Sony Corporation is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Kōnan, Tokyo. Its diversified business includes consumer and professional electronics, gaming and financial services; the company owns the largest music entertainment business in the world, the largest video game console business and one of the largest video game publishing businesses, is one of the leading manufacturers of electronic products for the consumer and professional markets, a leading player in the film and television entertainment industry. Sony was ranked 97th on the 2018 Fortune Global 500 list. Sony Corporation is the electronics business unit and the parent company of the Sony Group, engaged in business through its four operating components: electronics, motion pictures and financial services; these make Sony one of the most comprehensive entertainment companies in the world. The group consists of Sony Corporation, Sony Pictures, Sony Mobile, Sony Interactive Entertainment, Sony Music, Sony/ATV Music Publishing, Sony Financial Holdings, others.
Sony is among the semiconductor sales leaders and since 2015, the fifth-largest television manufacturer in the world after Samsung Electronics, LG Electronics, TCL and Hisense. The company's current slogan is Be Moved, their former slogans were The One and Only, It's like.no.other and make.believe. Sony has a weak tie to the Sumitomo Mitsui Financial Group corporate group, the successor to the Mitsui group. Sony began in the wake of World War II. In 1946, Masaru Ibuka started an electronics shop in a department store building in Tokyo; the company started with a total of eight employees. In May 1946, Ibuka was joined by Akio Morita to establish a company called Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo; the company built Japan's first tape recorder, called the Type-G. In 1958, the company changed its name to "Sony"; when Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo was looking for a romanized name to use to market themselves, they considered using their initials, TTK. The primary reason they did not is that the railway company Tokyo Kyuko was known as TTK.
The company used the acronym "Totsuko" in Japan, but during his visit to the United States, Morita discovered that Americans had trouble pronouncing that name. Another early name, tried out for a while was "Tokyo Teletech" until Akio Morita discovered that there was an American company using Teletech as a brand name; the name "Sony" was chosen for the brand as a mix of two words: one was the Latin word "sonus", the root of sonic and sound, the other was "sonny", a common slang term used in 1950s America to call a young boy. In 1950s Japan, "sonny boys" was a loan word in Japanese, which connoted smart and presentable young men, which Sony founders Akio Morita and Masaru Ibuka considered themselves to be; the first Sony-branded product, the TR-55 transistor radio, appeared in 1955 but the company name did not change to Sony until January 1958. At the time of the change, it was unusual for a Japanese company to use Roman letters to spell its name instead of writing it in kanji; the move was not without opposition: TTK's principal bank at the time, had strong feelings about the name.
They pushed for a name such as Sony Teletech. Akio Morita was firm, however. Both Ibuka and Mitsui Bank's chairman gave their approval. According to Schiffer, Sony's TR-63 radio "cracked open the U. S. market and launched the new industry of consumer microelectronics." By the mid-1950s, American teens had begun buying portable transistor radios in huge numbers, helping to propel the fledgling industry from an estimated 100,000 units in 1955 to 5 million units by the end of 1968. Sony co-founder Akio Morita founded Sony Corporation of America in 1960. In the process, he was struck by the mobility of employees between American companies, unheard of in Japan at that time; when he returned to Japan, he encouraged experienced, middle-aged employees of other companies to reevaluate their careers and consider joining Sony. The company filled many positions in this manner, inspired other Japanese companies to do the same. Moreover, Sony played a major role in the development of Japan as a powerful exporter during the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s.
