Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer, navigator and citizen of the Republic of Genoa. Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean and those voyages and his efforts to establish permanent settlements on the island of Hispaniola initiated the European colonization of the New World. Western imperialism and economic competition were emerging among European kingdoms through the establishment of routes and colonies. During his first voyage in 1492, he reached the New World instead of arriving at Japan as he had intended, landing on an island in the Bahamas archipelago that he named San Salvador. Over the course of three voyages, he visited the Greater and Lesser Antilles, as well as the Caribbean coast of Venezuela and Central America. These voyages had, therefore, an impact in the historical development of the modern Western world. He spearheaded the transatlantic trade and has been accused by several historians of initiating the genocide of the Hispaniola natives.
Columbus himself saw his accomplishments primarily in the light of spreading the Christian religion, Columbus never admitted that he had reached a continent previously unknown to Europeans, rather than the East Indies for which he had set course. He called the inhabitants of the lands that he visited indios, the name Christopher Columbus is the Anglicisation of the Latin Christophorus Columbus. His name in Italian is Cristoforo Colombo and, in Spanish and he was born before 31 October 1451 in the territory of the Republic of Genoa, though the exact location remains disputed. His father was Domenico Colombo, a wool weaver who worked both in Genoa and Savona and who owned a cheese stand at which young Christopher worked as a helper. Bartolomeo, Giovanni Pellegrino, and Giacomo were his brothers, Bartolomeo worked in a cartography workshop in Lisbon for at least part of his adulthood. He had a sister named Bianchinetta, Columbus never wrote in his native language, which is presumed to have been a Genoese variety of Ligurian.
In one of his writings, he says he went to sea at the age of 10, in 1470, the Columbus family moved to Savona, where Domenico took over a tavern. In the same year, Christopher was on a Genoese ship hired in the service of René of Anjou to support his attempt to conquer the Kingdom of Naples. Some modern historians have argued that he was not from Genoa but and these competing hypotheses have generally been discounted by mainstream scholars. In 1473, Columbus began his apprenticeship as business agent for the important Centurione, Di Negro, later, he allegedly made a trip to Chios, an Aegean island ruled by Genoa. In May 1476, he took part in a convoy sent by Genoa to carry valuable cargo to northern Europe
Alexander Hamilton was an American statesman and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. As the first Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton was the author of the economic policies of the George Washington administration. He took the lead in the funding of the debts by the Federal government, as well as the establishment of a national bank, a system of tariffs. His vision included a central government led by a vigorous executive branch. This was challenged by Virginia agrarians Thomas Jefferson and James Madison who formed a rival party and they favored strong states based in rural America and protected by state militias as opposed to a strong national army and navy. They denounced Hamilton as too friendly toward Britain and toward monarchy in general, Hamilton was born out of wedlock in Charlestown, to a married mother of British and French Huguenot ancestry and a Scottish father. His father, James A. Hamilton, was the son of laird Alexander Hamilton of Grange. Orphaned as a child by his mothers death and his fathers abandonment, Hamilton was taken in by an older cousin and he was recognized for his intelligence and talent, and sponsored by a group of wealthy local men to travel to New York City to pursue his education.
Hamilton attended Kings College, choosing to stay in the Thirteen Colonies to seek his fortune, discontinuing his studies before graduating when the college closed its doors during British occupation of the city, Hamilton played a major role in the American Revolutionary War. At the start of the war in 1775, he joined a militia company, in early 1776, he raised a provincial artillery company, to which he was appointed captain. He soon became the aide to General Washington, the American forces commander-in-chief. Hamilton was dispatched by Washington on numerous missions to convey plans to his generals, after the war, Hamilton was elected as a representative to the Congress of the Confederation from New York. He resigned to practice law, and founded the Bank of New York, Hamilton was among those dissatisfied with the weak national government. He led the Annapolis Convention, which successfully influenced Congress to issue a call for the Philadelphia Convention in order to create a new constitution, Hamilton became the leading cabinet member in the new government under President Washington.
