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Julian Lawrence

Julian Lawrence is an award-winning Canadian cartoonist and comics scholar. A longtime member of Vancouver's DIY independent art scene, Lawrence is an arts educator and researcher, with a specialization in using hand drawn comics as a tool to improve literacy, develop storytelling techniques and form identity, he resides in Middlesbrough, where he is a Senior Lecturer in the Comics and Graphic Novels B. A. Honours program at Teesside University. Born in Portsmouth, Lawrence immigrated as a child with his family to Québec in the mid-1960's, during an era of intense anti-English sentiment in that Province. To cope with the social rejection from his Francophone classmates, Lawrence turned to reading and writing comics for both entertainment and as a tool for improving his French language literacy. In 1989, Lawrence moved to Vancouver, British Columbia, where he worked as an independent artist on a variety of projects, including: writer/illustrator for Fantagraphics. Cartoon animated series Ed, Edd n Eddy.

In the spring of 1999, Lawrence co-created the Drippy Gazette – a short-lived monthly two-color newspaper featuring comics from Vancouver artists, with each issue cover featuring an anthropomorphized raindrop named Drippy the Newsboy. From this, Lawrence subsequently won a grant from the Xeric Foundation in 2000 which he used to help publish Drippytown Comics, an anthology series which grew out from the Gazette and served to showcase the work of each contributing artist. Notable artists included Jason Turner. In 2007, Lawrence contributed artwork to The Magical Life of Long Tack Sam, a graphic novel documenting the life of a once famous Chinese vaudeville performer; the book was named on the American Library Association's Top Ten Graphic Novels for Teens and won the Doug Wright Award in 2008. Lawrence worked on the animated film adaptation, produced by the National Film Board of Canada. In 2014, Lawrence re-purposed his character Drippy the Newsboy as the protagonist for a comic book trilogy based on the writings of American author Stephen Crane.

Lawrence emulated Crane's literary narrative style by contrasting exceptionally detailed artwork with slang-filled dialogue. Conundrum Press has published two volumes of The Adventures of Drippy the Newsboy: Volume I: Drippy's Mama; the final book in the trilogy, Volume III: The Dripping Boat is scheduled for release in May, 2020. Lawrence's academic work concentrates on the undercurrents of communication through gesture in the medium of comics, his research explores freehand narrative drawing and its impact on representations of artist identity. Investigations of these topics led him to combine theories of authorship with semiotic analysis of comics; this combination constitutes a large focus of his art/research/teaching practice. His most recent work includes contributions to the book The Bliss and Blisters of Early Career Teaching: A Pan-Canadian Perspective and SANE Journal: Sequential Art Narrative in Education. In May 2017, he completed a master's degree in art education at University of British Columbia.

Much of his recent comics work concentrates on comics as research tool in pedagogy. Lawrence began his teaching career in the late 1990s as a guest artist in local Vancouver schools, where he would teach simple drawing techniques to students during art lessons. In 2009, he joined the roster of artists at ArtStarts, a government funded charitable organization that promotes integrating art into school curriculum; as a result, Lawrence began using comics as a tool for achieving multi-disciplinary learning outcomes. Between 2003-2018, Lawrence was an instructor at Emily Carr University of Art and Design, where he designed and delivered courses on Graphic Novel narrative structures. In the summer of 2018, Lawrence relocated to Middlesbrough, UK, where he works as Senior Lecturer in the Comics and Graphic Novels B. A. Honours program at Teesside University. Lawrence was a founding member of Vancouver avant garde musical collective July Fourth Toilet. Jeanette Andrews Scholarship in Art Education, University of British Columbia, 2017 Freeperson Award, Best Cartoon/Illustration, The Canadian Association of Labour Media, 2016 Gene Day Award, Best Self-Published Comic, 2016 Pop Vox Award, Best Digital Learning Initiative, 2009 Sophie Burnett Award, Emily Carr University, 2009 Doug Wright Award, Best Book, 2008 Achievement Award, Emily Carr University, 2007 & 2008 Lawrence, J..'Where the Action Is: Crumb, Semiotics, L'Ecriture Feminine, Taste'.

