Tuska Open Air Metal Festival
Tuska Open Air Metal Festival shortened to Tuska, is a Finnish heavy metal festival taking place annually in Helsinki. The first Tuska took place in 1998 and the festival has since grown larger every year; the location of the festival has been in Kaisaniemi park in the middle of the city from 2001. However, Tuska 2011 took place at the Suvilahti event field in the Sörnäinen neighbourhood; the festival dates have always been in either July. In recent years the attendance has grown and the festival has drawn around 30.000 people. In 2006, the festival was sold out and over a combined three-day total of 33,000 attendees arrived to watch 32 artists, including for example Anathema, Celtic Frost, Sodom and Finland's own Amorphis and Sonata Arctica. There are three stages in Tuska: Inferno and the main stage, Radio Rock. Headliners are shown in bold. Am I Blood, Babylon Whores, Gandalf, Impaled Nazarene, Timo Rautiainen & Trio Niskalaukaus and others.... And Oceans, Barathrum, Dark Tranquillity, Lullacry, Painflow, Tarot, The 69 Eyes, Throne of Chaos, Timo Rautiainen & Trio Niskalaukaus, Two Witches and others.
Audience: 5 000+ Babylon Whores, Children of Bodom, Eternal Tears of Sorrow, Gamma Ray, Impaled Nazarene, Metal Gods, Pain, Sinergy, Terveet Kädet, The Black League, The Crown, Timo Rautiainen & Trio Niskalaukaus, To/Die/For Audience: ca. 10 000 Amon Amarth, Drive, Eläkeläiset, Gandalf, Impaled Nazarene, In Flames, Kotiteollisuus, Rhapsody of Fire, Rotten Sound, The 69 Eyes, Timo Rautiainen & Trio Niskalaukaus, Transport League, United and others Audience: 15 000 Ajattara, Bruce Dickinson, Demigod, Impaled Nazarene, Machine Head, Maj Karman Kauniit Kuvat, Moonsorrow, Nightwish, Sentenced, Sonata Arctica, Suburban Tribe, The Crown, Timo Rautiainen & Trio Niskalaukaus and others Audience: ca. 16 500 Amorphis, Arch Enemy, Behemoth, Children Of Bodom, Finntroll, Immortal Souls, Lost Horizon, Mannhai, Mokoma, Norther, Reverend Bizarre, Rotten Sound, Soulfly, Tarot, The 69 Eyes, The Haunted, Thyrane, Timo Rautiainen & Trio Niskalaukaus, Type O Negative and others Audience: ca. 30 000 Beseech, Charon, Dark Funeral, Dark Tranquillity, Death Angel, Dew-Scented, Dio, Drive, Fear Factory, In Flames, Impaled Nazarene, Kotiteollisuus, Nightwish, Machine Men, Sinergy, Sonata Arctica, Suburban Tribe, Swallow the Sun, Timo Rautiainen & Trio Niskalaukaus, Turisas and others Audience: 33 000+ Accept, Amoral, Callisto, Children of Bodom, Destruction, Dimmu Borgir, Finntroll, Gamma Ray, Hieronymus Bosch, Lake of Tears, Monster Magnet, Pain Confessor, Primal Fear, Rotten Sound, Sentenced, Stam1na, Teräsbetoni, Thunderstone, Turmion Kätilöt, Viikate and others Audience: ca. 33 000 Amorphis, Arch Enemy, Celtic Frost, Diablo, Freedom Call, Impaled Nazarene, Mendeed, Metsatöll, Nine, Opeth, Pain Confessor, Sonata Arctica, Stam1na, Suburban Tribe, Swallow the Sun, The Scourger, The Sisters Of Mercy, Timo Rautiainen, Verjnuarmu, Wintersun Audience: ca. 33 000 Before the Dawn, Blind Guardian, Brother Firetribe, Children of Bodom, D'espairsRay, DragonForce, Finntroll, Immortal, Insomnium, Katatonia, Legion of the Damned, Maj Karma, Misery Index, Moonspell, Pain, Profane Omen, Sturm Und Drang, Turisas, Vader, W.
