Massive Attack are a British musical group formed in 1988 in Bristol, United Kingdom, consisting of Robert "3D" Del Naja, Grant "Daddy G" Marshall and Andy "Mushroom" Vowles. Their debut album Blue Lines was released in 1991, with the single "Unfinished Sympathy" reaching the charts and being voted the 63rd greatest song of all time in a poll by NME. 1998's Mezzanine, containing "Teardrop", 2003's 100th Window charted in the UK at number one. Both Blue Lines and Mezzanine feature in Rolling Stone's list of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time; the group has won numerous music awards throughout their career, including a Brit Award—winning Best British Dance Act, two MTV Europe Music Awards, two Q Awards. They have released five studio albums. DJs Daddy G and Andrew Vowles and graffiti artist-turned-rapper Robert Del Naja met as members of partying collective The Wild Bunch. One of the first homegrown soundsystems in the UK, The Wild Bunch became dominant on the Bristol club scene in the mid-1980s.
Massive Attack started as a spin-off production trio in 1988, with the independently released song, "Any Love", sung by falsetto-voiced singer-songwriter Carlton McCarthy, with considerable backing from Neneh Cherry, they signed to Circa Records in 1990—committing to deliver six studio albums and a "best of" compilation. Circa became a subsidiary of, was subsumed into, Virgin Records, which in turn was acquired by EMI. Blue Lines, was co-produced by Jonny Dollar and Cameron McVey, who became their first manager. McVey and his wife, Neneh Cherry, provided crucial financial support and in-kind assistance to the early careers of Massive Attack and Tricky during this period paying regular wages to them through their Cherry Bear Organisation. Massive Attack used guest vocalists, interspersed with Del Naja and Marshall's own sprechgesang stylings, on top of what became regarded as an British creative sampling production. In the 1990s, the trio became known for not being able to get along with one another and working separately.
Andy Vowles, who had once thought of himself as the trio's musical director, acrimoniously left Massive Attack in late 1999, after an ultimatum from the other two members to end the group if he did not. Despite having taken Del Naja's side in the effective firing of Vowles and participating in a show-of-unity webcast as a duo the following year, Grant Marshall had effectively left by 2001 in that he abandoned the studio altogether. Marshall returned to a studio role in 2005, having joined the touring line-up in 2003 and 2004. Unsigned, Daddy G and 3D put out "Any Love" as a single, co-produced by Bristol double-act Smith & Mighty. 3D co-wrote Neneh Cherry's "Manchild". Cameron McVey and Neneh Cherry helped them to record their first LP, Blue Lines in their house, the album was released in 1991 on Virgin Records; the album used vocalists including Shara Nelson, a former Wild Bunch cohort. MC's Tricky and Willie Wee once part of The Wild Bunch, featured, as well as Daddy G's voice on "Five Man Army".
Neneh Cherry sang backing vocals on environmentalist anthem, "Hymn of the Big Wheel". That year they released "Unfinished Sympathy" as a single, a string-arranged track at Abbey Road studio, scored by Will Malone, that went on to be voted the 10th greatest song of all time in a poll by The Guardian; the group temporarily shortened their name to "Massive" on the advice of McVey to avoid controversy relating to the Gulf War. They went back to being "Massive Attack" for their next single, "Safe from Harm". After Shara Nelson left, the band brought in Everything but the Girl's Tracey Thorn as a vocalist and released "Protection" on 26 September 1994. With McVey out of the picture, Massive Attack enlisted the production talents of former Wild Bunch Nellee Hooper to co-produce some songs on it, with Mushroom. Other tracks were co-produced by The Insects and 3D. A dub version, No Protection, was released the following year by Mad Professor. Protection won a Brit award for Best Dance Act; the other collaborators on Protection were Marius de Vries, Craig Armstrong, a Scottish classical pianist, Tricky.
Tricky's solo career was taking off at this time and he decided not to collaborate with Massive Attack after this.1994/1995 was the period of Portishead's Dummy and Tricky's Maxinquaye albums and the term "trip hop" was coined. The media started to refer to the "Bristol scene". In 1995, Massive Attack started a label distributed by Virgin/EMI, signed Craig Armstrong and a number of other artists such as Horace Andy, Alpha and Day One; the trio espoused a non-interference philosophy that allowed the artists to make their albums in the way they wanted. The same year The Insects became unavailable for co-production and having parted ways with Nellee Hooper, the band were introduced to Neil Davidge, a unknown producer whose main claim to fame thus far had been an association with anonymous dance-pop outfit DNA; the first track they worked on was "The Hunter Gets Captured by the Game", a cover version sung by Tracey Thorn for the Batman Forever soundtrack. Davidge was brought in as engineer, but soon became producer.
The trio fractured in the lead-up to the third album, Davidge having to co-produce the three producers' ideas separately. Mushroom was reported to be unhappy with the degree of the post-punk direction in which D
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, developed from roots in blues and ragtime. Jazz is seen by many as "America's classical music". Since the 1920s Jazz Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression, it emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage with a performance orientation. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals and improvisation. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as "one of America's original art forms"; as jazz spread around the world, it drew on national and local musical cultures, which gave rise to different styles. New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, a hard-swinging, improvisational style and Gypsy jazz were the prominent styles. Bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music", played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed near the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines; the 1950s saw the emergence of free jazz, which explored playing without regular meter and formal structures, in the mid-1950s, hard bop emerged, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues and blues in the saxophone and piano playing. Modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock music's rhythms, electric instruments, amplified stage sound. In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful, garnering significant radio airplay.
Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Afro-Cuban jazz. The origin of the word "jazz" has resulted in considerable research, its history is well documented, it is believed to be related to "jasm", a slang term dating back to 1860 meaning "pep, energy". The earliest written record of the word is in a 1912 article in the Los Angeles Times in which a minor league baseball pitcher described a pitch which he called a "jazz ball" "because it wobbles and you can't do anything with it"; the use of the word in a musical context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune. Its first documented use in a musical context in New Orleans was in a November 14, 1916 Times-Picayune article about "jas bands". In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, saying, "When Broadway picked it up, they called it'J-A-Z-Z', it wasn't called that. It was spelled'J-A-S-S'; that was dirty, if you knew what it was, you wouldn't say it in front of ladies."
The American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz is difficult to define because it encompasses a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years, from ragtime to the rock-infused fusion. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, such as European music history or African music, but critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader, defining jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of the Negro with European music" and arguing that it differs from European music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time defined as'swing'". Jazz involves "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role" and contains a "sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician". In the opinion of Robert Christgau, "most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz".
A broader definition that encompasses different eras of jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: "it is music that includes qualities such as swing, group interaction, developing an'individual voice', being open to different musical possibilities". Krin Gibbard argued that "jazz is a construct" which designates "a number of musics with enough in common to be understood as part of a coherent tradition". In contrast to commentators who have argued for excluding types of jazz, musicians are sometimes reluctant to define the music they play. Duke Ellington, one of jazz's most famous figures, said, "It's all music." Although jazz is considered difficult to define, in part because it contains many subgenres, improvisation is one of its defining elements. The centrality of improvisation is attributed to the influence of earlier forms of music such as blues, a form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of African-American slaves on plantations; these work songs were structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was improvisational.
Classical music performance is evaluated more by its fidelity to the musical score, with less attention given to interpretation and accompaniment. The classical performer's goal is to play the composition. In contrast, jazz is characterized by the product of i
Adrian Nicholas Matthews Thaws, better known by his stage name Tricky, is an English record producer and rapper. Born and raised in Bristol, he began his career as an early collaborator of Massive Attack before embarking on a solo career with his debut album, Maxinquaye, in 1995; the release won Tricky popular acclaim and marked the beginning of a lengthy collaborative partnership with vocalist Martina Topley-Bird. He released four more studio albums before the end of the decade, including Pre-Millennium Tension and the pseudonymous Nearly God, both in 1996, he has gone on to release eight studio albums since 2000, most Ununiform. Tricky is a pioneer of trip hop music, his work is noted for its dark, layered musical style that blends disparate cultural influences and genres, including hip hop, alternative rock and ragga, he has collaborated with a wide range of artists over the course of his career, including Terry Hall, Björk, Grace Jones, PJ Harvey. Tricky was born in the Knowle West neighbourhood of Bristol, to a Jamaican father and a mixed-race Anglo-Guyanese mother.
His mother, Maxine Quaye, either committed suicide or died due to epilepsy complications when Tricky was four. His father, Roy Thaws, who left the family before Tricky was born, operated the Studio 17 sound system with his brother Rupert and father Hector. Bristol musician Bunny Marrett claimed in 2012, "It became the most popular sound system in Bristol at the time."Tricky experienced a difficult childhood in Knowle West, a "white ghetto" in Southern Bristol. He became involved in crime at an early age, joined a gang, involved in car theft, burglary and promiscuity. Tricky spent his youth in the care of his grandmother, who let him watch old horror films instead of going to school. At the age of 15, he began to write lyrics. At 17, he spent some time in prison after he purchased forged £50 notes from a friend, who informed the police. Tricky stated in an interview afterward: "Prison was good. I'm never going back". In the mid-1980s, Tricky met DJ Milo and spent time with a sound system called the Wild Bunch, which by 1987 evolved into Massive Attack.
He received the nickname "Tricky Kid" and at age eighteen became a member of the Fresh 4, a rap group built from the Wild Bunch. He rapped on Massive Attack's acclaimed debut album Blue Lines. In 1991, before the release of Massive Attack's album Blue Lines, he met Martina Topley-Bird in Bristol; some time she came to his house, mentioned to Tricky and Mark Stewart that she could sing. Martina was only fifteen years old, but her "honey-coated vox" impressed them and they recorded a song called "Aftermath". Tricky showed "Aftermath" to Massive Attack. So in 1993 he decided to press a few hundred vinyl copies of the song, he cut it directly off the tape, so that the song is "just bassline and hiss".. In 1995, a white label got him a contract with Island Records and he started to record his first solo album, Maxinquaye, he rapped on former Wild Bunch member Neneh Cherry's song "Sassy" from her 1992 album Homebrew. Tricky left Massive Attack to release his debut album Maxinquaye, co-produced by himself and Mark Saunders and prominently featured singer Martina Topley-Bird.
The album was successful and Tricky attained international fame, something he was notably uncomfortable with. The Maxinquaye album review by Rolling Stone read: "Tricky devoured everything from American hip-hop and soul to reggae and the more melancholic strains of'80s British rock". Authors David Hesmondhalgh and Caspar Melville wrote in the book Global Noise: Rap and Hip-Hop Outside the USA: "Tricky showed his debt to hip-hop aesthetics by reconstructualising samples and slices of both the most respected black music and the tackiest pop." As the Rolling Stone article further explained, Tricky created "a mercurial style of dance music that finds it own fast feet."Tricky failed to complete a number of lyrics for the Massive Attack album Protection and gave the band some of the lyrics he had written for Maxinquaye instead. Thus, there are songs across the two albums that share the same lyrics —entitled "Overcome" and "Hell is'Round the Corner" on Maxinquaye and "Karmacoma", "Eurochild" on Protection, respectively.
Tricky found it difficult to cope with the huge success of Maxinquaye and subsequently eschewed the laid-back soul sound of the first album to create an edgy and aggressive punk style of music. In 1996, Neneh Cherry and Björk appeared as guests on his second album Nearly God; the opening number was a cover of the Siouxsie and the Banshees pre-trip-hop song "Tattoo" that had inspired Tricky when he forged his style. In 2001, Tricky appeared on the Thirteen Ghosts soundtrack with the song "Excess" which features Alanis Morissette during two of the choruses. In 2002 that song appeared on the Queen of the Damned soundtrack. Tricky's studio album Knowle West Boy was released in the UK and Ireland in July 2008, September 2008 in the US; the first single from the album was "Council Estate" and features the artist as the sole vocalist: "It's the first single I've done with just me on vocals. I couldn't whisper that song. I do a loud, screaming vocal. I wanted to be a proper frontman on that one." In an interview with The Skinny in July 2008, Tricky mentioned that Knowle West Boy was the first album for which he decided to enl
TV on the Radio
TV on the Radio is an American indie rock band from Brooklyn, New York, formed in 2001. The band's core members include Tunde Adebimpe, David Andrew Sitek, Kyp Malone Jaleel Bunton and Gerard Smith until his death in 2011. Other contributors have included David Bowie, Nick Zinner of Yeah Yeah Yeahs, Trent Reznor of Nine Inch Nails, Kazu Makino of Blonde Redhead, Martin Perna of Antibalas, Colin Stetson, Katrina Ford of Celebration; the group has released several EPs including their debut Young Liars, five studio albums: Desperate Youth, Blood Thirsty Babes, Return to Cookie Mountain, Dear Science, Nine Types of Light, Seeds. The first release from TV on the Radio was the self-released OK Calculator, they were joined by Kyp Malone, released the Young Liars EP in 2003. This was followed by the full-length Desperate Youth, Blood Thirsty Babes which earned the band the 2004 Shortlist Music Prize, they released a second EP, New Health Rock that year. Their second album, Return to Cookie Mountain, leaked in early 2006 and garnered pre-release praise from Pitchfork Media before its official release in July overseas.
U. S. and Canadian release was in September on Interscope. Spin magazine named Return to Cookie Mountain its Album of the Year for 2006; the album features guest appearances from David Bowie, Omega Moon, Dragons of Zynth, Martin Perna and Stuart D. Bogie of Antibalas, Blonde Redhead, Yeah Yeah Yeahs' Nick Zinner. Bowie contributed back-up vocals on the song "Province". In promotion of the album, the band performed " Wolf Like Me" on the Late Show with David Letterman, which has garnered over 2 million views on YouTube. During the U. S. tour, the band performed a few covers with Bauhaus singer Peter Murphy and Nine Inch Nails frontman Trent Reznor. The band's third album, Dear Science, was released September 2008 on Interscope, it was made available for streaming on their Myspace page and subsequently leaked onto the internet on September 6, 2008. The album was named the best album of 2008 by Rolling Stone, The Guardian,Spin magazine, The A. V. Club, MTV, Entertainment Weekly, the Pitchfork Media's readers poll as well as the Pazz and Jop critic's poll.
It was named the second best album of 2008 by NME and the fourth best album of 2008 by Planet Sound. On September 22, 2008, TV on the Radio performed "Dancing Choose" in the setting of a flight of outer apartment stairs on the Late Show with David Letterman, they appeared on Later... with Jools Holland on September 30, 2008, performing "Golden Age" and "Dancing Choose", which were the same songs they performed on Saturday Night Live on February 7, 2009. The band performed "Dancing Choose" on the February 2009 episode of The Colbert Report. On September 3, 2009, Tunde Adebimpe announced that TV on the Radio would be taking a year-long hiatus. Guitarist Kyp Malone's solo album, under the name Rain Machine, was released on September 22, 2009 on ANTI-. A solo album by Dave Sitek, Maximum Balloon, was released August 24, 2010 on Interscope, featuring a variety of guest vocals by many of his musician friends such as Karen O, David Byrne, both of his TV on the Radio vocalist bandmates, numerous others.
In addition, Sitek produced Holly Miranda's album The Magician's Private Library, which featured fellow TV on the Radio members Jaleel Bunton and Kyp Malone. In March 2010 the band's lead vocalist, Tunde Adebimpe, designed a charity T-shirt for the Yellow Bird Project to raise money for Haiti Relief via Partners in Health. On February 7, 2011, the band announced an end to their hiatus, along with their upcoming fourth album Nine Types of Light. On April 12, 2011, the album Nine Types of Light was released along with a one-hour film under the same name containing music videos for all the songs on the album as well as interviews with various New Yorkers; the film was directed by various directors under the supervision of Tunde Adebimpe. It was announced in March 2011, that the band's bassist, Gerard Smith, was diagnosed with lung cancer. On April 20, 2011, the band announced the death of Gerard Smith on their homepage: "We are sad to announce the death of our beloved friend and bandmate, Gerard Smith, following a courageous fight against lung cancer.
Gerard passed away the morning of April 20th, 2011. We will miss him terribly."In May 2013, the band headlined and curated the All Tomorrow's Parties music festival held at Pontins holiday camp in Camber Sands, England, at which they debuted the new song "Mercy." The band began streaming the studio version of "Mercy" online on July 30, 2013 and released the song for sale on digital music outlets a short time later. The band made the multitracks from Mercy available to fans so they could make their own remixes; the next single "Million Miles." was released digitally a few months later. Both songs were released physically on either side of a 12 Inch single, released through Dave Sitek's Federal Prism label. On November 8, 2013, via their Facebook page, the band announced; the band made an official announcement July 29, 2014, that this new album, titled Seeds, was scheduled for a late 2014 release. In early 2015, it was announced that the band would perform at the Shaky Knees and Boston Calling Music Festivals in May 2015.
On April 9, 2015 they announced a 2015 North American Summer Tour to promote the new album. The tour began in May and ran through a concert in Morrison, CO at the Red Rocks Amphitheatre on July 27. TV on the Radio has said that their eclectic music is due to their liking of di
An Emmy Award, or Emmy, is an American award that recognizes excellence in the television industry, is the equivalent of an Academy Award, the Tony Award, the Grammy Award. Because Emmys are given in various sectors of the American television industry, they are presented in different annual ceremonies held throughout the year; the two events that receive the most media coverage are the Primetime Emmy Awards and the Daytime Emmy Awards, which recognize outstanding work in American primetime and daytime entertainment programming, respectively. Other notable Emmy Award ceremonies are those honoring national sports programming, national news and documentary shows, national business and financial reporting, technological and engineering achievements in television, including the Primetime Engineering Emmy Awards. Regional Emmy Awards are presented throughout the country at various times through the year, recognizing excellence in local and statewide television. In addition, International Emmys are awarded for excellence in TV programming produced and aired outside the United States.
Three related but separate organizations present the Emmy Awards: the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences, the National Academy of Television Arts & Sciences, the International Academy of Television Arts and Sciences. Each is responsible for administering a particular set of Emmy ceremonies; the Los Angeles–based Academy of Television Arts & Sciences established the Emmy Award as part of an image-building and public relations opportunity. The first Emmy Awards ceremony took place on January 25, 1949, at the Hollywood Athletic Club, but to honor shows produced and aired locally in the Los Angeles area. Shirley Dinsdale has the distinction of receiving the first Emmy Award for Most Outstanding Television Personality, during that first awards ceremony; the term "Emmy" is a French alteration of the television crew slang term "Immy", the nickname for an "image orthicon", a camera tube used in TV production. In the 1950s, the ATAS expanded the Emmys into a national event, presenting the awards to shows aired nationwide on broadcast television.
In 1955, the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences was formed in New York City as a sister organization to serve members on the East Coast, help to supervise the Emmys. The NATAS established regional chapters throughout the United States, with each one developing their own local Emmy awards show for local programming; the ATAS still however maintained its separate regional ceremony honoring local programming in the Los Angeles Area. There was only one Emmy Awards ceremony held per year to honor shows nationally broadcast in the United States. In 1974, the first Daytime Emmy Awards ceremony was held to honor achievement in national daytime programming. Other area-specific Emmy Awards ceremonies soon followed; the International Emmy Awards, honoring television programs produced and aired outside the U. S. was established in the early 1970s. Meanwhile, all Emmys awarded prior to the emergence of these separate, area-specific ceremonies are listed along with the Primetime Emmy Awards in the ATAS's official records.
In 1977, due to various conflicts, the ATAS and the NATAS agreed to split ties. However, they agreed to share ownership of the Emmy statue and trademark, with each responsible for administering a specific set of award ceremonies. There was an exception regarding the Engineering Awards: the NATAS continues to administer the Technology & Engineering Emmy Awards, while the ATAS holds the separate Primetime Engineering Emmy Awards. With the rise of cable television in the 1980s, cable programs first became eligible for the Primetime Emmys in 1988 and the Daytime Emmys in 1989. In 2011, the ABC Television Network cancelled the soap operas All My Children and One Life to Live and sold the two shows' licensing rights to the production company Prospect Park so they could be continued on web television; the ATAS began accepting original online-only web television programs in 2013. The Emmy statuette, depicting a winged woman holding an atom, was designed by television engineer Louis McManus, who used his wife as the model.
The TV Academy rejected forty-seven proposals before settling on McManus's design in 1948. The statuette "has since become the symbol of the TV Academy's goal of supporting and uplifting the art and science of television: The wings represent the muse of art. However, "Ike" was the popular nickname of World War II hero and future U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Academy members wanted something unique. Television engineer and the third academy president Harry Lubcke suggested the name "Immy", a term used for the image orthicon tube used in the early cameras. After "Immy" was chosen, it was feminized to Emmy to match their female statuette; each Primetime Emmy statuette weighs six pounds, twelve-and-a-half ounces, is made of copper, nickel and gold. The statue stands 15.5 inches tall with weight of 88 oz. The Regional Emmy Award statuette is 11.5 inches tall with a base diameter of 5.5 inches and weight of 48 oz. Each takes five and a half hours to
Detroit is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Michigan, the largest United States city on the United States–Canada border, the seat of Wayne County. The municipality of Detroit had a 2017 estimated population of 673,104, making it the 23rd-most populous city in the United States; the metropolitan area, known as Metro Detroit, is home to 4.3 million people, making it the second-largest in the Midwest after the Chicago metropolitan area. Regarded as a major cultural center, Detroit is known for its contributions to music and as a repository for art and design. Detroit is a major port located on the Detroit River, one of the four major straits that connect the Great Lakes system to the Saint Lawrence Seaway; the Detroit Metropolitan Airport is among the most important hubs in the United States. The City of Detroit anchors the second-largest regional economy in the Midwest, behind Chicago and ahead of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, the 13th-largest in the United States. Detroit and its neighboring Canadian city Windsor are connected through a tunnel and the Ambassador Bridge, the busiest international crossing in North America.
Detroit is best known as the center of the U. S. automobile industry, the "Big Three" auto manufacturers General Motors and Chrysler are all headquartered in Metro Detroit. In 1701, Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, the future city of Detroit. During the 19th century, it became an important industrial hub at the center of the Great Lakes region. With expansion of the auto industry in the early 20th century, the city and its suburbs experienced rapid growth, by the 1940s, the city had become the fourth-largest in the country. However, due to industrial restructuring, the loss of jobs in the auto industry, rapid suburbanization, Detroit lost considerable population from the late 20th century to the present. Since reaching a peak of 1.85 million at the 1950 census, Detroit's population has declined by more than 60 percent. In 2013, Detroit became the largest U. S. city to file for bankruptcy, which it exited in December 2014, when the city government regained control of Detroit's finances.
Detroit's diverse culture has had both local and international influence in music, with the city giving rise to the genres of Motown and techno, playing an important role in the development of jazz, hip-hop and punk music. The erstwhile rapid growth of Detroit left a globally unique stock of architectural monuments and historic places, since the 2000s conservation efforts managed to save many architectural pieces and allowed several large-scale revitalizations, including the restoration of several historic theatres and entertainment venues, high-rise renovations, new sports stadiums, a riverfront revitalization project. More the population of Downtown Detroit, Midtown Detroit, various other neighborhoods has increased. An popular tourist destination, Detroit receives 19 million visitors per year. In 2015, Detroit was named a "City of Design" by UNESCO, the first U. S. city to receive that designation. Paleo-Indian people inhabited areas near Detroit as early as 11,000 years ago including the culture referred to as the Mound-builders.
In the 17th century, the region was inhabited by Huron, Odawa and Iroquois peoples. The first Europeans did not penetrate into the region and reach the straits of Detroit until French missionaries and traders worked their way around the League of the Iroquois, with whom they were at war, other Iroquoian tribes in the 1630s; the north side of Lake Erie was held by the Huron and Neutral peoples until the 1650s, when the Iroquois pushed both and the Erie people away from the lake and its beaver-rich feeder streams in the Beaver Wars of 1649–1655. By the 1670s, the war-weakened Iroquois laid claim to as far south as the Ohio River valley in northern Kentucky as hunting grounds, had absorbed many other Iroquoian peoples after defeating them in war. For the next hundred years no British, colonist, or French action was contemplated without consultation with, or consideration of the Iroquois' response; when the French and Indian War evicted the Kingdom of France from Canada, it removed one barrier to British colonists migrating west.
British negotiations with the Iroquois would both prove critical and lead to a Crown policy limiting the west of the Alleghenies settlements below the Great Lakes, which gave many American would-be migrants a casus belli for supporting the American Revolution. The 1778 raids and resultant 1779 decisive Sullivan Expedition reopened the Ohio Country to westward emigration, which began immediately, by 1800 white settlers were pouring westwards; the city was named by French colonists, referring to the Detroit River, linking Lake Huron and Lake Erie. On July 24, 1701, the French explorer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, along with more than a hundred other settlers began constructing a small fort on the north bank of the Detroit River. Cadillac would name the settlement Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, after Louis Phélypeaux, comte de Pontchartrain, Minister of Marine under Louis XIV. France offered free land to colonists to attract families to Detroit. By 1773, the population of Detroit was 1,400. By 1778, its population was up to 2,144 and it was the third-largest city in the Province of Quebec.
The region's economy was based on the lucrative fur trade, in which nume
America's Next Top Model (season 6)
The sixth cycle of America's Next Top Model premiered on March 8, 2006, which would be the last cycle to air on UPN before merging with The WB to create The CW. The catch-phrase for this cycle was "Fairy Tales Come True." This cycle was filmed from October through December 2005. The prizes for this cycle were: A modeling contract with Ford Models. A fashion cover in Elle Magazine. A US$100,000 contract with CoverGirl cosmetics; the international destination during this cycle was Thailand. The winner was 20-year-old Danielle Evans from Arkansas. First aired March 8, 2006 The thirty-two semi-finalists participate in their first challenge in which they have to coordinate an outfit to go with one of three walks, they had interviews with Tyra Banks, J. Alexander, Jay Manuel; the semi-finalists get cut down to twenty and have their first photoshoot, a beauty shot. The twenty remaining semi-finalists get cut down to the final thirteen. First aired March 8, 2006 The thirteen finalists participated in a challenge where they had a press conference, with Nnenna being the winner.
The photoshoot had them pose bald with mannequin heads. The judging saw. Featured photographers: Jay Lawrence Goldman, Pascal Demeester Special guests: Janice Dickinson, Ève Salvail, Todd Newton, Trish Moreno, Rolanda Watts, Trey Smith, Tina Frazier, Sarah Gold First aired March 15, 2006 The twelve finalists received makeovers and had a photoshoot to capture their new looks, they participated in a challenge where they went to a fashion show and picked outfits that represented their personal style, with the winner being Nnenna. The photoshoot had them portraying ice princesses on a magazine cover; the judging saw. Featured photographer: Richard Reinsdorf Special guests: Joel Warren, Edward Tricomi, Naima Mora, Rachel Zoe CoverGirl of the Week: Nnenna Agba First aired March 22, 2006 The eleven finalists participated in a challenge where they walked in a show with cockroaches for Jared Gold, with the winner being Jade; the photoshoot had them portraying modern fairytales while falling. The judging saw.
Featured photographer: Tracy Bayne Special guests: Fern Mallis, Sheri Bodell, Sutan Amrull, Jared Gold CoverGirl of the Week: Nnenna Agba First aired March 29, 2006 The ten finalists participated in a challenge where they had to take seasonal commercial photos for Sears, with the winner being Nnenna. The photoshoot had them posing with male models; the judging saw. Featured photographer: Thomas Klementsson Special guests: Janice Dickinson, Lisa D'Amato, Lawrence Zarian, Russel Baer, Christian Marc, John Thomas, Vaughn Lowery, Steven Bruns, Zane Holtz CoverGirl of the Week: Danielle Evans First aired April 5, 2006 The nine finalists participated in a challenge where they performed improv with the cast of MTV's Wild'n Out, with the winner being Furonda, they shot a commercial for Cover Girl Clean Liquid Foundation where they were attendees at a pool party. The judging saw. Featured commercial director: Michael Rosenthal Special guests: Nick Cannon, Robert Hoffman, Leonard Robinson, Jeremy Rowley, Marvelyn Brown, Steve Guttenberg, Charlie Altuna CoverGirl of the Week: Nnenna Agba First aired April 12, 2006 The eight finalists participated in a challenge where they modeled in a church fashion show, with the winner being Jade.
The photoshoot had them krumping while modeling shoes for Payless. The judging saw. Featured photographer: Trevor O'Shana Special guests: Lloyd Klein, Richard Harris, Ron Harris, Tommy the Clown, Sol Rafael, Mai Quynh, Christian Marc, Sutan Amrull, Roy Campbell CoverGirl of the Week: Nnenna Agba First aired April 19, 2006 The seven finalists participated in a challenge where they were tested to see how much criticism they could take, with the winner being Jade; the photoshoot was. They did a second emotional photoshoot with Tyra; the judging saw. Featured photographers: Jim De Yonker, Pascal Demeester Special guests: Janice Dickinson, Eva Pigford, Marc Ecko, Mitch Stone, Alexander Rankovic, Charlie Altuna, Dr. Edgardo Falcon, Sutan Amrull, Jeff Lorch, Deprise Brescia, Diana Cole, John CoverGirl of the Week: Joanie Dodds First aired April 26, 2006 The six finalists participated in a challenge where they had to be interviewed, with the winner being Nnenna; the models went to Bangkok, where they had a photoshoot had them portray mermaids caught in a net in the floating market for Banana Boat Suntan Lotion.
The judging saw. Featured photographer: Jaturong Hirankarn Special guests: Rachel McCallister, George Wayne, Dr. Edgardo Falcon, Sutan Amrull CoverGirl of the Week: Joanie Dodds First aired April 26, 2006 This episode was an overview of the past nine episodes of the cycle which featured unseen footage. First aired May 3, 2006 The five finalists participated in a challenge where the learned and performed Thai classical dance, with Joanie being the winner; the photoshoot had them posing on elephants for Gillette's line of Venus razors. The judging saw. Featured photographer: Pongsak Tangtiwaja Special guests: Patravadi Mejudhon, Sirithon Srichalakom, Petra Sriwaranon, Sutan Amrull, Siri Udomritthiruj CoverGirl of the Week: Joanie Dodds First aired May 10, 2006 The four finalists participate in a challenge where they go on go-sees, with the winner being Danielle, they travel to Phuket, Thailand for