These programs were funded primarily by a tariff on imports, to overcome localism, Hamilton mobilized a nationwide network of friends of the government, especially bankers and businessmen, which became the Federalist Party. A major issue in the emergence of the American two-party system was the Jay Treaty and it established friendly trade relations with Britain, to the chagrin of France and the supporters of the French Revolution. Hamilton played a role in the Federalist party, which dominated national. In 1795, he returned to the practice of law in New York and he tried to control the policies of President Adams
Romanization of Japanese
The romanization of Japanese is the application of the Latin script to write the Japanese language. This method of writing is referred to in English as rōmaji. There are several different romanization systems, the three main ones are Hepburn romanization, Kunrei-shiki romanization, and Nihon-shiki romanization. Variants of the Hepburn system are the most widely used, Japanese is normally written in a combination of logographic characters borrowed from Chinese and syllabic scripts which ultimately derive from Chinese characters. It is used to transliterate Japanese terms in text written in English on topics related to Japan, such as linguistics, literature and culture. Rōmaji is the most common way to input Japanese into word processors and computers, all Japanese who have attended elementary school since World War II have been taught to read and write romanized Japanese. The word rōmaji literally means Roman letters, and in Japan it is often used to refer to the Latin alphabet itself than to any specific form of romanized Japanese.
The earliest Japanese romanization system was based on the Portuguese orthography and it was developed around 1548 by a Japanese Catholic named Yajiro. Jesuit priests used the system in a series of printed Catholic books so that missionaries could preach and teach their converts without learning to read Japanese orthography. The most useful of these books for the study of early modern Japanese pronunciation and early attempts at romanization was the Nippo jisho, in general, the early Portuguese system was similar to Nihon-shiki in its treatment of vowels. The latter continued to be printed and read after the suppression of Christianity in Japan, the Hepburn system included representation of some sounds that have since changed. The Nihon-shiki romanization was an outgrowth of that movement, several Japanese texts were published entirely in rōmaji during this period, but it failed to catch on. Today, the use of Nihon-shiki for writing Japanese is advocated by the Oomoto sect, during the Allied occupation of Japan, the government of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers made it official policy to romanize Japanese.
However, that failed and a more moderate attempt at Japanese script reform followed. Hepburn romanization generally follows English phonology with Romance vowels and it is an intuitive method of showing Anglophones the pronunciation of a word in Japanese. It was standardized in the USA as American National Standard System for the Romanization of Japanese, Hepburn is the most common romanization system in use today, especially in the English-speaking world. The Revised Hepburn system of romanization uses a macron to indicate long vowels. For example, the name じゅんいちろう, is written with the kana characters ju-n-i-chi-ro-u, without the apostrophe, it would not be possible to distinguish this correct reading from the incorrect ju-ni-chi-ro-u
Articles of Confederation
Its drafting by a committee appointed by the Second Continental Congress began on July 12,1776, and an approved version was sent to the states for ratification on November 15,1777. The Articles of Confederation came into force on March 1,1781, a guiding principle of the Articles was to preserve the independence and sovereignty of the states. The federal government received only those powers which the colonies had recognized as belonging to king, the Articles formed a war-time confederation of states, with an extremely limited central government. Actually the adoption of the Articles made no change in the federal government. That body was now taken over as the Congress of the Confederation, as the governments weaknesses became apparent, especially after Shays Rebellion, individuals began asking for changes to the Articles. Their hope was to create a national government. Initially, some states met to deal with their trade and economic problems, however, as more states became interested in meeting to change the Articles, a meeting was set in Philadelphia on May 25,1787.
It was quickly realized that changes would not work, and instead the entire Articles needed to be replaced, on March 4,1789, the general government under the Articles was replaced with the federal government under the Constitution. The new Constitution provided for a stronger federal government by establishing a chief executive, courts. The Articles of Confederation would bear some resemblance to it, over the next two decades, some of the basic concepts it addressed would strengthen and others would weaken, particularly the degree of deserved loyalty to the crown. It was an era of constitution writing—most states were busy at the task—and leaders felt the new nation must have a written constitution, during the war, Congress exercised an unprecedented level of political, diplomatic and economic authority. It adopted trade restrictions and maintained an army, issued fiat money, created a military code, to transform themselves from outlaws into a legitimate nation, the colonists needed international recognition for their cause and foreign allies to support it.