A. S. P. and others Audience: 36 000 Amon Amarth, Before the Dawn, Carcass, Dimmu Borgir, Dream Evil, Dying Fetus, Fields of the Nephilim, Ghost Brigade, Killswitch Engage, Kreator, KYPCK, Morbid Angel, Primordial, Shade Empire, Sonata Arctica, Stam1na, The Scourger, The Sorrow, Tracedawn and Týr and others Audience: ca. 28 000 All That Remains, Amorphis, The Black Dahlia Murder, Dauntless, Eluveitie, Evile, Gama Bomb, Gojira, Jon Oliva's Pain, Legion of the Damned, Mucc, My Dying Bride, Parkway Drive, Profane Omen, Rotten Sound, Stam1na, Suicidal Tendencies, The Faceless and others Audience: 33 000+. Amatory, Barren Earth, Cannibal Corpse, Devin Townsend, Devin Townsend Project, Holy Grail, Insomnium, Megadeth, Nile, Overkill, Rytmihäiriö, Sotajumala, Swallow The Sun, Testament, Torture Killer, Trigger The Bloodshed, Warmen, W. A. S. P. Crowbar Audience: 35 000+ Amon Amarth, Amorphis, At the Gates, Arch Enemy, Blind Guardian, The Devin Townsend Project, Exodus, Meshuggah, Morbid Angel, Kvelertak, Killing Joke, Electric Wizard, Moonsorrow, Witchery, Agnostic Front, Spiritual Beggars, Impaled Nazarene, Shining, Church of Misery, Misery Index, Lighthouse Project, Black Breath, Bulldozer, Omnium Gatherum, Medeia, Rotten Sound and others Audience: 26 000+ Al
Black metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal music. Common traits include fast tempos, a shrieking vocal style distorted guitars played with tremolo picking, raw recording, unconventional song structures, an emphasis on atmosphere. Artists appear in corpse paint and adopt pseudonyms. During the 1980s, several thrash metal and death metal bands formed a prototype for black metal; this so-called first wave included bands such as Venom, Mercyful Fate and Celtic Frost. A second wave arose in the early 1990s, spearheaded by Norwegian bands such as Mayhem, Burzum, Emperor and Gorgoroth; the early Norwegian black metal scene developed the style of their forebears into a distinct genre. Norwegian-inspired black metal scenes emerged throughout Europe and North America, although some other scenes developed their own styles independently; some prominent Swedish bands spawned during this second wave, such as Marduk and Dark Funeral. A synonym for "Satanic metal", black metal has sparked controversy, due to the actions and ideologies associated with the genre.
Many artists express extreme anti-Christian and misanthropic views, advocating various forms of Satanism or ethnic paganism. In the 1990s, members of the scene were responsible for a spate of church murders. There is a small neo-Nazi movement within black metal, although it has been shunned by many prominent artists. Black metal strives to remain underground, inaccessible to the mainstream and those who are not committed. Although contemporary black metal refers to the Norwegian style with shrieking vocals and raw production, the term has been applied to bands with differing sounds. Norwegian-inspired black metal guitarists favor high-pitched or trebly guitar tones and heavy distortion; the guitar is played with fast, un-muted tremolo picking. Guitarists use dissonance—along with specific scales and chord progressions—to create a sense of dread; the tritone, or flat-fifth, is used. Guitar solos and low guitar tunings are rare in black metal; the bass guitar is used to play stand-alone melodies. It is not uncommon for the bass to be muted against the guitar, or for it to homophonically follow the low-pitched riffs of the guitar.
While electronic keyboards were "not heard in type of music", Dimmu Borgir say they started using keyboards "in the background" and started using them as a "proper instrument" for creating "atmosphere". Some newer black metal bands began raising their production quality and introducing additional instruments such as synthesizers and orchestras; the drumming is fast and relies on double-bass and blast beats to maintain tempos that can sometimes approach 300 beats per minute. These fast tempos require great skill and physical stamina, typified by black metal drummers Frost and Hellhammer. Still, authenticity is still prioritized over technique. "This professionalism has to go," insists well-respected drummer and metal historian Fenriz of Darkthrone. "I want to de-learn playing drums, I want to play primitive and simple, I don't want to play like a drum solo all the time and make these complicated riffs". Black metal songs stray from conventional song structure and lack clear verse-chorus sections.
Instead, many black metal songs contain repetitive instrumental sections. The Greek style—established by Rotting Christ and Varathron—has more traditional heavy metal and death metal traits than Norwegian black metal. Traditional black metal bands tend to favor raspy, high-pitched vocals which include techniques such as shrieking and snarling, a vocal style influenced by Quorthon of Bathory. Death growls, common in the death metal genre, are sometimes used, but less than the characteristic black metal shriek. Black metal lyrics attack Christianity and the other institutional religions using apocalyptic language. Satanic lyrics are common, many see them as essential to black metal. For Satanist black metal artists, "Black metal songs are meant to be like Calvinist sermons. Misanthropy, global catastrophe, death and rebirth are common themes. Another topic found in black metal lyrics is that of the wild and extreme aspects and phenomena of the natural world the wilderness, mountains, winter and blizzards.
