Nakoku was a state, located in and around modern-day Fukuoka City, on the Japanese island of Kyūshū, from the 1st to early 3rd centuries. Much of what is known about it comes from ancient records of both Japan. According to the Book of the Later Han, in 57 CE, Emperor Guangwu of Han granted Nakoku an imperial seal, patterned after the Chinese jade seals, but made of gold: the king of Na gold seal. In return, that same year, Na sent envoys to the Chinese capital, offering tribute and formal New Year's greetings; this seal was discovered over 1500 years by an Edo period farmer on Shikanoshima Island, thus helping to verify the existence of Nakoku, otherwise known only from the ancient chronicles. Engraved upon it are the Chinese characters 漢委奴國王 (Kan no Wa no Na-no-Koku-ō, "King of the Na state of the Wa of Han". A reference is found in vol. 30 of the Chinese Book of Wei from the Records of the Three Kingdoms, titled ‘The Account of the Easterners: A Note on the Wa’, to the continued existence of Nakoku in the 3rd century, naming the officials and stating that it contains over 20,000 homes.

This section is known in Japan as the Gishi Wajinden. Some believe that Nakoku may correspond to Na-no-Agata, a principality which preceded Fukuoka City. Na and Wa names of Japan Much of the content of this article is derived from that on the corresponding article on the Japanese Wikipedia. Transcriptions of the relevant portions from the ancient texts can be found there as well. Frederic, Louis. "Nakoku." Japan Encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002


Motorcycling is riding a motorcycle. For some people, motorcycling may be the only affordable form of individual motorized transportation, small-displacement motorcycles are the most common motor vehicle in the most populous countries, including India and Indonesia. In developing countries, motorcycles are overwhelmingly utilitarian due to lower prices and greater fuel economy. Of all motorcycles, 58% are in the Asia Pacific and Southern and Eastern Asia regions, excluding car-centric Japan. Motorcycles are a luxury good in developed nations, where they are used for recreation, as a lifestyle accessory or a symbol of personal identity. Beyond being a mode of motor transportation or sport, motorcycling has become a subculture and lifestyle. Although a solo activity, motorcycling can be social and motorcyclists tend to have a sense of community with each other. For most riders, a motorcycle is a cheaper and more convenient form of transportation which causes less commuter congestion within cities and has less environmental impact than automobile ownership.

Others ride as a way to relieve stress and to "clear their minds" as described in Robert M. Pirsig's book Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance. Pirsig contrasted the sense of connection experienced by motorcyclists with the isolation of drivers who are "always in a compartment", passively observing the passing landscape. Pirsig portrayed motorcycling as being in "completely in contact with it all... in the scene."The connection to one's motorcycle is sensed further, as Pirsig explained, by the frequent need to maintain its mechanical operation. Pirsig felt that connection deepen when faced with a difficult mechanical problem that required walking away from it until the solution became clear. Motorcyclists experience pleasure at the feeling of being far more connected to their motor vehicles than in a motorcar, as being part of it rather than in it. Speed draws many people to motorcycling because the power-to-weight ratio of a low-power motorcycle is in league with that of an expensive sports car.

The power-to-weight ratio of many modestly priced sport bikes is well beyond any mass-market automobile and rivals that of supercars for a fraction of the price. The fastest accelerating production cars, capable of 0 to 60 mph in under 3.5 seconds, or 0 to 1⁄4 mile in under 12 seconds is a select club of exotic names like Porsche and Lamborghini, with a few extreme sub-models of popular sports cars, like the Shelby Mustang, made since the 1990s. Conversely, the fastest accelerating motorcycles meeting the same criteria is a much longer list and includes many non-sportbikes, such as the Triumph Tiger Explorer or Yamaha XT1200Z Super Ténéré, includes many motorcycles dating back to the 1970s. Hunter S. Thompson's book Hell's Angels includes an ode to the joys of pushing a motorcycle to its limits, "with the throttle screwed on there is only the barest margin, no room at all for mistakes... that's when the strange music starts... fear becomes exhilaration only sounds are the wind and a dull roar floating back from the mufflers" and T. E. Lawrence wrote of the "lustfulness of moving swiftly" and the "pleasure of speeding on the road".

A sensation he compared to feeling "the earth moulding herself under me... coming alive... and heaving and tossing on each side like a sea." While people choose to ride motorcycles for various reasons, those reasons are practical, with riders opting for a powered two-wheeler as a cost-efficient alternative to infrequent and expensive public transport systems, or as a means of avoiding or reducing the effects of urban congestion. Where permitted, lane splitting, known as filtering, allows motorcycles to move between vehicles in slow or stationary traffic. In the UK, motorcycles are exempt from the £11.50 per day London congestion charge that other vehicles must pay to enter the city during the day. Motorcycles are exempt from toll charges at such river crossings as the Dartford Crossing, Mersey Tunnels; such cities as Bristol allow motorcycles to use bus lanes. In the United States, motorcycles may use high-occupancy vehicle lanes in accordance with federal law and pay a lesser fee on some toll roads and toll bridges.

