Kiso Mountains are a mountain range in Nagano and Gifu prefectures in Japan. They are called the Central Alps and they combine with the Hida Mountains and the Akaishi Mountains to form a group collectively known as the Japanese Alps; the mountain range consists of granite. The Komagatake Ropeway is on the east side of Mount Kisokoma. A lot of tourists visit the station on the top; the upper part of the mountain range is the tree line, a lot of alpine plants grow naturally. Leontopodium shinanense of Leontopodium is endemic around Mount Kisokoma. FoothillsMount Nenjō, 2,291 m Mount Nagiso, 1,677 m Mount Kazakoshi, 1,699 m Mount Kazakoshi, 1,535 m Rivers with headwaters in the Kiso Mountains drain to Ise Bay of the Pacific Ocean, they include: Kiso River Tenryū RiverScenery of Kiso Mountains Japanese Alps Hida Mountains Akaishi Mountains List of mountains in Japan Media related to Kiso Mountains at Wikimedia Commons
Kiso, Nagano (town)
Kiso is a town located in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 October 2016, the town had an estimated population of 11,561, a population density of 24.3 persons per km². Its total area is 476.03 square kilometres. Kiso Town is listed as one of The Most Beautiful Villages in Japan. Kiso is located in mountainous southwest Nagano Prefecture, bordered by Gifu Prefecture to the west. Nagano Prefecture Matsumoto Shiojiri Ina Agematsu Kiso Ōtaki Miyada Gifu Prefecture Takayama Gero The area of present-day Kiso was part of ancient Shinano Province; the modern town was created through a merger of the town of Kiso-Fukushima with the villages of Hiyoshi and Mitake on November 1, 2005. Kiso has four public elementary schools and two public middle schools operated by the town government, one high school operated the Nagano Prefectural Board of Education. JR Tōkai – Chūō Main Line Miyanokoshi - Harano - Kiso-Fukushima Japan National Route 19 Japan National Route 361 Mount Ontake Media related to Kiso, Nagano at Wikimedia Commons Official Website
Ena is a city located in Gifu, Japan. As of 1 February 2019, the city had an estimated population of 50,429, a population density of 100 persons per km2, in 19,820 households; the total area of the city was 504.24 square kilometres. Ena is located in the Tōnō region of southeastern Gifu Prefecture. Mountains: Mount Kasagi, Mount Hoko, Mount Yūdachi, Mount Byōbu, Mount Yake, Mount Mitsumori Rivers: Kiso River, Agi River, Kamiyahagi River, Kamimura River, Akechi River, Toki River, Ori River Lakes: Ena Gorge, Lake Hokonoko, Lake Agigawa, Lake Okuyahagi, Lake Origawa The city has a climate characterized by characterized by hot and humid summers, mild winters; the average annual temperature in Ena is 13.9 °C. The average annual rainfall is 1988 mm with September as the wettest month; the temperatures are highest on average in August, at around 26.4 °C, lowest in January, at around 2.0 °C. Gifu Prefecture Nakatsugawa Mizunami Shirakawa Yaotsu Nagano Prefecture Neba Hiraya Aichi Prefecture Toyota Per Japanese census data, the population of Ena has remained steady over the past 40 years.
The area around Ena was part of traditional Mino Province, the name of "Ena" appears in Nara period records, including the Nihon Shoki. During the Edo period, it was controlled by Iwamura Domain, Ōi-juku developed as a post town on the Nakasendō highway connecting Edo with Kyoto. During the post-Meiji restoration cadastral reforms, the area was organised into Gifu; the city was founded on April 1, 1954 by the merger of two towns and six villages, all from Ena District. On October 25, 2004, Ena absorbed the towns of Akechi, Iwamura and Yamaoka, the village of Kushihara to create the expanded city of Ena. Ena has a mayor-council form of government with a directly elected mayor and a unicameral city legislature of 18 members. Ōi-chō Osashima-chō Takenami-chō Misato-chō Kasagi-chō Iiji-chō Nakanohō-chō Higashino Iwamura-chō Yamaoka-chō Akechi-chō Kamiyahagi-chō Kushihara Ena was noted for its pulp and paper industry for many years. Production of precision instruments dominates the manufacturing sector.