Black metal has a fascination with the distant past. Many bands write about the mythology and folklore of their homelands and promote a revival of pre-Christian, pagan traditions. A significant number of bands write lyrics only in their native language and a few have lyrics in archaic languages; some doom metal-influenced artists' lyrics focus on depression, introspection, self-harm and suicide. Many bands choose not to play live. Many of those who do play live maintain that their performances "are not for entertainment or spectacle. Sincerity and extremity are valued above all else"; some bands consider their concerts to be rituals and make use of stage props and theatrics. Bands such as Mayhem and Gorgoroth are noted for their controversial shows, which have featured impaled animal heads, mock crucifixions, medieval weaponry and band members doused in animal blood. A few vocalists, such as Dead and Kvarforth, are known for cutting themselves while singing onstage. Black metal artists appear dressed in black with combat boots, bullet belts, spiked wristbands and inverted crosses and inverted pentagrams to reinforce their anti-Christian or anti-religious stance.
Nocturnal Rites is a Swedish power metal band formed in 1990. The band started off under the name Necronomic playing death metal; this attracted some independent labels' attention, but they turned them down in the hope of a better opportunity. On the two-track promo, recorded in 1992, their style had evolved into a more melodic, Iron Maiden-influenced sound, but was still unmistakably death metal; the band consisted of Fredrik Mannberg and Tommy Eriksson, who hired bassist Nils Eriksson. Following their change of style, the band hired vocalist Anders Zackrisson, whose voice was more adapted than Fredrik Mannberg's to power metal. Tommy Eriksson was soon after replaced by Ulf Andersson; the band added a second guitarist, Mikael Söderström. By this time they had evolved into the Helloween-style power metal sound of their first three albums. In 1994, the band signed with Swedish label Dark Age, the first album In a Time of Blood and Fire was released in collaboration with Megarock Records in 1995.
After this, guitarist Mikael Söderström was replaced by Nils Norberg. Despite being a replacement for the band's rhythm guitarist, Norberg became their lead player, with Mannberg switching entirely to rhythm from on; the second album, Tales of Mystery and Imagination, was first released in Japan in late 1997. It was released in Europe in March 1998 on Century Media; the band toured Europe with Angel Dust. The third album, The Sacred Talisman was released in 1999 and featured a new drummer, Owe Lingvall due to a leg injury of Ulf Andersson; the album entered the Japanese charts at No. 83. Only 2 weeks after the release, the band toured Europe with Nevermore, Morgana Lefay and Sacred Steel and participated in Open air festivals such as 1999's Dynamo festival. After this, singer Anders Zackrisson was replaced by former Mogg frontman Jonny Lindqvist, a former band mate of Owe Lingvall, his voice was quite different from his predecessor's, which gave the band a new face on their next album, released in 2000.
The band toured Europe once again with Iron Savior. 2004 saw the release of the album New World Messiah, followed by a six-week tour with Edguy and Brainstorm. Two videos were released in December and Against the World, both of them produced by drummer Owe Lingvall. In 2005, the 10th anniversary was celebrated with the re-release of the two first albums and some bonus material on the Lost in Time double CD; the band played a live show, Demons at the Opera with a 55-piece orchestra at the Umeå Opera House. A documentary about the show was broadcast on Swedish national television; the album Grand Illusion, out in 2005, featured many special guests, including Jens Johansson, Henrik Danhage, Kristoffer W. Olivius, Stefan Elmgren, more the Swedish world champion of cross-country skiing, Per Elofsson who comes from the same town as the band, Umeå; the band toured with such acts as Nightwish, Gamma Ray, HammerFall and Labyrinth, played in festivals such as Wacken Open Air, Sweden Rock, Gates of Metal, etc.