The monarchies of France and Spain in particular could not be expected to aid those they considered rebels against another legitimate monarch, foreign courts needed to have American grievances laid before them persuasively in a “manifesto” which could reassure them that the Americans would be reliable trading partners. Without such a declaration, Paine concluded, “he custom of all courts is against us, Congress created three overlapping committees to draft the Declaration, a Model Treaty, and the Articles of Confederation. The committee met repeatedly, and chairman John Dickinson presented their results to the Congress on July 12,1776, there were long debates on such issues as sovereignty, the exact powers to be given the confederate government, whether to have a judiciary, and voting procedures. Under the Articles, the states retained sovereignty over all governmental functions not specifically relinquished to the national government, the individual articles set the rules for current and future operations of the United States government.
Article XIII stipulated that their provisions shall be observed by every state. John Dickinsons and Benjamin Franklins handwritten drafts of the Articles of Confederation are housed at the National Archives in Washington, after the war, especially those who had been active in the Continental Army, complained that the Articles were too weak for an effective government
Royal Spanish Academy
The Real Academia Española, generally abbreviated as RAE, is the official royal institution responsible for overseeing the Spanish language. It is based in Madrid, but is affiliated with national language academies in twenty-one other hispanophone nations through the Association of Spanish Language Academies, the proposed language guidelines are shown in a number of works. The priorities are the Diccionario de la lengua española de la Real Academia Española, edited periodically twenty-three times since 1780, the Academy has a formal procedure for admitting words to its publications. The headquarters, opened in 1894, is located at Calle Felipe IV,4, in the ward of Jerónimos, the Center for the Studies of the Royal Spanish Academy, opened in 2007, is located at Calle Serrano 187–189. King Philip V approved its constitution on 3 October 1714, placing it under the Crowns protection, the RAE began establishing rules for the orthography of Spanish beginning in 1741 with the first edition of the Ortographía.
The proposals of the Academy became the norm in Spain by royal decree in 1844. The current rules and practical recommendations are presented in the latest edition of the Ortografía. In 1994, the RAE ruled that the Spanish consonants CH and LL would hence be alphabetized under C and under L, the Números are elected for life by the other academicians. Each academician holds a seat labeled with a letter from the Spanish alphabet, upper-, joint publications of the RAE and the Association of Spanish Language Academies Diccionario de la lengua española. The first edition is in public domain, the Diccionario esencial de la lengua española was published in 2006 as a shortened work to span between the 22nd and 23rd editions. The edition of 1999 was the first spelling book to cover the whole Hispanic world, the first edition is in public domain. Nueva gramática de la lengua española, the latest edition is the first grammar to cover the whole Hispanic world, replacing the prior Gramática de la lengua española and the Esbozo de una Nueva gramática de la lengua española.
The first edition is in public domain, the Gramática básica is a 250-page pocket reference intended for school use, to be published in late 2010. The RAE has published two works by individual editors, Gramática de la lengua española and Gramática descriptiva de la lengua española. Resolves doubts related to the use of the Spanish language, replaces the Diccionario escolar de la RAE. Diccionario práctico del estudiante is a version for Latin America
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
The Federalist Papers
The Federalist is a collection of 85 articles and essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay promoting the ratification of the United States Constitution. Seventy-seven were published serially in the Independent Journal and the New York Packet between October 1787 and August 1788. and A. McLean, the collections original title was The Federalist, the title The Federalist Papers did not emerge until the 20th century. Though the authors of The Federalist Papers foremost wished to influence the vote in favor of ratifying the Constitution,78, written by Hamilton, lays the groundwork for the doctrine of judicial review by federal courts of federal legislation or executive acts. Federalist No.70 presents Hamiltons case for a chief executive. 39, Madison presents the clearest exposition of what has come to be called Federalism,51, Madison distils arguments for checks and balances in an essay often quoted for its justification of government as the greatest of all reflections on human nature.