In D. Worden, The Art of R. Crumb Lawrence, J; the adventures of Drippy the newsboy: volume III: The dripping boat. Wolfville NS, Conundrum Press. ISBN: 978-1-77262-045-0 Lawrence, J. Cartoons have always been for adults but here’s how they got tangled up with kids. Available at: https://theconversation.com/cartoons-have-always-been-for-adults-but-heres-how-they-got-tangled-up-with-kids-130421 Lawrence, J and Archer, N. Martin Scorsese says superhero movies are ‘not cinema’: two experts debate. Available at: https://theconversation.com/martin-scorsese-says-superhero-movies-are-not-cinema-two-experts-debate-125771 Lawrence, Lin, C-C. & Can, I.'Relational C

Emperor Shun of Han

Emperor Shun of Han was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty and the seventh emperor of the Eastern Han. He reigned from 125 to 144 AD. Emperor Shun was the only son of Emperor An of Han. After Emperor An died in 125, the Empress Dowager Yan, childless but yearning to hold on to power, displaced Prince Bao from the throne in favour of Liu Yi, the Marquess of Beixiang. Liu Yi died after reigning less than seven months; the people had great expectations for Emperor Shun, whose reign followed his incompetent and violent father. However, while Emperor Shun's personality was mild, he was just as incompetent as his father in general, corruption continued without abatement among eunuchs and officials, he overly entrusted government to his wife Empress Liang Na's father Liang Shang - a mild-mannered man with integrity but little ability - and Liang Shang's son Liang Ji - a corrupt and autocratic man. In general, Emperor Shun's reign was still somewhat of an improvement over his father's, but this minor improvement was unable to stem Eastern Han Dynasty's continued degradation.

Emperor Shun died at the age of 29 after reigning for 19 years. He was succeeded by his son Emperor Chong. Then-Prince Bao was born to Emperor An and his concubine Consort Li in 115 shortly after Emperor An had created his favorite Yan Ji empress. Empress Yan herself was sonless, in jealousy, she poisoned Consort Li to death, an act that went unpunished. Empress Yan would continue to hold a grudge against Prince Bao, despite his youth. In 120, Emperor An created Prince Bao crown prince. In 124, some of the people trusted by Emperor An -- eunuchs Jiang Jing and Fan Feng and his wet nurse Wang Sheng, for reasons no longer known, falsely accused Crown Prince Bao's wet nurse Wang Nan and chef Bing Ji of unspecified crimes. Emperor An exiled their families; the nine-year-old crown prince was saddened. Jiang and Fan, fearful of reprisals entered into a conspiracy with Empress Yan to falsely accuse Crown Prince Bao and his servants of crimes. Emperor An believed them, demoted Crown Prince Bao to be the Prince of Jiyin.

In 125, Emperor An died while on a trip to Wancheng. Empress Yan, although Prince Bao was Emperor An's only son and therefore logical heir, resolved to make someone younger to be the emperor so that she could better control him, she therefore made the Marquess of Beixiang, emperor. The 10-year-old Prince Bao was excluded not only from succession but from the official mourning for his father. Empress Dowager Yan and her brothers dominated the political scene; that year, the young emperor was gravely ill. The eunuch Sun Cheng, loyal to Prince Bao, entered into a conspiracy with Prince Bao's head of household Changxing Qu and other eunuchs to restore Prince Bao. After the young emperor died, Sun and 18 of his fellow eunuchs made a surprise attack on the palace, killing Jiang and forcing Jiang's colleague Li Run to join them, they welcomed Prince Bao to the palace and declared him emperor. For several days, the eunuchs' forces battled with the empress dowager's forces defeating the empress dowager and her brothers.

The Yan clan was slaughtered, while Empress Dowager Yan was confined to her palace until her death in 126. At the start of Emperor Shun's reign, the people were hopeful that he would reform the political situation from the pervasive corruption under the Yans; the teenage emperor proved to be a kind but weak ruler and while he trusted certain honest officials, he trusted many corrupt eunuchs, who grabbed power. In 126, Sun tried to encourage the young emperor to carry out extensive reforms, but was instead removed from the capital for his audacity, although Sun was recalled to the capital in 128, but continued to lack actual influence to effectuate reforms. Another major influence on Emperor Shun was his wet nurse Song E, described as a kind woman who, however lacked abilities, as she was in the stead of an empress dowager, she was influential but not much of an actual help for Emperor Shun. Early in Emperor Shun's reign, Ban Chao's son Ban Yong was able to restore Han suzerainty over Xiyu kingdoms, but in 127, Ban Yong was falsely accused of being late in a military action and removed from his office.

After Ban Yong's removal, the situation in Xiyu deteriorated. Other than these, the time of Emperor Shun was one during which the empire rested from previous periods of political turmoil. Although the emperor lacked capability, corruption continued to run unchecked, his personal kindness allowed the people a measurement of peace. In 131, Emperor Shun was going to create an empress, not wanting to play favorites, he considered drawing lots before gods to determine who should be the empress. After his officials discouraged him from this action, he selected one of his consorts, Liang Na, as the one he considered most virtuous and most rational, he created her empress in 132, she was 16 and he was 19. Her father Liang Shang became an honored official and was promoted