Ena has 14 public elementary schools and eight public middle schools operated by the city government, three public high schools operated by the Gifu Prefectural Board of Education. The prefecture operates one special education school. Chubu University maintains a subsidiary campus in Ena. JR Central - Chūō Main Line Takenami – Ena Akechi Railway -: Ena – Higashino – < Iinuma – Agi > – Iibama – Gokuraku – Iwamura – Hanashiro – Yamaoka – Noshi - Akechi) Chūō Expressway: Ena Interchange - Enakyō Service Area National Route 19 National Route 257 National Route 363 National Route 418 Nakasendō Ōi-juku Hiroshige Museum of Art, Ena Ena Gorge Agigawa Dam Iwamura Castle Ruins Nihon Taishō Mura Sasayuri no Yu Yahagi Dam Mongol Village Kiyohiro Araki Utako Shimoda Media related to Ena, Gifu at Wikimedia Commons Official website
The Tokugawa Shogunate known as the Tokugawa Bakufu and the Edo Bakufu, was the last feudal Japanese military government, which existed between 1603 and 1867. The head of government was the shōgun, each was a member of the Tokugawa clan; the Tokugawa shogunate ruled from Edo Castle and the years of the shogunate became known as the Edo period. This time is called the Tokugawa period or pre-modern. Following the Sengoku period, the central government had been re-established by Oda Nobunaga during the Azuchi–Momoyama period. After the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600, central authority fell to Tokugawa Ieyasu. Society in the Tokugawa period, unlike in previous shogunates, was based on the strict class hierarchy established by Toyotomi Hideyoshi; the daimyō were at the top, followed by the warrior-caste of samurai, with the farmers and traders ranking below. In some parts of the country smaller regions, daimyō and samurai were more or less identical, since daimyō might be trained as samurai, samurai might act as local rulers.
Otherwise, the inflexible nature of this social stratification system unleashed disruptive forces over time. Taxes on the peasantry were set at fixed amounts that did not account for inflation or other changes in monetary value; as a result, the tax revenues collected by the samurai landowners were worth less and less over time. This led to numerous confrontations between noble but impoverished samurai and well-to-do peasants, ranging from simple local disturbances to much larger rebellions. None, proved compelling enough to challenge the established order until the arrival of foreign powers. A 2017 study found that peasant rebellions and collective desertion lowered tax rates and inhibited state growth in the Tokugawa shogunate. In the mid-19th century, an alliance of several of the more powerful daimyō, along with the titular Emperor, succeeded in overthrowing the shogunate after the Boshin War, culminating in the Meiji Restoration; the Tokugawa shogunate came to an official end in 1868 with the resignation of the 15th Tokugawa shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu, leading to the "restoration" of imperial rule.
Notwithstanding its eventual overthrow in favor of the more modernized, less feudal form of governance of the Meiji Restoration, the Tokugawa shogunate oversaw the longest period of peace and stability in Japan's history, lasting well over 260 years. The bakuhan taisei was the feudal political system in the Edo period of Japan. Baku is an abbreviation of bakufu, meaning "military government"—that is, the shogunate; the han were the domains headed by daimyō. Vassals provided military service and homage to their lords; the bakuhan taisei split feudal power between the shogunate in Edo and provincial domains throughout Japan. Provinces had a degree of sovereignty and were allowed an independent administration of the han in exchange for loyalty to the shōgun, responsible for foreign relations and national security; the shōgun and lords were all daimyōs: feudal lords with their own bureaucracies and territories. The shōgun administered the most powerful han, the hereditary fief of the House of Tokugawa.
Each level of government administered its own system of taxation. The emperor, nominally a religious leader, held no real power; the shogunate had the power to discard and transform domains. The sankin-kōtai system of alternative residence required each daimyō to reside in alternate years between the han and the court in Edo. During their absences from Edo, it was required that they leave family as hostages until their return; the huge expenditure sankin-kōtai imposed on each han helped centralize aristocratic alliances and ensured loyalty to the shōgun as each representative doubled as a potential hostage. Tokugawa's descendants further ensured loyalty by maintaining a dogmatic insistence on loyalty to the shōgun. Fudai daimyō were hereditary vassals of Ieyasu, as well as of his descendants. Tozama became vassals of Ieyasu after the Battle of Sekigahara. Shinpan were collaterals of Tokugawa Hidetada. Early in the Edo period, the shogunate viewed the tozama as the least to be loyal. In the end, it was the great tozama of Satsuma, Chōshū and Tosa, to a lesser extent Hizen, that brought down the shogunate.
These four states are called Satchotohi for short. The number of han fluctuated throughout the Edo period, they were ranked by size, measured as the number of koku of rice that the domain produced each year. One koku was the amount of rice necessary to feed one adult male for one year; the minimum number for a daimyō was ten thousand koku. Regardless of the political title of the Emperor, the shōguns of the Tokugawa family controlled Japan; the administration of Japan was a task given by the Imperial Court in Kyoto to the Tokugawa family, which returned to the court in the Meiji Restoration. While the Emperor had the prerogative of appointing the shōgun, he had no say in state affairs; the shogunate appointed a liaison, the Kyoto Shoshidai, to deal with the Emperor and nobility. Towards the end of the shogunate, after centuries of the Emperor having little say in state affairs and being secluded in his Kyoto palace, in the wake of the reigning shōgun, Tokugawa Iemochi, marrying the sister of Emperor Kōmei, in 1862, the Imperial Court in Kyoto
Naegi Domain was a feudal domain of Edo period Japan It was located in Mino Province, in central Honshū. The domain was centered at Naegi Castle, located in what is now the city of Nakatsugawa in Gifu Prefecture, it is the smallest domain within the Tokugawa shogunate, styled as a “castle holding domain”. The Tōyama clan were rulers of this portion of southeast Mino Province since the Kamakura period. Toyama Tomotada and his son Toyama Tomomasa pledged fealty to Oda Nobunaga. However, after Nobunaga’s death, their territory was overrun by the Mōri clan, was given to Kawajiri Hidenaga; the Toyama fled to Hamamatsu. During the Battle of Sekigahara, Kawajiri Hidenaga sided with the pro-Toyotomi Western Army under Ishida Mitsunari, was killed in battle. Ieyasu sent Toyama Tomomasa to retake his clan’s ancestral domains. With the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate, he was confirmed as daimyō of the 10,500 koku Naegi Domain. Tomomasa went on to participate in the Siege of Osaka, died in Naegi in 1619.
The domain remained in the hands of the Tōyama clan throughout its existence. However, as a small domain with heavy expenditures, it soon fell into severe debt, which continued to mount from generation to generation, despite efforts to open new rice lands, impose fiscal frugality, the issuance of paper currency on several occasions.. The 12th daimyō, Tōyama Tomoyoshi, served as wakadoshiyori for two terms during the Bakumatsu period, led the domain’s forces in the Second Chōshū expedition. At the time of the Meiji restoration, the domain was 143,000 gold ryō and 15,900 paper ryō in debt; when Naegi Castle was pulled down by order of the new government, its furnishing and timber were all sold as part of the effort the repay this debt. The stipend received from the government as compensation for relinquishing the domain went towards debt repayment, many samurai were forced to abandon their social status in order to take up money-making trades. By August 1871, at the time of the abolition of the han system, the debt had been reduced to 52,600 gold and 5000 paper ryō.
The former domain lands were absorbed into Gifu Prefecture. This created great discontent, the State Councilor responsible, Aoyama Naomichi, faced several assassination attempts, the last of, in 1891; as with most domains in the han system, Naegi Domain consisted of a discontinuous territories calculated to provide the assigned kokudaka, based on periodic cadastral surveys and projected agricultural yields. Mino Province 34 villages in Kamo District, 13 villages in Ina District Tōyama clan 1600-1871 List of Han Naegi Domain on Edo 500
Gero is a city located in Gifu, Japan. As of 31 October 2017, the city had an estimated population of 33,283, a population density of 39 persons per km2, in 12,253 households; the total area of the city was 851.21 square kilometres. The city is famous for its hot springs. Gero is located in east-central Gifu Prefecture; the Hida River and the Maze River run throughout the city. Over 91% of the city area is covered by mountains and forest. Much of the city is within the borders of the Hida-Kisogawa Quasi-National Park; the volcano, Mount Ontake is located in Gero. The city has a climate characterized by hot and humid summers, mild winters; the average annual temperature in Gero is 13.0 °C. The average annual rainfall is 2103 mm with September as the wettest month; the temperatures are highest on average in August, at around 26.0 °C, lowest in January, at around 0.5 °C. Gifu Prefecture Takayama Seki Nakatsugawa Gujō Shirakawa Hichisō Nagano Prefecture Kiso Ōtaki Per Japanese census data, the population of Gero has declined over the past 40 years.
The area around Gero was part of traditional Hida Province. During the Edo period, it was part of the tenryō controlled directly by the Tokugawa shogunate. During the post-Meiji restoration cadastral reforms, the area was organised into Mashita District, Gifu; the village of Gero of created on July 1, 1889 with the establishment of the modern municipalities system. It was raised to town status on January 1, 1925. Gero merged with the towns of Hagiwara and Osaka, the village of Maze on March 1, 2004 to form the city of Gero. Gero has a mayor-council form of government with a directly elected mayor and a unicameral city legislature of 14 members. Gero's major industry is tourism, it is known throughout Japan for its onsen, which are mentioned in the Nara period Shoku Nihongi. Gero has many hotels that can be visited by guests that are looking for accommodations near the hot springs. Large tubs are located in some hotels allowing couples to bathe together; some hotels lend yukatas to the couples. It's not unusual to see people wearing yukatas on the streets and in stores.
Besides those in hotels, there are many inexpensive and convenient onsens located near railway stations, residential areas, commercial centers up and down the valley. Forestry and agriculture play significant roles in the local economy. Gero has 13 public elementary schools and six public middle schools operated by the city government, one public high school operated by the Gifu Prefectural Board of Education; the prefecture operates two special education schools. JR Tōkai - Takayama Main Line Hida-Kanayama - Yakeishi - Gero - Zenshōji - Hida-Hagiwara - Jōro - Hida-Miyada - Hida-Osaka National Route 41 National Route 256 National Route 257 Ketchikan, United States Pensacola, Florida, USA Salesópolis, São Paulo, Brazil Ichinomiya, Aichi Prefecture Hodatsushimizu, Hakui District, Ishikawa Prefecture Media related to Gero, Gifu at Wikimedia Commons Gero Onsen travel guide from Wikivoyage Gero City official website Gero Onsen official website Sister City Exchange Report Gero-Onsen Convention Official Site Info Gero Spa
Kyoto Kyoto City, is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture, located in the Kansai region of Japan. It is best known in Japanese history for being the former Imperial capital of Japan for more than one thousand years, as well as a major part of the Kyoto-Osaka-Kobe metropolitan area. In Japanese, Kyoto was called Kyō, Miyako, or Kyō no Miyako. In the 11th century, the city was renamed Kyoto, from the Chinese calligraphic, jingdu. After the city of Edo was renamed Tokyo in 1868, the seat of the Emperor was moved there, Kyoto was for a short time known as Saikyō. Kyoto is sometimes called the thousand-year capital; the National Diet never passed any law designating a capital. Foreign spellings for the city's name have included Kioto and Meaco, utilised by Dutch cartographers. Another term used to refer to the city in the pre-modern period was Keishi, meaning "urba" or "capital". Ample archaeological evidence suggests human settlement in Kyoto began as early as the Paleolithic period, although not much published material is retained about human activity in the area before the 6th century, around which time the Shimogamo Shrine is believed to have been established.
During the 8th century, when powerful Buddhist clergy became involved in the affairs of the Imperial government, Emperor Kanmu chose to relocate the capital in order to distance it from the clerical establishment in Nara. His last choice for the site was the village of Uda, in the Kadono district of Yamashiro Province; the new city, Heian-kyō, a scaled replica of the Tang capital Chang'an, became the seat of Japan's imperial court in 794, beginning the Heian period of Japanese history. Although military rulers established their governments either in Kyoto or in other cities such as Kamakura and Edo, Kyoto remained Japan's capital until the transfer of the imperial court to Tokyo in 1869 at the time of the Imperial Restoration; the city suffered extensive destruction in the Ōnin War of 1467–1477, did not recover until the mid-16th century. During the Ōnin War, the shugo collapsed, power was divided among the military families. Battles between samurai factions spilled into the streets, came to involve the court nobility and religious factions as well.
Nobles' mansions were transformed into fortresses, deep trenches dug throughout the city for defense and as firebreaks, numerous buildings burned. The city has not seen such widespread destruction since. In the late 16th century, Toyotomi Hideyoshi reconstructed the city by building new streets to double the number of north-south streets in central Kyoto, creating rectangle blocks superseding ancient square blocks. Hideyoshi built earthwork walls called odoi encircling the city. Teramachi Street in central Kyoto is a Buddhist temple quarter where Hideyoshi gathered temples in the city. Throughout the Edo period, the economy of the city flourished as one of three major cities in Japan, the others being Osaka and Edo; the Hamaguri rebellion of 1864 burnt down 28,000 houses in the city which showed the rebels' dissatisfaction towards the Tokugawa Shogunate. The subsequent move of the Emperor to Tokyo in 1869 weakened the economy; the modern city of Kyoto was formed on April 1, 1889. The construction of Lake Biwa Canal in 1890 was one measure taken to revive the city.
The population of the city exceeded one million in 1932. There was some consideration by the United States of targeting Kyoto with an atomic bomb at the end of World War II because, as an intellectual center of Japan, it had a population large enough to persuade the emperor to surrender. In the end, at the insistence of Henry L. Stimson, Secretary of War in the Roosevelt and Truman administrations, the city was removed from the list of targets and replaced by Nagasaki; the city was spared from conventional bombing as well, although small-scale air raids did result in casualties. As a result, the Imperial City of Kyoto is one of the few Japanese cities that still have an abundance of prewar buildings, such as the traditional townhouses known as machiya. However, modernization is continually breaking down the traditional Kyoto in favor of newer architecture, such as the Kyōto Station complex. Kyoto became a city designated by government ordinance on September 1, 1956. In 1997, Kyoto hosted the conference.
Kyoto is located in a valley, part of the Yamashiro Basin, in the eastern part of the mountainous region known as the Tamba highlands. The Yamashiro Basin is surrounded on three sides by mountains known as Higashiyama and Nishiyama, with a height just above 1,000 metres above sea level; this interior positioning results in cold winters. There are three rivers in the basin, the Ujigawa to the south, the Katsuragawa to the west, the Kamogawa to the east. Kyoto City takes up 17.9% of the land in the prefecture with an area of 827.9 square kilometres. The original city was arranged in accordance with traditional Chinese feng shui following the model of the ancient Chinese capital of Chang'an; the Imperial Palace faced south. The streets in the modern-day wards of Nakagyō, Shimogyō, Kamigyō-ku still follow a grid pattern. Today, the main business district is located to the south of the old Imperial Palace, with the less-populated northern area retaining a fa