Morris, they are an incomparable exposition of the Constitution, a classic in political science unsurpassed in breadth and depth by the product of any American writer. The Federal Convention sent the proposed Constitution to the Confederation Congress, on September 27,1787, Cato first appeared in the New York press criticising the proposition, Brutus followed on October 18,1787. These and other articles and public letters critical of the new Constitution would eventually become known as the Anti-Federalist Papers, in response, Hamilton decided to launch a measured defense and extensive explanation of the proposed Constitution to the people of the state of New York. Hamilton recruited collaborators for the project and he enlisted John Jay, who after four strong essays, fell ill and contributed only one more essay, Federalist No. He distilled his case into a pamphlet in the spring of 1788, An Address to the People of the State of New-York, Hamilton cited it approvingly in Federalist No.85. James Madison, present in New York as a Virginia delegate to the Confederation Congress, was recruited by Hamilton and Jay, gouverneur Morris and William Duer were apparently considered, Morris turned down the invitation, and Hamilton rejected three essays written by Duer.
Duer wrote in support of the three Federalist authors under the name Philo-Publius, or Friend of Publius, Hamilton chose Publius as the pseudonym under which the series would be written. While many other pieces representing both sides of the debate were written under Roman names, Albert Furtwangler contends that Publius was a cut above Caesar or Brutus or even Cato. Publius Valerius was not a defender of the republic but one of its founders. His more famous name, meant friend of the people and it was not the first time Hamilton had used this pseudonym, in 1778, he had applied it to three letters attacking fellow Federalist Samuel Chase. Chases patriotism was questioned when Hamilton revealed that Chase had taken advantage of knowledge gained in Congress to try to dominate the flour market. At the time of publication the authorship of the articles was a guarded secret, though astute observers discerned the identities of Hamilton, Madison. Following Hamiltons death in 1804, a list that he had drafted claiming fully two-thirds of the papers for himself became public, including some that seemed more likely the work of Madison
United States nationality law
Article I, section 8, clause 4 of the United States Constitution expressly gives the United States Congress the power to establish a uniform rule of naturalization. The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 sets forth the requirements for the acquisition of. Felons can vote in over 40 states, and in at least 2 while incarcerated, felons can serve jury duty if approved. Some U. S. citizens have the obligation to serve in a jury, if selected, citizens are required to pay taxes on their total income from all sources worldwide, including income earned abroad while living abroad. U. S. taxes payable may be reduced by credits for foreign income taxes regardless of the length of stay abroad. The United States Government insists that U. S. citizens travel into and out of the United States on a U. S. passport, regardless of any other nationality they may possess. Male U. S. citizens from 18–25 years of age are required to register with the Selective Service System at age 18 for possible conscription into the armed forces.
Although no one has been drafted in the U. S. since 1973, armed Forces, and will perform work of national importance under civilian direction. In some cases, the USCIS allows the oath to be taken without the clauses regarding the first two of these three sworn commitments, there are various ways a person can acquire United States citizenship, either at birth or on in life. In the case of United States v. Wong Kim Ark,169 U. S, as of 2015, the United States includes all inhabited territories except American Samoa and Swains Island. INA301 and INA301 state, and one of whom has had a residence, the FAM states no amount of time specified. A persons record of birth abroad, if registered with a U. S. consulate or embassy, is proof of citizenship and they may apply for a passport or a Certificate of Citizenship as proof of citizenship. A person born on or after November 14,1986, is a U. S. citizen if all of the following are true, a persons record of birth abroad, if registered with a U. S. consulate or embassy, is proof of citizenship.
Such a person may apply for a passport or a Certificate of Citizenship to have a record of citizenship. Such documentation is often useful to prove citizenship in lieu of the availability of an American birth certificate, different rules apply for persons born abroad to one U. S. citizen before November 14,1986. United States law on this subject changed multiple times throughout the century. A person who was not born a U. S. citizen may acquire U. S. citizenship through a known as naturalization. Also during those 60 months if the permanent resident was outside of the U. S. for a continuous period of 6 months or more they are disqualified from naturalizing
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that was first spoken in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. Arabic is the language of 1.7 billion Muslims. It is one of six languages of the United Nations. The modern written language is derived from the language of the Quran and it is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, which is the language of 26 states. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the standards of Quranic Arabic. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-Quranic era, Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics. As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Many words of Arabic origin are found in ancient languages like Latin.