A new studio album, "The 8th Sin", was released in 2007. Nils Norberg left the band the following year due to personal reasons, he was replaced by Christoffer Rörland. Mannberg and Erikson are members of the thrash metal band Guillotine, Rörland has joined Sabaton as of 2012. On September 29, 2017 Nocturnal Rites released their first new album in 10 years titled "Phoenix"; the album cover artwork was created by Claudio Bergamin Current members Jonny Lindqvist - vocals Per Nilsson - guitars Fredrik Mannberg - Guitars, vocals Nils Eriksson - bass guitar Owe Lingvall - drums Former members Anders Zackrisson - vocals Mikael Söderström - guitars Nils Norberg - guitars Christoffer Rörland - guitars Ulf Andersson - drums Tommy Eriksson - drums The Ghost Inside Me Repent My Sins A Heart as Black as Coal Before We Waste Away Still Alive Awakening Against the World Avalon Fools Never Die Demons at the Opera Never Again Eyes of the Dead Lost in Time - The Early Years of Nocturnal Rites Nocturnal Rites/Falconer - Split Official website Nils Eriksson interviewed by Highwire Daze
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Dirk Verbeuren is a Belgian musician, most known for having been the drummer of prominent Swedish melodic death metal band Soilwork with whom he has recorded five full-length albums and a live DVD/Blu-ray, performed in Europe, The United States, Japan, Australia and China as a headlining act between early 2004 and July 2016. As of 2016, he left Soilwork to join thrash metal band Megadeth, as a full-time member. Verbeuren is renowned in the metal scene for his studio recordings and/or live performances and recordings with Devin Townsend Project, Fredrik Thordendal of Meshuggah, Jeff Loomis, Warrel Dane, Naglfar, Powermad, The Project Hate MCMXCIX, Sybreed and others; when he's not working as a session drummer at his Die Crawling Studio or touring worldwide as a drum clinician for Tama drums and Meinl cymbals, Verbeuren shares his knowledge and expertise through his Dirk Blasts instructional videos, in-person and online drum lessons. He's accumulated two decades of experience as a teacher, including ten years at Music Academy International in Nancy, France.
In 2011, Verbeuren created the grindcore band Bent Sea which features legendary Napalm Death bassist Shane Embury and vocalist Sven de Caluwe of Aborted. In July 2016 it was announced that Verbeuren was the new official drummer for Megadeth who he had been touring with since May while filling in for Chris Adler. By joining Megadeth, Verbeuren left Soilwork, he is married to commercial photographer Hannah Verbeuren. The couple resides in California, he cites Dave Mick Harris as earliest influences on his drumming. Other influences include Gavin Harrison, Sean Reinert, Gene Hoglan, Tomas Haake, Steve Flynn, Pete Sandoval, Morgan Ågren, Tony Laureano and Chad Smith. Verbeuren is a fan of hip hop music and mentioned The Beastie Boys, Run–D. M. C. and Public Enemy as his favourite hip hop groups in the teen years. Verbeuren is endorsed by Tama drums and sticks, Meinl cymbals, Evans Drumheads, Toontrack software, dB drumshoes and Alien Ears in-ear monitors, he recorded four elaborate MIDI drum packs for Toontrack: Library of the Extreme: Blasts and Fills, Death & Thrash, Fill Insanity and Metal Beats and contributed MIDI tracks to The Metal Foundry SDX and Metal!
EZX. Megadeth Bent Sea Scarve Phaze I Soilwork Phazm Mortuary Yyrkoon Aborted Anatomy of I As I Destruct Colosso Jeff Loomis Malevolence Naglfar The Devin Townsend Project One-Way Mirror Powermad The Project Hate MCMXCIX Pulse of Nebulae Satyricon Sybreed Warrel Dane of Nevermore and Sanctuary Abyssal Vortex Freya Scarve Six Tears of Sorrow Translucence Luminiferous Irradiant The Undercurrent Aborted Goremageddon: The Saw and the Carnage Done The Haematobic EP Coronary Reconstruction Soilwork Stabbing the Drama Sworn to a Great Divide The Panic Broadcast The Living Infinite Beyond the Infinite The Ride Majestic Sybreed Antares Warrel Dane Praises to the War Machine One-Way Mirror One-Way Mirror Bent Sea Noistalgia Double Penetration Animalist Ascend Devin Townsend Project Deconstruction Naglfar Téras Jeff Loomis Plains of Oblivion The Project Hate MCMXCIX There Is No Earth I Will Leave Unscorched Powermad Infinite Freya Grim Danzig Black Laden Crown As I DestructAs I Destruct From Fear To Oblivion Dirk Verbeuren's official website Megadeth's official website Bent Sea's official website Hannah Verbeuren's official website Soilwork's official website
Dimmu Borgir is a Norwegian symphonic black metal band from Oslo, formed in 1993. The name is derived from Dimmuborgir, a volcanic formation in Iceland, the name of which means "dark cities" or "dark castles/fortresses" in Icelandic and Old Norse; the band has been through numerous lineup changes over the years. Dimmu Borgir was founded in 1993 by Shagrath and Tjodalv; this short EP sold out within weeks, the band followed up with the 1994 full-length album For All Tid. This album featured vocal contributions by Vicotnik of Ved Buens Ende and Dødheimsgard and Aldrahn of Dødheimsgard and Zyklon-B; the initial line-up consisted of Shagrath playing drums with Tjodalv on guitar and Silenoz contributing lead vocals. This line-up changed before the release of Stormblåst on Cacophonous Records in 1996, an album considered by many to be their finest, it is the last album which features all lyrics written and sung in Norwegian. After Stormblåst, keyboardist Stian Aarstad left the band due to his obligation to serve in the Norwegian army, thus being unable to participate in the 1996 recording of Devil's Path.
