Nein — Nain or Naim in English — is an Arab village in northern Israel. Located in the Lower Galilee, 14 kilometers south of Nazareth, Nein covers a land area of 1,000 dunums and falls under the jurisdiction of Bustan al-Marj Regional Council, whose headquarters it hosts, its total land area consisted of 3,737 dunums prior to 1962. According to the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics, in 2017 it had a population of 1,814. Nein lies a short distance from Mount Tabor. A hill known in Arabic as Tell el-Ajul lay on the path that ran between Nein and nearby Indur, an Arab village destroyed in the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. Biblical archaeologist Edward Robinson describes Nein as lying on the northern slope of a hill called "the little Hermon", it is described in biblical guidebooks as lying at the foot of the Hill of Moreh. Edward Robinson and Eli Smith, who visited Palestine in the mid-19th century, identified Nein as, "the Nain of the New Testament" where, according to Luke 7:11-17, Jesus raised a young man from death and reunited him with his mother.
According to Luke's account, this young man was the only son of an unnamed widow. When Jesus saw the dead son being carried out and the mourning widow, he felt compassion for her, he walked towards the bier or stretcher, touched it, stopped the funeral procession and told the man: "Young man, I say to you, arise!" The man came alive, sat up, began to speak. The people who were standing around were all struck by the event, seen as a sign that'a great prophet' had arisen among them, the report of it spread across Judea and the surrounding region. Nain is not mentioned in the other canonical gospels. Rock-sunk tombs have been found here of Christian origin. Nein is mentioned in the writing of Jerome as being situated near Endor, its identity as a biblical site was recognized by the Crusaders, who built a church there to commemorate the site of the miracle, a church rebuilt by the Franciscans. In 1101, during the Crusader era, Prince of Galilee granted Nein together with several other villages to the abbey of Mount Tabor.
In 1153, it belonged to the Hospitallers. By 1263, the area was ruled by Baybars. Nein, like the rest of Palestine, was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1517, in the census of 1596, the village was located in the nahiya of Safa in the liwa of Lajjun, it had a population of all Muslim. They paid a fixed tax-rate of 25% on agricultural products, including wheat, summer crops, olive trees and beehives, in addition to winter pastures and occasional revenues. In 1838 Robinson and Smith noted that Nein had decreased in size over the ages, was at time a small hamlet, inhabited by a few families. In 1875 Victor Guérin saw here a ruined building. In the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine, Nein was described as a small village made of stone and adobe, with a small mosque, named Mukam Sidna Aisa, to the north. In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British authorities, Nain had a population of 157, all Muslims, increasing in the 1931 census to 189, still all Muslim, in a total of 34 houses.
In the 1945 statistics the population was 270, all Muslims, while the total land area was 4,687 dunams, according to an official land and population survey. Of this, 87 dunams were for plantations and irrigable land, 3,602 for cereals, while 31 dunams were classified as built-up areas. Welcome To Na'in Survey of Western Palestine, Map 9: IAA, Wikimedia commons
Nain is a city and capital of Nain County, Isfahan Province, Iran. At the 2011 census, its population was 25,379 in 7,730 families. Na’in lies 170 km north of Yazd and 140 km east of Esfahan with an area of 35,000 km², Na’in lies at an altitude of 1545 m above sea level. Like much of the Iranian plateau, it has a desert climate, with a maximum temperature of 41 °C in summer, a minimum of -9 °C in winter. More than 3,000 years ago the Persians learned how to construct aqueducts underground to bring water from the mountains to the plains. In the 1960s this ancient system provided more than 70 percent of the water used in Iran and Na’in is one of the best places in all the world to see these qanats functioning. Unique to Na’in are some of the most outstanding monuments in all of Iran: the Jame Mosque, one of the first four mosques built in Iran after the Arab invasion. Besides its magnificent monuments, Na’in is famous for high-quality carpets and wool textile and home made pastry; some linguists believe the word Na’in may have been derived from the name of one of the descendants of the prophet Noah, called "Naen".
Many local people speak an ancient Pahlavi Sasani dialect, the same dialect, spoken by the Zoroastrians in Yazd today. Other linguists state that the word Na’in is derived from the word "Nei", a marshy plant, it has one of the earliest remaining mosques in Iran, has a Sassanid era fort, now in ruins, called Narin Ghal'eh. It extensively uses ab anbars. Nain is most famous in the world for its rugs; the initial construction of Jame Mosque dates back to the 8th Century CE, but the whole of the complex has been constructed incrementally. One of the oldest mosques in Iran, its magnificent plasterwork over the niche, the marvellous brickwork around the yard, its silent basement—which may have been used as a fire temple before the mosque was built here—are only a few of the remarkable features of this mosque; this mosque has no dome as do the other famous mosques in Esfahan and Yazd. A 28 m tall octagonal minaret was added to the mosque 700 years ago. If you stand in the middle of the yard, you will find yourself surrounded by fourteen columns, each one adorned with a unique and intricate pattern of brickwork.