It helped to improve American perceptions of "made in Japan" products. Known for its production quality, Sony was able to charge above-market prices for its consumer electronics and resisted lowering prices. In 1971, Masaru Ibuka handed the position of president over to his co-founder Akio Morita. Sony began a life insurance company in one of its many peripheral businesses. Amid a global recession in the early 1980s, electronics sales dropped and the company was forced to cut prices. Sony's profits fell sharply. "It's over for Sony," one analyst concluded. "The company's best days are behind it." Around that time, Norio Ohga took up the role of president. He encouraged the development of the Compact Disc in the 1970s and 1980s, of the PlayStation in the early 1990s. Ohga went on to purchase CBS Records in 1988 and Columbia Pictures in 1989 expanding Sony's media presence. Ohga would succeed Morita as chief executive officer in 1989. Under the vision of co-founder Akio Morita and his successors, the company had aggressively expanded in
Soulcalibur (video game)
Soulcalibur is a weapon-based 3D fighting game developed by Project Soul and produced by Namco. It is the second game in the Soulcalibur series, preceded by Soul Edge in December 1995. Released in arcades in July 1998, it ran on the Namco System 12 hardware, it was ported to the Dreamcast in 1999 with improved graphics. The North American version was released in September 1999 as a launch game for the Dreamcast and was part of the successful launch of the new console, it became available as a downloadable title on the Xbox 360's Xbox Live Marketplace in July 2008 and it is forward compatible with the Xbox One along with the sequel, Soulcalibur II. The game centers on the pursuit of the legendary weapon known as Soul Edge, now in the possession of a warrior known as Nightmare, who slaughters countless people to satisfy the blade's bloodlust. Other warriors pursue him either to claim the weapon for themselves or to destroy it, end his mass murder, free him of its curse. Developed with Namco's Tekken development team, it is one of few home console ports that outdid their arcade parent graphics-wise.
The title brought many innovations to the fighting game genre that include a heavy emphasis on weapons and a unique eight-way movement system. Soulcalibur is regarded as one of the best Dreamcast titles and is cited as among the greatest fighting games released, as well as one of the best video games of all time. One of the biggest innovations introduced by Soulcalibur to the gameplay system of its predecessor, Soul Edge, is the eight-way run. Previous 3D fighters had only limited movement along the third axis, with sidesteps and rolls providing useful but unsustained lateral movement. In Soulcalibur holding down a joystick direction causes the character to run in that direction, giving the player a sense of freedom and deepening the strategy of the game. Soulcalibur improved gameplay with "forgiving buffering", executing the input for one move before the player's character has finished recovering from his previous move, leads to executing a quick succession of moves; the Guard Impact offensive blocking maneuver shown in Soul Edge was given a deeper range of techniques in Soulcalibur, allowing players to push back or redirect attacks past themselves as well as swatting away an opponent's weapon to stun them.
Soulcalibur was planned to be a dramatic overhaul, featuring only a few select characters to be carried over from Soul Edge. However, nine of the 11 characters from Soul Edge ended up carrying over to Soulcalibur by the time the roster was finalized in the Dreamcast version, with an additional ten new characters joining the ranks; as with many fighting games, many of the new characters were styled after existing characters from the franchise. For example, new character Maxi has a fighting move set influenced by Soul Edge's Li Long. In fact, Soulcalibur only added one original playing style. New characters Xianghua, Yoshimitsu, Kilik and Lizardman were based upon existing characters Hwang, Li Long, Rock, Seong Mi-na, Sophitia, respectively. Namco has been working since Soulcalibur to separate the individual styles of the characters in order to make each one unique; the mystical sword of the legends, the "Soul Edge", ended up in the hands of the dreaded pirate Cervantes de Leon of Spain. For the next 25 years, he stayed dormant on the remnants of a Spanish port town, taking the souls of those who reached him during their search of the sword.
His reign of terror was soon to start, but through the joined efforts of Greek divine warrior Sophitia Alexandra and Japanese ninja Taki, he was stopped and killed, with one of the twin Soul Edge blades being shattered in the process. As it was about to tear itself apart, young German knight Siegfried Schtauffen approached the port town and battled Cervantes, whose corpse had been momentarily reanimated through Soul Edge's will. After emerging victorious, Siegfried's attention turned unto the sword; the moment he took the hilt of the cursed blade, Soul Edge released a bright column of light into the sky. This was known as the "Evil Seed", bound to bring death in its wake. Three years after those events, Soul Edge uses Siegfried as its host, now Siegfried is Nightmare, a knight wearing azure armor and sporting a hideously deformed right arm. Europe plunges into a vortex of slaughters as he and his followers claim souls to strengthen the blade in its weakened state. Unknown to them, a group of warriors met on their journey to stop Soul Edge, with them, three sacred weapons join once again.
After releasing Soul Edge, Namco took some time to evaluate what had made the game successful before jumping into the development of its follow-up. Producer Hiroaki Yotoriyama decided to give the sequel a new name instead of just calling it Soul Edge 2 in order to have a fresh start and take the series in a new direction; the name Soulcalibur is a portmanteau of King Arthur's sword Excalibur. Inspired by an internal Namco prototype featuring a char
Video RAM (dual-ported DRAM)
Video RAM, or VRAM, is a dual-ported variant of dynamic RAM, once used to store the framebuffer in graphics adapters. It was invented by F. Dill, D. Ling and R. Matick at IBM Research in 1980, with a patent issued in 1985; the first commercial use of VRAM was in a high-resolution graphics adapter introduced in 1986 by IBM for its RT PC system, which set a new standard for graphics displays. Prior to the development of VRAM, dual-ported memory was quite expensive, limiting higher resolution bitmapped graphics to high-end workstations. VRAM improved the overall framebuffer throughput, allowing low cost, high-resolution, high-speed, color graphics. Modern GUI-based operating systems benefitted from this and thus it provided a key ingredient for proliferation of graphical user interfaces throughout the world at that time. VRAM has two sets of data output pins, thus two ports that can be used simultaneously; the first port, the DRAM port, is accessed by the host computer in a manner similar to traditional DRAM.
The second port, the video port, is read-only and is dedicated to providing a high throughput, serialized data channel for the graphics chipset. Typical DRAM arrays access a full row of bits at up to 1,024 bits at one time, but only use one or a few of these for actual data, the remainder being discarded. Since DRAM cells are destructively read, each row accessed must be sensed, re-written. Thus, 1,024 sense amplifiers are used. VRAM operates by not discarding the excess bits which must be accessed, but making full use of them in a simple way. If each horizontal scan line of a display is mapped to a full word upon reading one word and latching all 1,024 bits into a separate row buffer, these bits can subsequently be serially streamed to the display circuitry; this will leave access to the DRAM array free to be accessed for many cycles, until the row buffer is depleted. A complete DRAM read cycle is only required to fill the row buffer, leaving most DRAM cycles available for normal accesses; such operation is described in the paper "All points addressable raster display memory" by R. Matick, D. Ling, S. Gupta, F. Dill, IBM Journal of R&D, Vol 28, No.
4, July 1984, pp. 379–393. To use the video port, the controller first uses the DRAM port to select the row of the memory array, to be displayed; the VRAM copies that entire row to an internal row-buffer, a shift register. The controller can continue to use the DRAM port for drawing objects on the display. Meanwhile, the controller feeds; each SCLK pulse causes the VRAM to deliver the next data bit, in strict address order, from the shift register to the video port. For simplicity, the graphics adapter is designed so that the contents of a row, therefore the contents of the shift-register, corresponds to a complete horizontal line on the display. Through the 1990s, many graphic subsystems used VRAM, with the number of megabits touted as a selling point. In the late 1990s, synchronous DRAM technologies became affordable and fast enough to displace VRAM though it is only single-ported and more overhead is required. Many of the VRAM concepts of internal, on-chip buffering and organization have been used and improved in modern graphics adapters
New Japan Pro-Wrestling
New Japan Pro-Wrestling Co. Ltd. is a Japanese professional wrestling promotion based in Nakano, Tokyo. Founded in January 1972 by Antonio Inoki, the promotion was sold to Yuke's, who sold it to Bushiroad in 2012. TV Asahi and Amuse, Inc. own minority shares of the company. Naoki Sugabayashi has served as the promotion's Chairman since September 2013, while Harold Meij has served as the President of the promotion since May 2018. Owing to its TV program aired on TV Asahi, NJPW is the largest professional wrestling promotion in Japan and the second largest promotion in the world, it was affiliated with the National Wrestling Alliance at various points in its history. NJPW has had agreements with various MMA and professional wrestling promotions around the world, including WWE, World Championship Wrestling, American Wrestling Association, World Class Championship Wrestling, Impact Wrestling, WAR, UWFi, Ring of Honor, Pride Fighting Championships, Jersey All Pro Wrestling. NJPW's biggest event is the January 4 Tokyo Dome Show, held each year since 1992 and promoted under the Wrestle Kingdom banner.