That period was marked by the departure of bassist Brynjard Tristan and the arrival of Nagash. Stian Aarstad returned for the recording of 1997's Enthrone Darkness Triumphant, he was unable to tour. He was subsequently fired and replaced by Kimberly Goss for their 1997/1998 world tour. Enthrone Darkness Triumphant was a huge success for the band, was their first release signed to Nuclear Blast, a German record label; the album was recorded in the Abyss Studios, owned by Hypocrisy's frontman Peter Tägtgren. After the release of Enthrone Darkness Triumphant, the band went on tour with In Flames and other bands who were prominent in the scene at the time. After the tour for Enthrone Darkness Triumphant, the band recruited new members Mustis on keyboards and Astennu on lead guitar. Dimmu Borgir's following full-length albums Spiritual Black Dimensions in 1999 and 2001's Puritanical Euphoric Misanthropia, both met critical acclaim. However, another line-up change occurred between the two albums. Astennu was fired from his guitar duties as well, was replaced by Galder.
Despite the regular video play on MTV2 and Fuse that their follow-up album would receive, the band stated that they were not "commercially-oriented," and instead, they'simply wished to spread their message to more people'. In 2003, Dimmu Borgir recorded Death Cult Armageddon. Death Cult Armageddon was recorded with the Prague Philarmonic Orchestra, conducted by Adam Klemens. All orchestrations were arranged by Gaute Storaas. In 2004, Dimmu Borgir performed on the mainstage at Ozzfest. In 2005, the band did a complete re-recording of the Stormblåst album, featuring Hellhammer of Mayhem fame as the session drummer; the album featured a DVD with a live performance from the 2004 Ozzfest tour. Dimmu Borgir's eighth studio album, In Sorte Diaboli, was released on 24 April 2007. A special edition version was released in a boxed case with a DVD, backward-printed lyrics, a mirror; the album artwork was released on 14 February 2007 on a promotional webpage for the album. This album features once more the drumming of Hellhammer of Mayhem.
Blomberg left the band in mid-tour in 2007 because of a neck injury that resulted in limited movement of his right arm. With the release of this album, Dimmu Borgir became the first black metal band with a number one album on the charts in their native country. In October 2008, they released their second live DVD set titled The Invaluable Darkness, based on several shows during the world tour supporting'In Sorte Diaboli'. In 2009, members ICS Vortex and Mustis independently announced their departure from Dimmu Borgir. Mustis released a statement claiming his disfavor with the band, stating that he was not properly credited for his writing contributions to the band's music, mentioning taking legal action. Dimmu Borgir soon after confirmed the pair's dismissal from the band, releasing a statement explaining why the two were fired. Shagrath and Galder wrote: "Funny how the new album is half-way finished written by the rest of us without any of these guys' input, still having all those elements we're known for."
The band's decision has received a mixed response from fans. Dimmu Borgir's ninth studio album, was released on 24 September 2010 in Germany, 27 September 2010 for the rest of Europe and 12 October 2010 in North America. Silenoz explained that the growing periods of time between albums was because the band had stopped writing music while touring, affecting the quality of the music, he described the new album as having an "eerie and haunting feel to it", adding that the material is "epic", "primal", atmospheric and ambient. A promotional image released with the statement showed Shagrath returning to the keyboards; the album features an ensemble orchestra, the Kringkastingsorkestret, as well as the Schola Cantorum choir, totaling more than 100 musicians and singers. Gaute Storaas, composer of the orchestral arrangements, released a statement on his role in working on the album. "Their
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr