Chandrapur is a municipal corporation in Chandrapur district, Maharashtra state, India. It is the centre of governance of Chandrapur district. Chandrapur is a fort city founded by Khandkya Ballal Sah, a Gond king of the 13th century The city is situated at the confluence of the Irai and Zarpat rivers; the area around the city is rich in coal seams. Hence, Chandrapur is known as "black gold city"; the local people relate the name "Chandrapur" to the words pur after a legend. Scholars see the name as a derivative of "Indupur". Chandrapur is nicknamed the "black gold city" after nearby coal mining. Archeological finds such as signs of pottery making, suggest inhabitation of the Chandrapur area in Neolithic times. From ancient times, Chandrapur has fallen under the control of many different rulers. Between 322 BCE and 187 BCE, much of India, including Maharashtra, was part of the Maurya Empire. From 187 BCE to 78 BCE, Chandrapur was part of the Shunga Empire which controlled much of central and eastern India.
The Satavahana Empire controlled Chandrapur from the 1st century BCE to the 2nd century CE. The Vakataka dynasty ruled from the area from the mid 3rd century CE to 550 CE; the Kalachuri dynasty ruled in the area in the 6th and 7th centuries CE. The Rashtrakuta dynasty followed, controlling the Chandrapur region between the 7th and 10th centuries; the Chalukya dynasty ruled in the region to the 12th century CE. The Seuna dynasty of Devagiri ruled a kingdom, including the Chandrapur area, in 850 CE and continued until 1334 CE; the Gond people are part of the Adivasi of India. In ancient times, the Gond diaspora spread throughout central India. After the passage many kings, who were subservient to other rulers, Khandkya Ballal came to the throne, he died there. Gond rule was lost in 1751 to the Maratha period; the last ruler of the Maratha dynasty, Raghuji Bhonsle III died in 1853 without issue. The Gond king, who founded Chandrapur, was covered in tumours, his wise and beautiful wife nursed him. She asked him to move to the north bank of the Wardha River.
There, the king built a fort he named "Ballalpur". One day, while hunting north-west of Ballalpur, the king became thirsty and rode up to the dry bed of the Jharpat river in search of water, he discovered water trickling from a hole, after drinking, washed his face and feet. That night he slept soundly for the first time in his life. On his return the queen was delighted to see that many of the tumours on her husband's body had disappeared; the king took his wife to see the water hole. On clearing the grass and sand, they found five footprints of a cow in the solid rock, each filled with water; the water source at the spot was considered holy. The place was called "Tirtha of Acalesvar of the Treta Yuga"; when the king bathed in the water all the tumours on his body vanished. That night at the water hole, Acalesvar appeared to the king in a dream, spoke comforting words. A temple was built over the water hole. One morning, at the water hole, the king saw a hare chasing his dog; the dog killed the hare.
The king found a white spot on the forehead of the hare. The queen said it was a good omen and a fortified city should he built with its layout based on the chase of the dog and hare, she said. The king's officers, the "Tel Thakurs" built the fortified city; the city became Chandrapur. In 1853, Chandrapur was annexed to British India. During the British colonial period the area of Chandrapur was called "Chanda district". By 1871, Anglican and Scottish Episcopal missionaries had arrived in the city. In 1874, three tehsils were created: Viz Mul and Bramhpuri; the upper Godavai district of Madras was abolished and four tehsils were added to Chandrapur to form one tehsil with Sironcha 150 km to the south, as its centre of governance. In 1895, the headquarters was transferred to Chandrapur. In 1905, a new tehsil with headquarters at Gadchiroli was created through the transfer of zamindari estates from Bramhpuri and Chandrapur tehsil. In 1907, a small area of land was transferred from Chandrapur to the newer districts and another area of about 1560 km2, comprising three divisions of the lower Sironcha tehsil were transferred to Madras State.
Between 1911 and 1955, no major changes occurred in the boundaries of its tehsils. In 1956, with the reorganization of Indian states, Chandrapur district was transferred from Madhya Pradesh to Bombay state. In 1959, part of Adilabad district of Hyderabad state, was transferred to Chandrapur district. In May 1960, Chandrapur district became part of the Maharashtra state. Following the 1981 Census of India, Chandrapur district was divided into Chandrapur district and Gadchiroli district; this was for industrial and agricultural development. Chandrapur is located in central India in the eastern part of Maharashtra state at 19.57°N latitude and 79.18°E longitude. The nearest major city is 150 kilometres to the north. To the east is Gadchiroli district including the Gadchiroli forest reserve and the Sundarnagar range. To the south is the Wardha River with villages scattered along its banks. To the west of Chandrapur lies the Painganga river and the Maharashtra State Highway 6. Chandrapur is situated at 189.90 meters above the mean sea level.
Chandrapur lies at the confluence of the Zarpat rivers. The Erai river has a history of flooding. Flood marks are seen on the walls of the city. In the north of
Desaiganj known as Desaiganj is a City and a municipal council in the Gadchiroli district in the state of Maharashtra, India. Old Wadsa village is situated few km to the south. Now In that City has Chennai Yeshwantpur korba sf Express stop at Wadsa Station; as of the 2011 Indian census, Desaiganj has a population of 28,781 of which 14,388 are males while 14,393 are females. Literacy rate of Desaiganj city is 88.38% higher than state average of 82.34%. In Desaiganj, Male literacy is around 93.58% while female literacy rate is 83.22%.. Population of Children with age of 0-6 is 3064, 10.65% of total population of Desaiganj The town is situated on the banks of river Wainganga and is agriculture dominated. Desaiganj sub-division consists Wadsa, Armori and Korchi talukas. There are 467 1688 Revenue Villages. Desaiganj is the most developed town in whole Gadchiroli District, well connected by Railways & roads to the rest part of India. Trains for Hyderabad,Bangalore, Raipur, Bilaspur & Darbhanga are available.
It's a market hub for rice, electronics, grocery for Gadchiroli, Gondia and Chandrapur district. It is safe from Naxalite activities. Marathi is spoken language here. In Desaiganj mandir, masjid, church all could be seen. In Desaiganj many politicians like Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar,Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi, Narshimha Rao, Balasaheb Thakre, Nitin Gadkari, Rahul Gandhi, Sharad Pawar,Ashok Chavhan, Vilasrao Deshmukh, RR Patil have visited. Baba Ramdev has visited desaiganj; this is a small town. People rely on farming; the crops produced here are rice, different types of lentils, soyabeans etc. There are many small scale industries cropping up, beside some existing one's like a 10 MW power plant, a sugar factory, a medicine factory and two fertilizer plants. It's a center market for rice trading nowadays becoming popular for garment market; this region is known for Rice mills. The rice produced is exported to various parts of the country including Tamil Nadu etc.. Rice is exported to neighbouring countries such as Nepal.
This city is famous for Garment. People travel here from chandrapur and gondia to buy clothes as the town is famous for shopping and Garment Trading
Nagpur is the third largest city and winter capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the 13th largest Indian city by population. According to an Oxford Economics report, Nagpur is projected to be the fifth fastest growing city in the world from 2019-2035 with an average growth of 8.41% It has been proposed as one of the Smart Cities in Maharashtra. Nagpur is the seat of the annual winter session of the Maharashtra state assembly, it is a major political centre of the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra. In addition, the city derives unique importance from being the headquarters for the Hindu nationalist organisation RSS and an important location for the Dalit Buddhist movement. Nagpur is known for Deekshabhoomi, the largest hollow stupa among all the Buddhist stupas in the world. According to a survey by ABP News-Ipsos, Nagpur has been identified as the best city in India topping in livability, public transport, health care indices in 2013; the city has been adjudged the 20th cleanest city in India and the top mover in the western zone as per Swachh Sarvekshan 2016.
It was awarded as the best city for innovation and best practice in Swachh Sarvekshan 2018. It was declared as open defecation free in January 2018 under Swachh Bharat Mission, it is famous for Nagpur oranges and is sometimes known as the Orange City for being a major trade center of oranges cultivated in large part of the region. The city was founded in 1703 by the Gonds King Bakht Buland Shah of Deogarh and became a part of the Maratha Empire under the royal Bhonsale dynasty; the British East India Company took over Nagpur in the 19th century and made it the capital of the Central Provinces and Berar. After the first re-organisation of states, the city lost its status as the capital. Following the informal Nagpur Pact between political leaders, it was made the second capital of Maharashtra. See: Nagpur state One of the earlier names of Nagpur was "Fanindrapura", it derives its origin from hood of a Cobra. In fact, Nagpur's first newspaper was named'Fanindramani', which means a jewel, believed to be suspended over a cobra's hood.
It is this jewel. The river Nag flows through the city. B. R. Ambedkar claimed that both the city and the river are named after "Nag people"; the suffix "pur" means "city" in many Indian languages. During British rule, the name of the city was spelt and pronounced as "Nagpore". In the 18th century, this city was created by the leader of Gond Dynasty named Bakht Buland Shah in the first half of the century. Human existence around present-day Nagpur can be traced back 3000 years to the 8th century BCE. Mehir burial sites at the Drugdhamna indicate that the megalithic culture existed around Nagpur and is still followed; the first reference to the name "Nagpur" is found in a 10th-century copper-plate inscription discovered at Devali in the neighbouring Wardha district. The inscription is a record of grant of a village situated in the Visaya of Nagpura-Nandivardhana during the time of the Rastrakuta king Krsna III in the Saka year 862. Towards the end of the 3rd century, King Vindhyasakti is known to have ruled the Nagpur region.
In the 4th century, the Vakataka Dynasty ruled over the Nagpur region and surrounding areas and had good relations with the Gupta Empire. The Vakataka king Prithvisena I moved his capital to 38 kilometres from Nagpur. After the Vakatakas, the region came under the rule of the Hindu kingdoms of the Badami Chalukyas, the Rashtrakutas; the Paramaras of Malwa appear to have controlled the Nagpur region in the 11th century. A prashasti inscription of the Paramara king Lakshmadeva has been found at Nagpur. Subsequently, the region came under the Yadavas of Devagiri. In 1296, Allauddin Khilji invaded the Yadava Kingdom after capturing Deogiri, after which the Tughlaq Dynasty came to power in 1317. In the 17th century, the Mughal Empire conquered the region, however during Mughal era, regional administration was carried out by the Gond kingdom of Deogarh-Nagpur in the Chhindwara district of the modern-day state of Madhya Pradesh. In the 18th, century Bhonsles of the Maratha Empire established the Nagpur Kingdom based in the city.
After Bhakt Buland Shah, the next Raja of Deogarh was Chand Sultan, who resided principally in the country below the hills, fixing his capital at Nagpur, which he turned into a walled town. On Chand Sultan's death in 1739, Wali Shah, an illegitimate son of Bakht Buland, usurped the throne and Chand Sultan's widow invoked the aid of the Maratha leader Raghoji Bhosale of Berar in the interest of her sons Akbar Shah and Burhan Shah; the usurper was put to the rightful heirs placed on the throne. After 1743, a series of Maratha rulers came to power, starting with Raghoji Bhosale, who conquered the territories of Deogarh and Chhattisgarh by 1751. Nagpur was burnt in 1765 and again in 1811 by marauding Pindaris. However, the development of the city of Nagpur continued. In 1803 Raghoji II Bhosale joined the Peshwa against the British in the Second Anglo-Maratha War, but the British prevailed. After Raghoji II's death in 1816, his son Parsaji was murdered by Mudhoji II Bhosale. Despite the fact that he had entered into a treaty with the British in the same year, Mudhoji joined the Peshwa in the Third Anglo-Maratha War in 1817 against the British but suffered a defeat at Sitabuldi in present-day Nagpur city.
The fierce battle was a turning point as it laid the foundations of the downfall of the Bhosales and paved the way for the British acquisition of Nagpur city. Mudhoji was deposed after a temporary restoration to the throne, after which the Britis
Presidencies and provinces of British India
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in India. Collectively, they were called British India. In one form or another, they existed between 1612 and 1947, conventionally divided into three historical periods: Between 1612 and 1757 the East India Company set up "factories" in several locations in coastal India, with the consent of the Mughal emperors or local rulers, its rivals were the merchant trading companies of Portugal, the Netherlands and France. By the mid-18th century three "Presidency towns": Madras and Calcutta, had grown in size. During the period of Company rule in India, 1757–1858, the Company acquired sovereignty over large parts of India, now called "Presidencies". However, it increasingly came under British government oversight, in effect sharing sovereignty with the Crown. At the same time it lost its mercantile privileges. Following the Indian Rebellion of 1857 the Company's remaining powers were transferred to the Crown.
In the new British Raj, sovereignty extended such as Upper Burma. However, unwieldy presidencies were broken up into "Provinces". In 1608, Mughal authorities allowed the English East India Company to establish a small trading settlement at Surat, this became the company's first headquarters town, it was followed in 1611 by a permanent factory at Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast, in 1612 the company joined other established European trading companies in Bengal in trade. However, the power of the Mughal Empire declined from 1707, first at the hands of the Marathas and due to invasion from Persia and Afghanistan. By the mid-19th century, after the three Anglo-Maratha Wars the East India Company had become the paramount political and military power in south Asia, its territory held in trust for the British Crown. Company rule in Bengal from 1793, ended with the Government of India Act 1858 following the events of the Bengal Rebellion of 1857. From known as British India, it was thereafter directly ruled by the British Crown as a colonial possession of the United Kingdom, India was known after 1876 as the Indian Empire.
India was divided into British India, regions that were directly administered by the British, with Acts established and passed in British Parliament, the Princely States, ruled by local rulers of different ethnic backgrounds. These rulers were allowed a measure of internal autonomy in exchange for British suzerainty. British India constituted a significant portion of India both in population. In addition, there were French exclaves in India. Independence from British rule was achieved in 1947 with the formation of two nations, the Dominions of India and Pakistan, the latter including East Bengal, present-day Bangladesh; the term British India applied to Burma for a shorter time period: starting in 1824, a small part of Burma, by 1886 two-thirds of Burma had come under British India. This arrangement lasted until 1937, when Burma commenced being administered as a separate British colony. British India did not apply to other countries in the region, such as Sri Lanka, a British Crown colony, or the Maldive Islands, which were a British protectorate.
At its greatest extent, in the early 20th century, the territory of British India extended as far as the frontiers of Persia in the west. It included the Aden in the Arabian Peninsula; the East India Company, incorporated on 31 December 1600, established trade relations with Indian rulers in Masulipatam on the east coast in 1611 and Surat on the west coast in 1612. The company rented a small trading outpost in Madras in 1639. Bombay, ceded to the British Crown by Portugal as part of the wedding dowry of Catherine of Braganza in 1661, was in turn granted to the East India Company to be held in trust for the Crown. Meanwhile, in eastern India, after obtaining permission from the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan to trade with Bengal, the Company established its first factory at Hoogly in 1640. A half-century after Mughal Emperor Aurengzeb forced the Company out of Hooghly due to tax evasion, Job Charnock purchased three small villages renamed Calcutta, in 1686, making it the Company's new headquarters.
By the mid-18th century, the three principal trading settlements including factories and forts, were called the Madras Presidency, the Bombay Presidency, the Bengal Presidency — each administered by a Governor. Madras Presidency: established 1640. Bombay Presidency: East India Company's headquarters moved from Surat to Bombay in 1687. Bengal Presidency: established 1690. After Robert Clive's victory in the Battle of Plassey in 1757, the puppet government of a new Nawab of Bengal, was maintained by the East India Company. However, after the invasion of Bengal by the Nawab of Oudh in 1764 and his subsequent defeat in the Battle of Buxar, the Company obtained the Diwani of Bengal, which included the right to administer and collect land-revenue in Bengal
Central Provinces and Berar
The Central Provinces and Berar was a province of British India and the Dominion of India which existed from 1936 to 1950. It was formed by the merger of the Central Provinces with the province of Berar, territory leased by the British from the Hyderabad State. Through an agreement signed on 5 November 1902, 6th Nizam Mahbub Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VI leased Berar permanently to the British for an annual payment of 25 lakhs Rupees. Lord Curzon decided to merge Berar with the Central Provinces, this was proclaimed on 17 September 1903; the Central Provinces was formed in 1861 by the merger of the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories and Nagpur Province. Administration of the Berar region of the Hyderabad princely state was assigned to the Chief Commissioner of the Central Provinces in 1903, for administrative purposes, Berar was merged with the Central Provinces to form the Central Provinces & Berar on October 24, 1936. After Indian Independence in 1947, a number of princely states were merged into the Central Provinces and Berar, when the Constitution of India went into effect in 1950, became the new Indian state of Madhya Bharat, merged with Madhya Pradesh in 1956 meaning Central Province.
As its name suggests, the province was situated in the center of the Indian peninsula. It comprised large portions of the broad belt of hill and plateau which interposes between the plains of the Ganges and the Deccan plateau; the Central Provinces and Berar were bounded on the north and northeast by the Central India Agency, including the Bundelkhand and Bagelkhand agencies, along the northern edge of Sagar District by the United Provinces of Agra & Oudh. The Central Provinces comprised 19th-century British conquests from the Mughals and Marathas in central India, covered much of present-day Chhattisgarh with portions of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra states, its capital was Nagpur. After the defeat of the Marathas in the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the territories north of the Satpura Range ceded in 1817 by the Maratha Peshwa and in 1818 by Appa Sahib, were in 1820, formed into the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories under an agent to the governor-general. In 1835 the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories were included in the newly formed North-Western Provinces.
In 1842, in consequence of an uprising, they were again placed under the jurisdiction of an agent to the governor-general. They were restored to the North-Western Province in 1853. In 1818, the Maratha Bhonsle Maharajas of Nagpur submitted to British sovereignty. In 1853, on the death of Raghoji III without heirs, Nagpur was annexed by the British under the doctrine of lapse; until the formation of the Central Provinces in 1861, Nagpur Province, which consisted of the Nagpur Division and Chhattisgarh, was administered by a commissioner under the central colonial government. The Saugor and Nerbudda Territories were joined with the Nagpur province to constitute the new Central Provinces in 1861. On 1 October 1903 Berar was placed under the administration of the commissioner of the Central Provinces. In October 1905 most of Sambalpur and the princely states of Bamra, Sonpur and Kalahandi were transferred from the Central Provinces and Berar to Bengal, while the Hindi-speaking Chota Nagpur States of Chang Bhakar, British Korea, Surguja and Jashpur were transferred from Bengal to the Central Provinces & Berar.
In 1935 the Government of India Act was passed by the British Parliament. This act provided for the election of a provincial assembly, with an electorate made up of men with a minimum of financial resources, excluding women and the poor. Supervisory powers over the enclaved and attached Princely States were reserved to the Governor and removed from the authority of the popular provincial governments. Elections were held in 1937, the Indian National Congress took a majority of the seats but declined to form the government. A minority provisional government was formed under E. Raghavendra Rao; the Congress reversed its decision and resolved to accept office in July 1937. Therefore, the Governor invited N. B. Khare to form the government in August 1937. Khare resigned in 1938, Ravi Shankar Shukla next became Premier. In 1939, along with Congress leaders from other provinces, Shukla resigned in protest of the Governor-General's declaration of war on Germany without consulting with Indian leaders, the Central Provinces & Berar came under Governor's Rule.
Another round of elections were held in 1946, yielding another Congress majority, Shukla again became Premier. India became independent on 15 August and the Central Provinces & Berar became a province of the Dominion of India; the princely states, which were under the Central Provinces before 1936, were merged into the province, organized into new districts. When the Constitution of India went into effect in 1950, the Central Provinces & Berar was reorganized with territorial changes as the state of Madhya Pradesh, which name means Central Province. After Indian Independence in 1947, the Central Provinces and Berar became part of India as Madhya Pradesh. On 1 November 1956, Madhya Bharat, together with the states of Vindhya Pradesh and Bhopal State, was merged into Madhya Pradesh. In 1956, under pressure from Marathi Irredentists, the Berar and Nagpur divisions were transferred to Bombay state. In 1960, the Bombay State was partitioned into Gujarat. In 2000, the eastern portion of Madhya Pradesh was split off to become the new state of Chhattisgarh.
The 1941 Census of India count
The Central Provinces was a province of British India. It comprised British conquests from the Mughals and Marathas in central India, covered parts of present-day Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra states, its capital was Nagpur. It became the Central Provinces and Berar in 1936; the Central Provinces was formed in 1861 by the merger of the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories and Nagpur Province. The district of Nimar, administered by the Central India Agency was added in 1864, it was an island encircled by a sea of "native States" such as Bhopal State and Rewa State to the north, the Chota Nagpur States and Kalahandi State to the east, the Nizam's territories of Hyderabad to the south and Berar to the west. The Central Provinces was landlocked, occupying the mountain ranges and river valleys in the centre of the Indian Subcontinent; the northernmost portion of the state extended onto the Bundelkhand upland, whose northward-flowing rivers are tributaries of the Yamuna and Ganges. The Vindhya Range runs east and west, forming the watershed between the Ganges-Yamuna basin and the Narmada River basin, which occupies the center and west of the province, flows westward to empty into the Arabian Sea.
The upper Narmada valley forms the center of the Mahakoshal region. Jabalpur lay on the upper Narmada, was an important railway junction; the Satpura Range divides the Narmada valley from the Deccan Plateau to the south. The Central Provinces included the northeastern portion of the Deccan, drained by tributaries of the Godavari River including the Wainganga and Indravati. A portion of Berar lay in the upper basin of the Tapti River, which drains westward into the Arabian Sea; the portion of the Central Provinces on the Deccan Plateau formed the Vidarbha region, which includes Nagpur, the capital of the province. The eastern portion of the state lay in the upper Mahanadi River basin, which forms fertile rice-growing region of Chhattisgarh; the Maikal Range separates the basins of the Mahanadi. The Chota Nagpur Plateau extended into the northeast corner of the province. General censuses were held in 1866, 1872, 1881, 1891, 1901, 1911, 1921, 1931; the population in 1866 was over 9 million, in 1872 over 9.25 million.
1869 was a famine year. There were epidemics of smallpox and cholera in 1872, 1878, 1879. By 1881 the population had risen to 11.5 million, by 1891 to nearly 13 million. The population in 1901 was 11,873,029, a reduction of 800,000 from 1891; the lack of summer monsoon rains in 1897 and 1900 led to widespread crop failures and huge famines in those years, there were partial crop failures in four other years in the decade, with epidemics of cholera in seven of the ten years. A portion of the decrease was from other provinces of India; the 1911 census counted a population of 16,033,310 for the Central Provinces and Berar. Droughts in 1917 and 1920 caused famine in several districts, the Central Provinces were affected by bubonic plague in 1911, 1912, 1915, 1917, 1918, by the 1918 influenza pandemic. In the 1921 census, the population declined by 0.3% from 1911 to 15,970,660. The 1931 census found a total population of 17,990,937 for the Central Provinces and Berar - 12,065,885 for the British districts, 3,441,838 for Berar, 2,483,214 in the princely states.
The central Provinces contained two distinct linguistic regions: Mahakoshal, consisting of Hindi-speaking districts, Vidarbha, but not a Marathi-speaking area. The linguistic regions could not be integrated as a unit. In the 1901 census, 6,111,000 of the population spoke variants of Hindi, chiefly Chhattisgarhi, Bundeli and Malvi or Rajasthani. 2,107,000 spoke Marathi, the majority language of Wardha, Nagpur and Bhandara districts, the southern portions of Nimar, Betul and Balaghat districts. Oriya speakers numbered 1,600,000, or 13.5%, but the transfer of Sambalpur District to Bengal in 1905 reduced the number of Oriya speakers to 292,000. There were 94,000 Telugu speakers in Chanda District. Of the 730,000 who spoke other Dravidian languages, the majority spoke Gondi, 60,000 spoke Korku. 74,000 spoke Munda languages. The Central Provinces were administered from 1861 to 1920 by a Chief Commissioner. Administratively, the Central Provinces consisted of four divisions, which were further divided into 18 districts - five districts in each division except Chhattisgarh, which had three districts.
Berar was under the administrative authority of the Chief Commissioner for the Central Provinces, but administered separately. The Central Provinces contained 15 princely states, which accounted for 31,188 square miles and a population in 1901 of 1,631,140 15% of the total population; the largest was Bastar, with an area of 13,062 miles, the smallest was Satki, with an area of 138 square miles. The princely states were in Chhattisgarh Division, except for Makrai, in Hoshangabad District. In 1903, the Marathi-speaking Berar region of the Hyderabad princely state was placed under the administration of the Governor of the Central Provinces, although it remained part of Hyderabad, leased in perpetuity by the Government of India. In 1905, most of Sambalpur District and the princely states of Bamra, Sonpur and Kalahandi were transferred to Bengal Province and the princely states of Changbhakar, Surguja and Jashpur were transferred from Bengal to the Central Provinces; the Government of India Act, 1912 permitted the creation of legislative councils for provinces under a chief commissioner, on 8 November 1913 the
Madhya Pradesh is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal, the largest city is Indore, with Jabalpur, Gwalior and Sagar being the other major cities. Nicknamed the "Heart of India" due to its geographical location, Madhya Pradesh is the second largest Indian state by area and the fifth largest state by population with over 75 million residents, it borders the states of Uttar Pradesh to the northeast, Chhattisgarh to the southeast, Maharashtra to the south, Gujarat to the west, Rajasthan to the northwest. Its total area is 308,252 km2. Before 2000, when Chhattisgarh was a part of Madhya Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh was the largest state in India and the distance between the two furthest points inside the state and Konta, was 1500 km. Konta is presently in Sukma district of Chhattisgarh state; the area covered by the present-day Madhya Pradesh includes the area of the ancient Avanti Mahajanapada, whose capital Ujjain arose as a major city during the second wave of Indian urbanisation in the sixth century BCE.
Subsequently, the region was ruled by the major dynasties of India. By the early 18th century, the region was divided into several small kingdoms which were captured by the British and incorporated into Central Provinces and Berar and the Central India Agency. After India's independence, Madhya Pradesh state was created with Nagpur as its capital: this state included the southern parts of the present-day Madhya Pradesh and northeastern portion of today's Maharashtra. In 1956, this state was reorganised and its parts were combined with the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh and Bhopal to form the new Madhya Pradesh state, the Marathi-speaking Vidarbha region was removed and merged with the Bombay State; this state was the largest in India by area until 2000, when its southeastern Chhattisgarh region was made as a separate state. Rich in mineral resources, MP has the largest reserves of copper in India. More than 30% of its area is under forest cover, its tourism industry has seen considerable growth, with the state topping the National Tourism Awards in 2010–11.
In recent years, the state's GDP growth has been above the national average. Isolated remains of Homo erectus found in Hathnora in the Narmada Valley indicate that Madhya Pradesh might have been inhabited in the Middle Pleistocene era. Painted pottery dated to the mesolithic period has been found in the Bhimbetka rock shelters. Chalcolithic sites belonging to Kayatha culture and Malwa culture have been discovered in the western part of the state; the city of Ujjain arose as a major centre in the region, during the second wave of Indian urbanisation in the sixth century BCE. It served as the capital of the Avanti kingdom Tejas. Other kingdoms mentioned in ancient epics—Malava, Karusha and Nishada—have been identified with parts of Madhya Pradesh. Chandragupta Maurya united northern India around 320 BCE, establishing the tejas Mauryan Empire, which included all of modern-day Madhya Pradesh. Ashoka the greatest of Mauryan rulers brought the region under firmer control. After the decline of the Maurya empire, the region was contested among the Sakas, the Kushanas, the Satavahanas, several local dynasties during the 1st to 3rd centuries CE.
Heliodorus, the Greek Ambassador to the court of the Shunga king Bhagabhadra erected the Heliodorus pillar near Vidisha. Ujjain emerged as the predominant commercial centre of western India from the first century BCE, located on the trade routes between the Ganges plain and India's Arabian Sea ports; the Satavahana dynasty of the northern Deccan and the Saka dynasty of the Western Satraps fought for the control of Madhya Pradesh during the 1st to 3rd centuries CE. The Satavahana king Gautamiputra Satakarni inflicted a crushing defeat upon the Saka rulers and conquered parts of Malwa and Gujarat in the 2nd century CE. Subsequently, the region came under the control of the Gupta empire in the 4th and 5th centuries, their southern neighbours, the Vakataka's; the rock-cut temples at Bagh Caves in the Kukshi tehsil of the Dhar district attest to the presence of the Gupta dynasty in the region, supported by the testimony of a Badwani inscription dated to the year of 487 CE. The attacks of the Hephthalites or White Huns brought about the collapse of the Gupta empire, which broke up into smaller states.
The king Yasodharman of Malwa defeated the Huns in 528. Harsha ruled the northern parts of the state. Malwa was ruled by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty from the late 8th century to the 10th century; when the south Indian Emperor Govinda III of the Rashtrakuta dynasty annexed Malwa, he set up the family of one of his subordinates there, who took the name of Paramara. The Medieval period saw the rise of the Rajput clans, including the Paramaras of Malwa and the Chandelas of Bundelkhand; the Chandellas built the majestic Hindu-Jain temples at Khajuraho, which represent the culmination of Hindu temple architecture in Central India. The Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty held sway in northern and western Madhya Pradesh at this time, it left some monuments of architectural value in Gwalior. Southern parts of Madhya Pradesh like Malwa were several times invaded by the south Indian Western Chalukya Empire which imposed its rule on the Paramara kingdom of Malwa; the Paramara king Bhoja was a renowned polymath.
The small Gond kingdoms emerged in the Mahakoshal regions of the state. Northern Madhya Pradesh was conquered by the Turkic Delhi Sultanate in the 13th century. After the collapse of the Delhi Sultanate at the end of the 14th century, independent regional kingdoms re-emerged, including the Tomara kingdom of Gwalior and the Muslim