Other countries have similar policies. In New Zealand, motorcycle riders need not pay for parking, controlled by a barrier arm. Many car parks that are thus controlled so supply special areas for motorcycles to park as to save space. In many cities that have serious parking challenges for cars, such as Melbourne, motorcycles are permitted to park on the sidewalk, rather than occupy a space on the street which might otherwise be used by a car. Melbourne presents an example for the rest of the world with its free motorcycle footpath parking, enshrined in their Future Melbourne Committee Road Safety PlanOn Washington State Ferries, the most-used vehicle ferry system in the United States, motorcycle riders get priority boarding, skip automobile waiting lines, are charged a lower fare than automobiles. BC Ferries users obtain many of the same benefits. Statistically, there is a large difference between the car-dominated developed nations, the more populous developing countries where cars are less common than motorcycles.

In developed nations, motorcycles are owned in addition to a car, thus used for recreation or when traffic density means a motorcycle confers travel time or parking advantages as a mode of transport. In the developing world a motorcycle is more to be the primary mode of transport for its owner, the owner's family as

Sauber C30

The Sauber C30 is a Formula One racing car developed by Sauber Motorsports for use in the 2011 Formula One season. As with the Sauber C29 the car is powered by a Ferrari engine, but with added capability to house Ferrari's customer KERS system. After running a near-blank livery in 2010, the team has acquired several sponsors including Jose Cuervo, has had an investment from Telmex owner Carlos Slim; some 2010 sponsors, including Mad Croc Energy, have returned. The car was driven by Mexican newcomer Sergio Pérez; the car was unveiled on 31 January 2011 at the Circuit Ricardo Tormo in Spain. On the following day, Kobayashi became the first driver to test the car. At the first race in Melbourne, both Pérez and Kobayashi scored points, finishing in 7th and 8th place scoring a total of 10 points. However, following the discovery of a non-regulation rear wing, both cars were disqualified and their points were redistributed. Unlike the 2010 C29 the C30 was reliable from the start of the season and developments have come at a respectable rate, keeping it within the top 10.

Kobayashi finished in the top 10 in the first seven races, amassed 25 points - including a fifth at Monaco, a seventh in Canada after running in second at the restart. Sergio Pérez was forced to retire in Malaysia when a piece of a Toro Rosso flew off and sliced his car. In the Spanish Grand Prix, Pérez scored his first points, with ninth, in the next race, he crashed in Q3 in Monaco, injuring him badly enough so that he had to miss the Monaco and subsequent Canadian Grand Prix where former Sauber driver Pedro de la Rosa took his seat and finished twelfth; the next ten races were not so successful for Kobayashi only having one points finish - in Germany. Pérez scored his best race result, in Britain; this put Force India ahead of them into sixth place. Pérez got back into the points in Singapore, with tenth place, but this was nothing compared to the twelve points Force India scored at that race. At the Japanese Grand Prix Kobayashi impressed his home fans by going fastest in Q1 and qualifying a career best seventh.

When Kobayashi had a not so successful race, Pérez made advantage of making one less pit stop, finishing an impressive eighth. Kobayashi re-captured his form when he finished the last two races in a points scoring finish, tenth in Abu Dhabi and 9th in Brazil. In total, they accumulated the same number of points as the previous season's Sauber C29; the Sauber C30 forms the basis of the Heritage F1 HF1-018 which uses the Sauber designed C30 chassis, front suspension and aerodynamic devices. The HF1-018 is advertised as the fastest track day car in the world and is powered by a small capacity turbo charged engine similar to that used in the 2014 onwards Formula One championship but does not use a KERS system as the original C30 did. According to the Heritage F1 website the HF1-018 was constructed by the UK based motorsport engineering company TDF; the HF1-018 made its debut in May 2018 at Circuit Zolder as part of a FORCE F1 demonstration. The car has since featured in numerous television adverts, press adverts and F1 demonstrations, most at the 2018 Silverstone Classic where it was driven by Oliver Webb and Jessica Hawkins.

In June 2018, Billy Monger drove a Formula One racing car for the first time when he tested the HF1-018 at the Rockingham Motor Speedway in Corby. The car had been specially converted to match the hand controls present in the Carlin BRDC British Formula 3 car he races. A documentary feature about Monger's first Formula One drive was shown as part of Sky F1's coverage of the 2018 Austrian Grand Prix. During the 2019 Chinese Grand Prix race weekend, Jessica Hawkins drove a special livery HF1-018 as a part of the F1 Shanghai Festival 2019 - F1 live roadshow. Sauber C30 Engineering & Materials About the Heritage HF1-018 car