You might be interested in the alabaster stonework which reflects sunlight throughout the basement. One of the most exquisite pieces of artwork inside the mosque is the wooden marquetry pulpit; the carpenter matched the wooden parts together like a pieces of a puzzle. The pulpit is decorated with organic geometrical designs. According to the wooden inscription on the left side of the pulpit, it was created about 700 years ago. An underground water channel runs underneath the mosque. There is a stairway that connects the mosque to chambers above the pool. In the past, people used the water for ablutions before prayers; the basement used to be a prayer chamber in cold winters. The temperature in the basement is always moderate; the basement wasn’t built. The entrance fee is 100,000 rial; the mosque is open Tu-Su 08:00-17:30 in winter. The ancient Rigareh—a qanat-based water mill—is located in the Mohammadieh neighbourhood; the age of this engineering masterpiece is unknown. The water is supplied by the Keykhosrow qanat channel and the mill is placed 28 m underground.
The access corridor to the mill is about 133 m long. A qanat channel fills the huge 9 meter diameter water tank; when enough pressure is provided, the water rotates the turbine. The waste water flows out along the channel and joins the main qanat channel with a gradual slope 15 meter further down; this is one of few places in the country where visitors can get inside a living flowing Qanat accessible through a 12 m corridor. Since the advent of electricity to grind the wheat and barley, this water mill has become a part of history; the Pirnia traditional house is a perfect example of this region's desert houses in terms of architecture and art and was constructed in the Safavid Period. The house consists of an exterior, an interior, a deep garden, a silo room and all of the facilities that a lord’s house needed to have at the time it was constructed; when you enter the house and pass the first corridor, you reach an octagonal room called “hashti”, which used to be a waiting room for clients and visitors.
Beautiful paintings, amazing plasterwork of Qur'anic stories, a book of famous poems and exquisite calligraphy decorate the living room. First, a judge of Na'in lived there. During the Qajar Period, the house belonged to a governor of Na'in. Just a few decades ago, the house was purchased by the Ministry of Art. - After renovation in 1994, the house was converted into the desert ethnology museum. The entrance fee is 100,000 rial and the museum is open Tu-Su 08:00-21:00 in summer and 08:00-17:30 in winter; the Mosallah is another remarkable monument to see in Na'in. Its vast garden used to be a popular recreational area until a few years ago; the mausoleum inside the Mosallah was a pilgrimage site for visitors. The dome of the Mosallah is opposite the dome of the shrine of Emamzadeh Sultan Seyyed Ali and these two are connected by a street. There is a water reservoir on one side
In Labrador, the North Atlantic Craton is known as the Nain Province. The Nain geologic province was intruded by the Nain Plutonic Suite which divides the province into the northern Saglek block and the southern Hopedale block; the North Atlantic Craton is exposed in parts of the coast of Labrador, parts of central Greenland, the Scourian Complex of northwestern Scotland and is unexposed in northern Norway. The North Atlantic Craton fragmented 2450 to 2000 million years ago; when North America and Europe rejoined, the North Atlantic Craton was triangular shaped with each side 600 km. The crust of the North Atlantic Craton varies between 28 to 38 km thick and its rocks are 85% granitoid gneisses; the Nain Province was intruded by the 1350- to 1290-million-year-old Nain Plutonic Suite. In Labrador the North Atlantic Craton is known as the Nain Nain Craton; the Nain Province is 100 km wide. The gneisses of the Nain Province were last deformed and metamorphosed when two blocks docked together 2500 million years ago with a collisional boundary extending 200 km to the north and 150 km to the south of Nain, Canada.
These two blocks appear to represent two distinct Archean cratonic nuclei, each with its own mineral depositional history. Major granitic intrusions – the Wheeler Mountain, Alliger, Sheet Hill, Loon Island, Red Island, Satok Island intrusions – form a north-trending 150 km linear chain which have a southerly decrease in age – 2135-million-year-old Wheeler Mountain granite in the north to the 2025-million-year-old Satok Island monzonite in the south; the Nain Province was intruded by the 1350- to 1290-million-year-old Nain Plutonic Suite. The Torngat orogen developed during the oblique convergence of the Superior and Nain Provinces 900 million years ago; the crystalline crust in the Nain Province is 38 km thick. The 3800- to 3300-million-year-old Saglek block is 375 km long and 50 km wide; this block is a high-grade gneiss terrane. Within the gneiss are variably-sized enclaves ranging from anorthosite to ultramafic. There are three small anorthositic, ultramafic meta-igneous complexes in the gneiss near Okak Bay.
The northward–trending Handy fault separates the Saglek block into two metamorphic parts. The gneiss complex on the western side of the Handy fault has rocks that crystallized under granulite facies conditions. On the eastern side amphibolite facies rocks are exposed in the northern part; the total crustal thickness is 38 km south of the fault. The 3100- to 2800-million-year-old Hopedale block is 150 km long and 90 km wide. Hopedale, Labrador, is at the eastern midpoint; this block contains the 3100-million-year-old Hunt River and 3000-million-year-old Florence Lake greenstone belts, the Weekes amphibolite which represents remnants of the older Hunt River greenstone belt
Nain, South Australia
Nain is a settlement west of Greenock in the northern Barossa Valley region of South Australia. It was first settled in the 1850s by German settlers moving from the Mount Barker area; the Nain "Zum Schmalen Wege" church operated from 1861 to 1893, the present Nain church opened in 1856. Both have cemeteries
Gungnyeo is a Korean term referring to women waiting on the king and other royalty in traditional Korean society. It is short for "gungjung yeogwan", which translates as "a lady officer of the royal court". Gungnyeo includes nain, both of which hold rank as officers; the term is used more broadly to encompass women in a lower class without a rank such as musuri, sonnim, uinyeo as well as nain and sanggung. The term spans those from courtiers to domestic workers. Although the first record of gungnyeo appears in Goryeosa, a compilation on the history of Goryeo, a provision was first made in 1392 by King Taejo per Jo Jun and other officers' suggestions after the establishment of the Joseon Dynasty. In 1428 Sejong the Great set up a detailed system regulating gungnyeo, in which female officers were divided into naegwan and gunggwan, defined their ranks and social status, he further institutionalized the system, in the Gyeongguk daejeon. The gungnyeo were not defined during the Goryeo period, it is not known how they came to serve the court and what procedures applied to them.
The use of the term during that period is therefore assumed to refer to all women in the king's service in the court. In documents related to Goryeo, the social status of gungnyeo was commoner or lower class, such as the daughters of slaves, concubines, or cheonmin. In the 22nd year of King Uijong gungnyeo roles were divided into sanggung, sangchim and another type of sangchim. Female musicians called yeoak were a part of the gungnyeo. During the Joseon Dynasty, court life was centered on the King, so many court women were necessary, they were assigned to the Daejeon, the Daebijeon, or the Sejajeon of the palace. The appointment of gungnyeo occurred one year in ten, but there were exceptions. In general, gungnyeo were chosen from among female slaves who belonged to the governing class rather than from daughters of the sangmin. However, if circumstances allowed, people around the king wanted to pick gungnyeo from commoners' children, using a custom of early marriage in households that had a daughter over ten years old.
As a result, since King Gyeongjong's reign, daughters from the lower class were prohibited to be appointed as gungnyeo. According to the Sokdaejeon, some female slaves of each government office were chosen to become gungnyeo since the reign of King Yeongjo. While this restriction on class applied to "common gungnyeo", the appointment of those in important roles waiting on the king and queen, such as jimil nain, was different; the standard for choosing jimil nain was so high that sanggung tended to go out recruiting candidates through personal connections and by family custom. There were many gungnyeo in service; the social status of the gungnyeo who were assigned to jimil and subang came from the jungin class. Common gungnyeo entered the palace at the age of twelve to thirteen, whereas jimil nain entered there at the age of four to eight, nain for the sewing and embroidery departments began to serve the court at six to thirteen; such "trainee gungnyeo" received the necessary education to become gungnyeo, such as learning court language, required daily conducts and behaviors, writing gungche.
Some gungnyeo left refined calligraphy works written in hangul with the gungche or Gyechuk ilgi and Inhyeon wanghujeon, all of which are regarded as excellent examples of the "palace literature". Gungnyeo always distinguished themselves from the sanggung and nain because the role and social status of the groups were different; the latter groups can be divided into three types. They were treated differently according experience and length of service at court and in affiliated departments; the sanggung group was divided by rank according to their experience, sanggung with the same rank did not always have the same social standing. Trainee nain referred to girls who had not yet passed the gwallye, they were divided into saenggaksi and gaksi; the term, saenggaksi derives from the fact. Only three departments, jimil and subang had the saenggaksi. After 15 years service in the palace the trainee nain became an official nain. Nain wore a jade-colored dangui and a navy blue chima and decorated their head with a frog-shaped cheopji.
Gaksimi is a generic term collectively referring to a housemaid, kitchen-maid, seamstress or others working at a sanggung's private residence on the sanggung's days off. Their monthly salary was paid by the state, so they were called "bangja"; the term bangja means a clerk working at a government office and is the same as the male character called bangja who appears in Chunhyangjeon. Musuri refers to women in charge of miscellaneous jobs (such as dr
Nain rugs are constructed using the Persian knot and have between 300 and 700 knots per square inch. The pile is very high quality wool, clipped short, silk is used as highlighting for detail in the design. Knots per sq cm
In Germanic mythology, a dwarf is a human-shaped entity that dwells in mountains and in the earth, is variously associated with wisdom, smithing and crafting. Dwarfs are sometimes described as short and ugly, although some scholars have questioned whether this is a development stemming from comical portrayals of the beings. Dwarfs continue to be depicted in modern popular culture in a variety of media; the modern English noun dwarf descends from the Old English dweorg. It has a variety of cognates in other Germanic languages, including Old Norse dvergr and Old High German twerg. According to Vladimir Orel, the English noun and its cognates descend from Proto-Germanic *đwerȝaz. A different etymology of dwarf traces it to Proto-Germanic *dwezgaz, with r being the product of Verner's Law. Anatoly Liberman connects the Germanic word with Modern English dizzy: dwarfs inflicted mental diseases on humans, in this respect did not differ from elves and several other supernatural beings. Beyond the Proto-Germanic reconstruction, the etymology of the word dwarf is contested.
Scholars have proposed theories about the origins of the being by way of historical linguistics and comparative mythology, including that dwarfs may have originated as nature spirits, as beings associated with death, or as a mixture of concepts. Competing etymologies include a basis in the Indo-European root *dheur-, the Indo-European root *dhreugh, comparisons have been made with Sanskrit dhvaras. Modern English has two plurals for the word dwarf: dwarves. Dwarfs remains the most employed plural; the minority plural dwarves was recorded as early as 1818, but it was popularized by the fiction of philologist and author J. R. R. Tolkien, originating as a mistake and employed by Tolkien since some time before 1917. Regarding the plural, Tolkien wrote in 1937, "I am afraid it is just a piece of private bad grammar, rather shocking in a philologist. Norse mythology provides different origins for the beings, as recorded in the Poetic Edda and the Prose Edda; the Poetic Edda poem Völuspá details that the dwarfs were the product of the primordial blood of the being Brimir and the bones of Bláinn.
The Prose Edda, describes dwarfs as beings similar to maggots that festered in the flesh of Ymir before being gifted with reason by the gods. The Poetic Edda and Prose Edda contain over 100 dwarf names, while the Prose Edda gives the four dwarfs Norðri, Suðri, Austri and Vestri a cosmological role: they hold up the sky. In addition, scholars have noted that the Svartálfar appear to be the same beings as dwarfs, given that both are described in the Prose Edda as the denizens of Svartálfaheimr. Few beings explicitly identifiable as dwarfs appear in the Poetic Edda and Prose Edda, they have quite diverse roles: murderous creators who create the mead of poetry,'reluctant donors' of important artifacts with magical qualities, or sexual predators who lust after goddesses, they are associated with metalsmithing, with death, as in the story of King Sveigðir in Ynglinga saga, the first segment of the Heimskringla — the doorways in the mountains that they guard may be regarded as doors between worlds.
One dwarf named Alvíss claimed the hand of Thor's daughter Þrúðr in marriage, but he was kept talking until daybreak and turned to stone, much like some accounts of trolls. After the Christianization of the Germanic peoples, tales of dwarfs continued to be told in the folklore of areas of Europe where Germanic languages were spoken. In the late legendary sagas, dwarfs demonstrate skill in healing as well as in smithing. In the early Norse sources, there is no mention of their being short. Anatoly Liberman suggests that dwarfs may have been thought of as lesser supernatural beings, which became literal smallness after Christianization. Old Norse dwarf names include Fullangr and Hár, whereas Anglo-Saxon glosses use dweorg to render Latin terms such as nanus and pygmaeus. Dwarfs in folklore are described as old men with long beards. Female dwarfs are hardly mentioned. Dvalinn the dwarf has daughters, the 14th-century romantic saga Þjalar Jóns saga gives the feminine form of Old Norse dyrgja, but the few folklore examples cited by Grimm in Teutonic Mythology may be identified as other beings.
However, in the Swedish ballad "Herr Peder och Dvärgens Dotter", the role of supernatural temptress is played by a dwarf's daughter. The Anglo-Saxon charm Wið Dweorh appears to relate to sleep disturbances; this may indicate that the dwarf antagonist is similar to the oppressive supernatural figure the mare, the etymological source of the word "nightmare", or that the word had come to be used to mean "fever". In the Old English Herbal, it translates warts. In Middle High German heroic poetry, most dwarfs are portrayed as having long beards, but some may have a childish appearance. In some stories, the dwarf takes on the attributes of a knight, he is most separated from normal humans by his small size, in some cases only reaching up to the knees. Despite their small size, dwarfs have superhuman strength, either by nature or through magical means