to vie for power to fill in the void of the Lê. Nguyen was appointed as Viceroy of the South with headquarters at Huế where they encouraged Chinese immigration to settle down into the area.
In 1778, Hòa living in Biên Hòa had to take refuge in what is now Chợ Lớn because they were retaliated against by the Tây Sơn forces for their support of the Nguyễn lords. In 1782, more than 10,000 Hòa had to rebuild, they built high embankments against the flows of the river, called their new settlement Tai-Ngon. Chợ Lớn was incorporated as a city in 11 km from Saigon. By the 1930s, it had expanded to the city limit of Saigon. On 27 April 1931, Chợ Lớn and the neighbouring city Saïgon were merged to form a single city called ‘Saigon–Cholon’; the official name, never entered everyday vernacular and the city continued to be referred to as ‘Saigon’. ‘Chợ Lớn’ was dropped from the city's official name in 1956, after Vietnam gained independence from France in 1955. During the Vietnam War and deserters from the United States Army maintained a thriving black market at Chợ Lớn, trading in various American and U. S Army-issue items; this was the area, near the Quan Âm Pagoda where photojournalist Eddie Adams took his famous execution photograph.
Four Australian journalists were killed in Chợ Lớn during the Tet Offensive in 1968. Today, Chợ Lớn attracts many tourists mainland Chinese and Taiwanese. Yvon Petra - He was born in Chợ Lớn, he is best remembered as the last Frenchman to win the Wimbledon championships men's singles title in 1946. Cao Văn Viên - Chief of the Joint General Staff of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam from 1966 to 1975. Gontran de Poncins - French author and adventurer lived here in 1955, he resided in the Sun Wah hotel, keeping an illustrated journal, published as From a Chinese City. "He chose Cholon, the Chinese riverbank community snuggled up to Saigon, because he suspected the ancient customs of a national culture endure longer in remote colonies than in the motherland. In effect, he was studying a bit of ancient China." Charles Tran Van Lam Quan Âm Pagoda, Ho Chi Minh City Thiên Hậu Temple, Ho Chi Minh City Cho Lon Mosque Nhị Phủ Temple Hà Chương Guildhall Miếu Quan Đế Minh Hương Guildhall Tam Sơn Guildhall "Cholon".
Encyclopædia Britannica. 6. 1911. P. 267
Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, as described in the New Testament. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Depending on the specific denomination of Christianity, practices may include baptism, prayer, confirmation, burial rites, marriage rites and the religious education of children. Most denominations hold regular group worship services. Christianity developed during the 1st century CE as a Jewish Christian sect of Second Temple Judaism, it soon attracted Gentile God-fearers, which lead to a departure from Jewish customs, the establishment of Christianity as an independent religion. During the first centuries of its existence Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire, to Ethiopia and some parts of Asia. Constantine the Great decriminalized it via the Edict of Milan; the First Council of Nicaea established a uniform set of beliefs across the Roman Empire.
By 380, the Roman Empire designated Christianity as the state religion. The period of the first seven ecumenical councils is sometimes referred to as the Great Church, the united full communion of the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, before their schisms. Oriental Orthodoxy split after the Council of Chalcedon over differences in Christology; the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church separated in the East–West Schism over the authority of the Pope. In 1521, Protestants split from the Catholic Church in the Protestant Reformation over Papal primacy, the nature of salvation, other ecclesiological and theological disputes. Following the Age of Discovery, Christianity was spread into the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, the rest of the world via missionary work and colonization. There are 2.3 billion Christians in the world, or 31.4% of the global population. Today, the four largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodoxy.
Christianity and Christian ethics have played a prominent role in the development of Western civilization around Europe during late antiquity and the Middle Ages. In the New Testament, the names by which the disciples were known among themselves were "brethren", "the faithful", "elect", "saints" and "believers". Early Jewish Christians referred to themselves as'The Way' coming from Isaiah 40:3, "prepare the way of the Lord." According to Acts 11:26, the term "Christian" was first used in reference to Jesus's disciples in the city of Antioch, meaning "followers of Christ," by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch. The earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" was by Ignatius of Antioch, in around 100 AD. While Christians worldwide share basic convcitions, there are differences of interpretations and opinions of the Bible and sacred traditions on which Christianity is based. Concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds, they began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith.
The Apostles' Creed is the most accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith. It is used by a number of Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes, most visibly by liturgical churches of Western Christian tradition, including the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, Lutheranism and Western Rite Orthodoxy, it is used by Presbyterians and Congregationalists. This particular creed was developed between the 9th centuries, its central doctrines are those of God the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period; the creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Its main points include: Belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ as the Son of God, the Holy Spirit The death, descent into hell and ascension of Christ The holiness of the Church and the communion of saints Christ's second coming, the Day of Judgement and salvation of the faithful; the Nicene Creed was formulated in response to Arianism, at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the First Council of Ephesus in 431.
The Chalcedonian Definition, or Creed of Chalcedon, developed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, though rejected by the Oriental Orthodox churches, taught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures, unchangeably, inseparably": one divine and one human, that both natures, while perfect in themselves, are also united into one person. The Athanasian Creed, received in the Western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: "We worship one God in Trinity, Trinity in Unity. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith while agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. Most Baptists do not use creeds "in that they have not sought to establish binding
Incheon's Chinatown is Korea's only official Chinatown. It is in Jung-gu and was formed in 1884, it claims to be the largest Chinatown in South Korea, features an 11-meter high Chinese-style gateway, or paifang. As of 2007 few ethnic Chinese live in the Incheon Chinatown. There are various attractions in Incheon chinatown; the history of Incheon Chinatown is over 100 years old. While not all traditional culture of the first generation has been preserved, the area still harbors many of the flavors of China. Incheon became a China-friendly city after the modern opening of late 1800s. Korea started modern trade by signing the China–Korea Treaty of 1882 treaty with China in 1882. Incheon's Chinatown area came into being with the opening of the Incheon Port in 1883 and Incheon's designation as an extraterritoriality of the Ching Dynasty. After this,'Incheon Chinese Society' begun in earnest by establishing'淸國專管租界' in today's Incheon in 1885. 1883 report indicated. And they increased to 235 people in one year.
In 1892, they increased to 637 people, they increased to about 1000 people in early 1900. Overseas Chinese who live in Incheon in 2015 number 50,000 people.'Incheon Chinatown' improved the relationship of Korea and China. Incheon Chinatown street name will change to China's well-known street or city names in 2016. Today, the Chinese residents of Chinatown are 2nd or 3rd generations of early Chinese settlers. Incheon Chinatown provides people with attractions. In Incheon Chinatown, there are many food such as Sweet and Sour pork, Assorted Seafood and Vegetables with Mustard Sauce, Noodles with Black Soybean Sauce, Fortune Cookie, Gongal Bread and so on. On the busy streets of Korea’s biggest Chinatown in Incheon stands Gonghwachun, one of the most popular Chinese restaurants among tourists to the area, and Moon Cake is a kind of bread, baked in a round moon-shaped food. It is a symbol of China's traditional Thanksgiving foods like a rice cake in Korea, and Gongal Bread is a kind of Chinese bread.
It is called a Chinese pancake. Inside the bread, it is empty and the only outer part of the bread is inflately baked. And, Incheon Chinatown provides many places to buy various things such as Chipao, Antique Pottery, Traditional Tea and Accessories, Tea cup set. Chipao is a China's traditional costume. All men and women can wear this costume. But, It is referred to a dress for women. Incheon Chinatown has many attractions such as Paeru, 義善堂, History of Three States Mural Street and China Cultural Center, etc. Paeru is a Chinese traditional gate installed in the village entrance,'義善堂' is temple of Chinese, History of Three States Mural Street is decorated with murals with the explanation of important scenes of History of Three States. Incheon Chinatown is located close to other outing such as Freedom Park, Songwoldong Fairytale town, so on. There are many attractions related to China; these are a school for Overseas Chinese, The Coast of Catholicism and China Cultural Center, History of Three States Mural Street, Chinese Village Culture Experience, etc.
A school for overseas Chinese is on the second floor in masonry building, constructed in 1934. The Coast of Catholicism is used as an education place of the Catholic Church. Korea and China Cultural Center built in 2005 is a place that plays a major role in the history and cultural exchanges between Korea and China. History of Three States Mural Street means the walls that are decorated with murals and tiles with the explanation of important scenes of History of Three States on both sides of the road. There are attractions related to Japan, they are the Old Japanese consulate general, Japen banks, an Arched gate. There are Freedom Park, Wolmido Island, Sinpo Market, Incheon Art Platform, Dapdong Catholic Church, Fairytale town, etc. in near Incheon Chinatown. Yi Jung-hee. A Country Without a Joseon Ilbo, 2000 Yang Phil-seoung. 2004. A country without a Chinatown: Yesterday and Today in the Overseas Chinese Economy of Korea
Hong Kong the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China and abbreviated as HK, is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With over 7.4 million people of various nationalities in a 1,104-square-kilometre territory, Hong Kong is the world's fourth most densely populated region. Hong Kong became a colony of the British Empire after Qing Empire ceded Hong Kong Island at the end of the First Opium War in 1842; the colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 after the Second Opium War, was further extended when Britain obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. The entire territory was transferred to China in 1997; as a special administrative region, Hong Kong's system of government is separate from that of mainland China and its people identify more as Hongkongers rather than Chinese. A sparsely populated area of farming and fishing villages, the territory has become one of the world's most significant financial centres and commercial ports.
It is the world's seventh-largest trading entity, its legal tender is the world's 13th-most traded currency. Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, it has severe income inequality; the territory has the largest number of skyscrapers in most surrounding Victoria Harbour. Hong Kong ranks seventh on the UN Human Development Index, has the sixth-longest life expectancy in the world. Although over 90 per cent of its population uses public transportation, air pollution from neighbouring industrial areas of mainland China has resulted in a high level of atmospheric particulates; the name of the territory, first spelled "He-Ong-Kong" in 1780 referred to a small inlet between Aberdeen Island and the southern coast of Hong Kong Island. Aberdeen was an initial point of contact between local fishermen. Although the source of the romanised name is unknown, it is believed to be an early phonetic rendering of the Cantonese pronunciation hēung góng; the name translates as "fragrant harbour" or "incense harbour".
"Fragrant" may refer to the sweet taste of the harbour's freshwater influx from the Pearl River or to the odor from incense factories lining the coast of northern Kowloon. The incense was stored near Aberdeen Harbour for export. Sir John Davis offered an alternative origin; the simplified name Hong Kong was used by 1810 written as a single word. Hongkong was common until 1926, when the government adopted the two-word name; some corporations founded during the early colonial era still keep this name, including Hongkong Land, Hongkong Electric and Shanghai Hotels and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. The region is first known to have been occupied by humans during the Neolithic period, about 6,000 years ago. Early Hong Kong settlers were a semi-coastal people who migrated from inland and brought knowledge of rice cultivation; the Qin dynasty incorporated the Hong Kong area into China for the first time in 214 BCE, after conquering the indigenous Baiyue. The region was consolidated under the Nanyue kingdom after the Qin collapse, recaptured by China after the Han conquest.
During the Mongol conquest, the Southern Song court was located in modern-day Kowloon City before its final defeat in the 1279 Battle of Yamen. By the end of the Yuan dynasty, seven large families had settled in the region and owned most of the land. Settlers from nearby provinces migrated to Kowloon throughout the Ming dynasty; the earliest European visitor was Portuguese explorer Jorge Álvares, who arrived in 1513. Portuguese merchants established a trading post called in Hong Kong waters, began regular trade with southern China. Although the traders were expelled after military clashes in the 1520s, Portuguese-Chinese trade relations were reestablished by 1549. Portugal acquired a permanent lease for Macau in 1557. After the Qing conquest, maritime trade was banned under the Haijin policies; the Kangxi Emperor lifted the prohibition, allowing foreigners to enter Chinese ports in 1684. Qing authorities established the Canton System in 1757 to regulate trade more restricting non-Russian ships to the port of Canton.
Although European demand for Chinese commodities like tea and porcelain was high, Chinese interest in European manufactured goods was insignificant. To counter the trade imbalance, the British sold large amounts of Indian opium to China. Faced with a drug crisis, Qing officials pursued ever-more-aggressive actions to halt the opium trade; the Daoguang Emperor rejected proposals to legalise and tax opium, ordering imperial commissioner Lin Zexu to eradicate the opium trade in 1839. The commissioner destroyed opium stockpiles and halted all foreign trade, forcing a British military response and triggering the First Opium War; the Qing ceded Hong Kong Island in the Convention of Chuenpi. However, both countries did not ratify the agreement. After over a year of further hostilities, Hong Kong Island was formally ceded to the United Kingdom in the 1842 Treaty of Nanking. Administrative infrastructure was built up by early 1842, but piracy and hostile Qing policies towards Hong Kong prevented the government from attracting merchants.
The Taiping Rebellion, when many wealthy Chinese fled mainland turbulence and settled in the colon
Chinatown is a subzone and ethnic enclave located within the Outram district in the Central Area of Singapore. Featuring distinctly Chinese cultural elements, Chinatown has had a concentrated ethnic Chinese population. Chinatown is less of an enclave than it once was. However, the precinct does retain significant cultural significance. Large sections of it have been declared national heritage sites designated for conservation by the Urban Redevelopment Authority. Singapore's Chinatown is known as Niu che shui in Mandarin, Gu Chia Chwi in Hokkien and Ngau-che-shui in Cantonese - all of which mean "bullock water-cart" - and Kreta Ayer in Malay, which means "water cart"; this is due to the fact that Chinatown's water supply was principally transported by animal-driven carts in the 19th century. Although these names are sometimes used for referring to Chinatown in general, they refer to the area of Kreta Ayer Road. Chinatown consists of four distinctive sub-areas. Telok Ayer - developed in the 1820s.
Kreta Ayer - developed in the 1830s Bukit Pasoh - developed in early 1900s Tanjong Pagar - developed in the 1920sChinatown Complex is located along Smith Street, known colloquially as hei yuan kai in Cantonese because of its famous Cantonese opera theatre Lai Chun Yuen, which opened in 1887 to cater to the Cantonese community there, drawing large crowds during the 1910s and 1920s. Wang Dayuan recorded that there was a Chinese community. Under the Raffles Plan of Singapore, the area was a division of colonial Singapore where Chinese immigrants tended to reside. Although as Singapore grew, Chinese immigrants settled in other areas of the island-city, Chinatown became overcrowded within decades of Singapore's founding in 1819 and remained such until many residents were relocated at the initiation of Singapore's governmental Housing Development Board in the 1960s. In 1822, Sir Stamford Raffles wrote to Captain C. E. Davis, President of the Town Committee, George Bonham and Alex L. Johnson and members, charging them with the task of "suggesting and carrying into effect such arrangements on this head, as may on the whole be most conducive to the comfort and security of the different classes of inhabitants and the general interests and welfare of the place..."
He went on to issue instructions, as a guide to the Committee, which included a general description of Singapore Town, the ground reserved by the government, the European town and principal mercantile establishments and the native divisions and "kampungs". These included areas for Bugis, Indians and Chinese kampungs. Raffles was clear in his instructions and his guidelines were to determine the urban structure of all subsequent development; the "five-foot way", for example, the continuous covered passage on either side of the street, was one of the public requirements. Raffles foresaw the fact that "it may be presumed that they will always form by far the largest portion of the community". For this reason, he appropriated all of the land southwest of the Singapore River for their accommodation but, at the same time, insisted that the different classes and the different provinces be concentrated in their separate quarters and that these quarters, in the event of fire, be constructed of masonry with tiled roofs.
This thus resulted in the formation of a distinct section titled Chinatown. However, only when parcels of land were leased or granted to the public in and after 1843 for the building of houses and shophouses, did Chinatown's physical development begin; the legacy of cultural diversity in Chinatown is still present. The Hokkiens are associated with Havelock Road, Telok Ayer Street, China Street and Chulia Street, the Teochew merchants are in Circular Road, River Valley Road, Boat Quay and South Bridge Road; the ubiquitous Cantonese are scattered around South Bridge Road, Upper Cross Street, New Bridge Road and Bukit Pasoh Road. These days, the Hokkiens and Teochews have scattered to other parts of the island, leaving the Cantonese as the dominant dialect group in Chinatown; the Chinese names of Pickering Street are Ngo Tai Tiahn Hok Kiong Khau. Guilds, trade unions and associations were all referred to as kongsi, a kind of Chinese mafia, although the literal meaning of the word is "to share"; the so-called mafia is better translated as the sinister hui.
However, these secret societies, the triads, who themselves had suffered under the Qing dynasty in China, provided support to the immigrants to Singapore by paying their passage and permitting to pay it off by working. There were the letter writers of Sago Street—the Chinese called this street Gu Chia Chwi Hi Hng Cheng, but it was associated with death—the sandalwood idols of Club Street and the complicated and simple food of Mosque Street. Old women could be seen early in the mornings topping and tailing bean sprouts, the skins of frogs being peeled, the newly killed snakes being skinned and the centuries-old panaceas being dispensed by women blessed with the power of healing. In the heart of this diverse Chinese community is an important temple for Singaporean Tamils, the Sri Mariamman Hindu Tamil Temple, mosques, Al-Abrar Mosque at Telok Ayer Street and Jamae Mosque at Mosque Street, as well as the Hokkien Thian Hock Keng Chinese
Chinatowns in Asia
Chinatowns in Asia are widespread with a large concentration of overseas Chinese in East Asia and Southeast Asia and ethnic Chinese whose ancestors came from southern China - the provinces of Guangdong and Hainan - and settled in countries such as Brunei, East Timor, India, Malaysia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam and Korea centuries ago—starting as early as the Tang Dynasty, but notably in the 17th through the 19th centuries, well into the 20th century. Today the Chinese diaspora in Asia is concentrated in Southeast Asia however the legacy of the once widespread overseas Chinese communities in Asia is evident in the many Chinatowns that are found across East and Southeast Asia; these ethnic Chinese arrived from southern mainland China and were Chinese people of Cantonese, Hakka and Teochew/Chaozhou stock and pockets of Hainanese and Henghwa in some countries. The largest Chinatown in Asia is located in Yokohama, Japan.. These early groups did not identify as hailing from Mainland China, but from their subregion of origin.
Binondo, located in Manila, Philippines is considered by many to be the oldest existing Chinatown in the world, having been established in 1594 by the Spanish colonial government in the Philippines that set off the area as a permanent settlement for Chinese who had converted to Christianity. The ethnic Chinese represent a large minority population in most of these countries—with Singapore being the exception where Chinese-origin Singaporeans form the majority of the population. Chinese Indonesians and Chinese Filipinos have adopted to Indonesian and Filipino ways, respectively. Thai Chinese have assimilated into the larger Thai population, and traditionally, Southeast Asia, South Asia and to some extent East Asia have been the traditional areas of Overseas Chinese settlement within Asia. Migrations of ethnic Chinese in the eighteenth and nineteenth century to other parts of Asia went to Southeast Asia with smaller numbers going to South Asia; as a result, Chinatowns emerged in many of these areas of Chinese settlement.
Taiwan known as Chinese Taipei, is the largest Chinatown worldwide that many people may overlook. It is an island with 23 millions population, a government claiming themself as a Chinese government, a large portion population self-identified as a Chinese in a cultural sense; the building of Chinatown in Modern Taiwan began intensely after Republic of China, the government the Nationalists led, suffered a significant loss in the Chinese Civil War. Millions of government and military forces of the Republic of China extracted to Taiwan and implanted Chinese Nationalism and its central government along with the extraction, which affected ideology and lifestyle in Taiwan. Phnom Penh's Chinatown is on Street 136. Cambodia experienced ethnic Chinese settlement beginning in the 15th century. In recent decades, a large number of new and more recent Mainland Chinese immigrants have immigrated to Cambodia. Several Cambodian cities are suspected to have started out as Chinese settlements. Most of the Chinese of Calcutta near is a Chinatown in Calcutta.
Many Hakkas live in a community known as Tangra, dominated by leather tanneries and Chinese restaurants. Another Chinatown is in Mumbai. In Indonesia, many Chinese reside within the city centres of Java and Borneo. There is a sizeable Chinese population in small towns and villages across Sumatra and Borneo. In Java in Jakarta, Chinese people reside in Northern part of the province, such as Glodok, Mangga Dua, Grogol, Pantai Indah Kapuk, Pluit. Other Chinatowns in Java are located in Tangerang city center, Pasar Baru in Bandung, West Java, Jalan Pekojan in Semarang, Lasem in Central Java, Kya-Kya in Surabaya; as for Sumatra and Borneo, many cities and towns have significant Chinese populations that can be found dispersed in and around the city, these are: Bangka Belitung - Pangkal Pinang, Tanjung Pandan, Manggar and Muntok North Sumatra - Medan, Lubuk Pakam, Rantau Prapat, Tebing Tinggi, Sibolga Riau - Pekanbaru, Selat Panjang, Panipahan, Bagan Batu Riau Islands - Batam, Tanjung Pinang, Tanjung Balai Karimun South Sumatra - Palembang West Kalimantan - Pontianak and Bengkayang and Singkawang -."Chinatown" in Indonesian is known as Pecinan or Kampung Cina.
In Japan, ethnic Chinese immigrants are called kakyō. The largest Chinatown in Asia and one of the largest in the world is located in Yokohama.. The city of Kobe has a growing Chinatown. In Nagasaki, its Chinatown was founded in 1698 AD. Most Chinese immigrants in Japan wer
Chinese people in Japan
Chinese people in Japan consist of migrants from the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China, the previous imperial dynasties to Japan and their descendants. They have a history going back for centuries. Most Chinese people, or descendants of Chinese immigrants, who are living in Japan reside in major cities such as Osaka and Tokyo, although there are also significant populations in other areas as government immigration policies attract workers to'training programs', universities seek increasing numbers of international students and Chinese people see business opportunities. Japan's first recognised Chinatown was in Nagasaki, developing in the 1680s when economic prerogatives meant that the Shogunal government needed to restrict and control trade to a greater extent than previously. Before this, there had been a large number of Chinese communities in the west of the country, made up of pirates and people who fitted into both categories. In the 19th century, the well-known Chinatowns of Yokohama and Kobe developed, they are still thriving today, although the majority of Chinese people in Japan live outside Chinatowns in the regular community.
The communities are served by Chinese schools that teach the Chinese language, a small but increasing number of Japanese people study Chinese in both public schools and private academies. The Chinese community has undergone a dramatic change since the PRC allowed more freedom of movement of its citizens, but it should be noted that citizens of Taiwan and Hong Kong nationality are not counted in these figures. A study, conducted in 1995 estimated that the Chinese population of Japan numbered 150,000, among whom between 50,000 and 100,000 could speak Chinese. In 2000, Japanese governmental statistics revealed. Current demographic statistics reveal that these numbers have reached over 600,000 legal immigrants, although there is also a significant population, although of unknown number, of illegal immigrants. A significant number of Chinese people take Japanese citizenship each year and therefore disappear from these figures; as Japanese citizenship, like France, does not record ethnicity, once a person has naturalised, they are Japanese, so the category of Chinese-Japanese does not exist in the same was as it would in a country which recognises ethnicity.
Therefore, the numbers of Japanese people who are of Chinese descent is unclear. The original immigrants to the Japanese isles came from the south, but around 2300 years ago, increasing numbers came from what is now China and Korea; these were not all nameless, a Chinese legend of uncertain provenance states that Xu Fu, a Qin Dynasty court sorcerer, was sent by Qin Shi Huang to Penglai Mountain in 219 BC to retrieve an elixir of life. Xu could not find any elixir of life and was reluctant to return to China because he knew he would be sentenced to death, Xu instead stayed in Japan. Other immigrants are thought to include major population movements such as that of the Hata clan. However, Japan's first verifiable Chinese visitor was the Buddhist missionary Hui Shen, whose 499 AD visit to an island east of China known as Fusang identified with modern-day Japan, was described in the 7th-century Liang Shu. According to the Shinsen Shōjiroku, 176 Chinese aristocratic families lived in Japan. Chinese people are known to have settled in Okinawa during the Sanzan period at the invitation of the Ryukyuan kings.
During the Meiji and Taisho eras, it is estimated that up to 100 000 Chinese students came to study in Japan. Japan was both closer to China culturally and in distance than the American and European alternatives, it was much cheaper. In 1906 alone, more than six thousand Chinese students were in Japan. Most of them resided in the district of Kanda in Tokyo; the term shin-kakyō refers to people of Chinese descent who immigrated to Japan from Taiwan and Mainland China. Many famous Chinese intellectuals have studied in Japan, among them Sun Yat-sen, Zhou Zuoren, Lu Xun, Zhou Enlai and Chiang Kai-shek; the industrial'training scheme' used to bring Chinese workers to Japan has been criticized by lawyers as exploitation, after several deaths. Many Japanese war orphans left behind in China after World War II have migrated to Japan with the assistance of the Japanese government, bringing along their Chinese spouses and children. Chinese restaurants in Japan serve a distinct style of Chinese cuisine. Though in the past Chinese cuisine would have been available in Chinatowns such as those in port cities of Kobe, Nagasaki, or Yokohama, Japanese-style Chinese cuisine is now available all over Japan.
As Japanese restaurants specialise in just one sort of dish, cuisine is focused on dishes found within three distinct types of restaurants: ramen restaurants, dim sum houses, standard Chinese-style restaurants. As of 2008 there are five Chinese day schools in Japan: two in Yokohama and one each in Kobe and Tokyo. Three are oriented towards the Republic of China on Taiwan while two are oriented towards Mainland China. In Japanese the PRC-oriented schools are called tairiku-kei, the ROC-oriented schools are taiwan-kei; the Taiwan-oriented schools teach Traditional Chinese and Bopomofo while the Mainland-oriented schools teach Simplified Chinese and Hanyu Pinyin. The Taiwan-oriented schools, by 2008 began teaching Simplified Chinese; as of 1995 most teachers at these schools are ethnic Chinese persons. By that year there were increasing numbers of Japanese families sending their children to C