The promotion was founded by Antonio Inoki in 1972 after his departure from the Japan Pro Wrestling Alliance promotion. The first NJPW event took place on March 1972, in Tokyo. Inoki would serve as the president of the promotion until 1989, when he stepped down to pursue a political career as a member of the Japanese House of Councillors; the promotion was a member of the National Wrestling Alliance from 1975 to 1985 and once more from 1992 to 1993. NJPW was reaffiliated with the NWA in the late 2000s to the early 2010s as well. Known as "Shin Nihon Puroresu", NJPW is considered the top wrestling promotion in Japan and is comparable to WWE in the United States in terms of popularity in the country, they promote events throughout Japan with their biggest event being their annual supercard held every year on January 4 at the Tokyo Dome billed as Wrestle Kingdom. In the past NJPW has worked with WWE, World Championship Wrestling, Total Nonstop Action Wrestling, Global Force Wrestling, Westside Xtreme Wrestling, among others.
The company has working agreements with five foreign promotions—Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre and The Crash Lucha Libre in Mexico, Ring of Honor and the NWA in the U. S. and the British Revolution Pro Wrestling. NJPW will host cross-promotional matches with other Japanese promotions, such as All Japan Pro Wrestling and Pro Wrestling Noah; the promotion is owned by Japanese card game company Bushiroad, which parlayed its entry to the world of professional wrestling into a best-selling trading card game, King of Pro Wrestling, appearances from NJPW stars in its various franchises. The promotion has its own governing body, the International Wrestling Grand Prix, shortened as IWGP. NJPW has eight titles: the IWGP Heavyweight, IWGP Intercontinental, IWGP United States Heavyweight, IWGP Junior Heavyweight, IWGP Tag Team, IWGP Junior Heavyweight Tag Team, NEVER Openweight and the NEVER Openweight 6-Man Tag Team Championships, it holds several tournaments each year, including the G1 Climax, World Tag League, New Japan Cup and Best of the Super Juniors.
The promotion debuted a new series called NEVER in August 2010, designed to be a series of events spotlighting younger up-and-coming New Japan talent and feature more outsider participation in the promotion. The final NEVER event was held in November 2012. On January 4, 2011, New Japan announced the NJPW Invasion Tour 2011: Attack on East Coast, the promotion's first tour of the United States to be held in May 2011; the tour featured shows in Rahway, New Jersey on May 13, New York City on May 14 and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on May 15, as well as cross-promotion with American independent group Jersey All Pro Wrestling. As part of the tour, NJPW introduced the IWGP Intercontinental Championship. On January 31, 2012, Yuke's announced that it had sold all shares of New Japan Pro-Wrestling to card game company Bushiroad for ¥500 million. New Japan aired its first internet pay-per-view, the fourth day of the 2012 G1 Climax, on August 5, 2012; the October 8, 2012, King of Pro-Wrestling pay-per-view marked the first time viewers outside Japan were able to order a pay-per-view by the promotion through Ustream.
On October 5, 2012, New Japan announced the creation of the NEVER Openweight Championship, which would be contested for on the NEVER series. A two-day tournament to determine the inaugural champion was held between November 15 and 19, 2012. In February 2014, New Japan announced a partnership with ROH, which saw the promotion return to North America the following May to present two supershows. During the tour, New Japan wrestlers took part in an event held by Canadian promotion Border City Wrestling. A year NJPW and ROH announced another tour together to produce four more supershows. In June 2014, New Japan announced a partnership with the new American Global Force Wrestling organization helmed by Jeff Jarrett. In November 2014, GFW announced that it would be broadcasting NJPW's Wrestle Kingdom 9 in Tokyo Dome on pay-per-view in the United States as a four-hour event. In November 2014, the American AXS TV network announced it had acquired rights to rebroadcast a series of thirteen episodes of NJPW matches from TV Asahi.
The series premiered on January 2015, airing weekly on Fridays. Averaging 200,000 vi
Electronic Gaming Monthly
Electronic Gaming Monthly is a monthly American video game magazine. It offers video game news, coverage of industry events, interviews with gaming figures, editorial content, product reviews; the magazine was founded in 1988 as U. S. National Video Game Team's Electronic Gaming Monthly under Sendai Publications. In 1994, EGM spun off EGM ², which focused on expanded tricks, it became Expert Gamer and the defunct GameNOW. After 83 issues, EGM switched from Sendai Publishing to Ziff Davis publisher; until January 2009, EGM only covered gaming on console software. In 2002, the magazine's subscription increased by more than 25 percent; the magazine was discontinued by Ziff Davis in January 2009, following the sale of 1UP.com to UGO Networks. The magazine's February 2009 issue was completed, but was not published. In May 2009, EGM founder Steve Harris purchased its assets from Ziff Davis; the magazine was relaunched in April 2010 by Harris' new company EGM Media, LLC, widening its coverage to the PC and mobile gaming markets.
Notable contributors to Electronic Gaming Monthly have included Martin Alessi, Ken Williams, "Trickman" Terry Minnich, Andrew "Cyber-Boy" Baran, Danyon Carpenter, Marc Camron, Mark "Candyman" LeFebvre, Todd Rogers, Mike Weigand a.k.a. Major Mike, Al Manuel, Howard Grossman, Arcade Editor Mark "Mo" Hain, Mike "Virus" Vallas, Jason Streetz, Ken Badziak, Scott Augustyn, Chris Johnston, Che Chou, Dave Ruchala, Crispin Boyer, Greg Sewart, Jeanne Trais, Jennifer Tsao, artist Jeremy Norm Scott, Shawn "Shawnimal" Smith, West Coast Editor Kelly Rickards, Kraig Kujawa, Dean Hager, Jeremy Parish, Mark Macdonald. Writers who served stints as editor-in chief include Ed Semrad, Joe Funk, John Davison, James Mielke, artist Jeremy "Norm" Scott, Seanbaby. In addition, writers of EGM's various sister publications – including GameNow, Computer Gaming World/Games for Windows: The Official Magazine, Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine – would contribute to EGM, vice versa; the magazine is known for making April Fools jokes.
Its April 1992 issue was the source of the Sheng Long hoax in Street Fighter II: The World Warrior. The magazine includes the following sections: Insert Coin Letter from the editor - the editorial Login - Letters from readers and replies by the magazine Press Start This section contains a general article about video gaming EGM RoundTable - discussions around video games The Buzz - industry rumors The EGM Hot List - background information about a critically acclaimed game Features - feature articles The EGM Interview - interview with a person from the gaming industry Cover Story - preview of the game featured on the magazine cover Next Wave - previews of upcoming games Launch Point - short previews of upcoming games Review Crew - review section Review Recap - recapitulation of the review scores from the preceding issue Game Over - Commentary articles on video gaming related topics EGM's current review scale is based on a letter grade system in which each game receives a grade based on its perceived quality.
Games are reviewed by one member, except for "the big games", which were reviewed by one of a pool of editors known as "The Review Crew." They each write a few paragraphs about their opinion of the game. The magazine makes a strong stance. Towards the top of the scale, awards are given to games that average a B- or higher from the three individual grade: "Silver" awards for games averaging a grade of B- to B+; the current letter grade system replaced a long-standing 0–10 scale in the April 2008 issue. In that system, Silver went to a game with an average rating from 8 to 9, Gold to a game reviewed at 9 to 10, Platinum to a game that received nothing but 10 ratings; until 1998, as a matter of editorial policy, the reviewers gave scores of 10, never gave a Platinum Award. That policy changed when the reviewers gave Metal Gear Solid four 10 ratings in 1998, with an editorial announcing the shift. In addition, they gave the game with the highest average score for that issue a "Game of the Month" award.
If a "Game of the Month" title receives a port to another console, that version is disqualified from that month's award, such as with Resident Evil 4, which won the award for the Nintendo GameCube version and subsequently received the highest scores for the PlayStation 2 port months and Tony Hawk's Pro Skater 2, which won the Platinum award for two separate versions of the game. In 2002, EGM began giving games; as there is not always such a game in each issue, this award is only given out when a game qualifies. A team of four editors reviewed all the games; this process was dropped in favor of a system that added more reviewers to the staff so that no one person reviewed all the games for the month. Though the scores ranged from 0–10 on the previous numerical scale, the score of zero was never utilized, with exceptions being Mortal Kombat Advance, The Guy Game, Ping Pals. EGM en Español was released in Mexico in November 2002, it is edited by a different staff. Sometimes the content was more focused to
Surface-mount technology is a method for producing electronic circuits in which the components are mounted or placed directly onto the surface of printed circuit boards. An electronic device so made is called a surface-mount device. In industry, it has replaced the through-hole technology construction method of fitting components with wire leads into holes in the circuit board. Both technologies can be used on the same board, with the through-hole technology used for components not suitable for surface mounting such as large transformers and heat-sinked power semiconductors. By employing SMT, the production process speeds up, but the risk of defects increases due to component miniaturization and to the denser packing of boards. In those conditions, detection of failures has become critical for any SMT manufacturing process. An SMT component is smaller than its through-hole counterpart because it has either smaller leads or no leads at all, it may have short pins or leads of various styles, flat contacts, a matrix of solder balls, or terminations on the body of the component.
Surface mounting was called "planar mounting". Surface-mount technology was developed in the 1960s and became used in the mid 1980s. By the late 1990s, the great majority of high-tech electronic printed circuit assemblies were dominated by surface mount devices. Much of the pioneering work in this technology was done by IBM; the design approach first demonstrated by IBM in 1960 in a small-scale computer was applied in the Launch Vehicle Digital Computer used in the Instrument Unit that guided all Saturn IB and Saturn V vehicles. Components were mechanically redesigned to have small metal tabs or end caps that could be directly soldered to the surface of the PCB. Components became much smaller and component placement on both sides of a board became far more common with surface mounting than through-hole mounting, allowing much higher circuit densities and smaller circuit boards and, in turn, machines or subassemblies containing the boards. Only the solder joints hold the parts to the board. Adhesive is sometimes used to hold SMT components on the bottom side of a board if a wave soldering process is used to solder both SMT and through-hole components simultaneously.
Alternatively, SMT and through-hole components can be soldered on the same side of a board without adhesive if the SMT parts are first reflow-soldered a selective solder mask is used to prevent the solder holding those parts in place from reflowing and the parts floating away during wave soldering. Surface mounting lends itself well to a high degree of automation, reducing labor cost and increasing production rates. Conversely, SMT does not lend itself well to manual or low-automation fabrication, more economical and faster for one-off prototyping and small-scale production, this is one reason why many through-hole components are still manufactured; some SMDs can be soldered with a temperature-controlled manual soldering iron, but those that are small or have too fine a lead pitch are impossible to manually solder without expensive hot-air solder reflow equipment. SMDs can be one-quarter to one-tenth the size and weight, one-half to one-quarter the cost of equivalent through-hole parts, but on the other hand, the costs of a certain SMT part and of an equivalent through-hole part may be quite similar, though is the SMT part more expensive.
Different terms describe the components and machines used in manufacturing. These terms are listed in the following table: Where components are to be placed, the printed circuit board has flat tin-lead, silver, or gold plated copper pads without holes, called solder pads. Solder paste, a sticky mixture of flux and tiny solder particles, is first applied to all the solder pads with a stainless steel or nickel stencil using a screen printing process, it can be applied by a jet-printing mechanism, similar to an inkjet printer. After pasting, the boards proceed to the pick-and-place machines, where they are placed on a conveyor belt; the components to be placed on the boards are delivered to the production line in either paper/plastic tapes wound on reels or plastic tubes. Some large integrated circuits are delivered in static-free trays. Numerical control pick-and-place machines remove the parts from the tapes, tubes or trays and place them on the PCB; the boards are conveyed into the reflow soldering oven.
They first enter a pre-heat zone, where the temperature of the board and all the components is uniformly raised. The boards enter a zone where the temperature is high enough to melt the solder particles in the solder paste, bonding the component leads to the pads on the circuit board; the surface tension of the molten solder helps keep the components in place, if the solder pad geometries are designed, surface tension automatically aligns the components on their pads. There are a number of techniques for reflowing solder. One is to use infrared lamps. Another is to use a hot gas convection. Another technology, becoming popular again is special fluorocarbon liquids with high boiling points which use a method called vapor phase reflow. Due to environmental concerns, this method was falling out of favor until lead-free legislation was introduced which requires tighter controls on soldering. At the end of 2008, convection soldering was the most popular reflow technology using either standard air or nitrogen gas.
Each method has its disadvantages. With