Balkan languages, including Greek, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has borrowed words from languages including Greek and Persian in medieval times. Arabic is a Central Semitic language, closely related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages, particularly in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include, The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense, the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense. The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms, the development of an internal passive. These features are evidence of descent from a hypothetical ancestor. In the southwest, various Central Semitic languages both belonging to and outside of the Ancient South Arabian family were spoken and it is believed that the ancestors of the Modern South Arabian languages were spoken in southern Arabia at this time.
To the north, in the oases of northern Hijaz and Taymanitic held some prestige as inscriptional languages, in Najd and parts of western Arabia, a language known to scholars as Thamudic C is attested
James Madison, Jr. was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fourth President of the United States from 1809 to 1817. He is hailed as the Father of the Constitution for his role in drafting and promoting the United States Constitution. Madison inherited his plantation Montpelier in Virginia and therewith owned hundreds of slaves during his lifetime and he served as both a member of the Virginia House of Delegates and as a member of the Continental Congress prior to the Constitutional Convention. After the Convention, he one of the leaders in the movement to ratify the Constitution. His collaboration with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay produced The Federalist Papers, Madisons political views changed throughout his life. During deliberations on the Constitution, he favored a national government. In 1789, Madison became a leader in the new House of Representatives and he is noted for drafting the first ten amendments to the Constitution, and thus is known as the Father of the Bill of Rights.
He worked closely with President George Washington to organize the new federal government, breaking with Hamilton and the Federalist Party in 1791, he and Thomas Jefferson organized the Democratic-Republican Party. In response to the Alien and Sedition Acts and Madison drafted the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, as Jeffersons Secretary of State, Madison supervised the Louisiana Purchase, which doubled the nations size. Madison succeeded Jefferson as president in 1809, was re-elected in 1813, after the failure of diplomatic protests and a trade embargo against the United Kingdom, he led the U. S. into the War of 1812. The war was a morass, as the United States had neither a strong army nor financial system. As a result, Madison afterward supported a national government and military, as well as the national bank. Madison has been ranked in the aggregate by historians as the ninth most successful president, James Madison, Jr. was born on March 16,1751, at Belle Grove Plantation near Port Conway, Virginia, to father James Madison, Sr.
and mother Nelly Conway Madison. He grew up as the oldest of twelve children and James Sr. had seven more boys and four girls. Three of James Jr. s brothers died as infants, including one who was stillborn, in the summer of 1775, his sister Elizabeth and his brother Reuben died from a dysentery epidemic that swept through Orange County because of contaminated water. His father, James Madison, Sr. was a planter who grew up on a plantation, called Mount Pleasant. He acquired more property and slaves, and with 5,000 acres, he became the largest landowner, James Jr. s mother, Nelly Conway Madison, was born at Port Conway, the daughter of a prominent planter and tobacco merchant. In these years, the colonies were becoming a slave society, in which slave labor powered the economy
Usonia was a word used by American architect Frank Lloyd Wright to refer to his vision for the landscape of the United States, including the planning of cities and the architecture of buildings. Usonian is a term referring to a group of approximately sixty middle-income family homes designed by Frank Lloyd Wright beginning in 1936 with the Jacobs House. The Usonian Homes are typically small, single-story dwellings without a garage or much storage and they are often L-shaped to fit around a garden terrace on unusual and inexpensive sites. A strong visual connection between the interior and exterior spaces is an important characteristic of all Usonian homes, the word carport was coined by Wright to describe an overhang for sheltering a parked vehicle. The Usonia Historic District is a community in Pleasantville, New York built in the 1950s following this concept. Wright designed 3 of the 47 homes himself, variants of the Jacobs House design are still in existence today. The Usonian design is considered among the origins of the ranch-style house popular in the American west of the 1950s.
In 2013, Florida Southern College constructed the 13th Wright building on their campus according to plans that he created in 1939, the 1,700 sq. ft. Named the Usonian House, it was originally designed as one of twenty faculty housing units. The building is home to the Sharp Family Tourism and Education Center, the word Usonian appears to have been coined by James Duff Law, an American writer born in 1865. He went on to acknowledge that some author had proposed Usona, perhaps the earliest published use by Wright was in 1927, But why this term America has become representative as the name of these United States at home and abroad is past recall. Samuel Butler fitted us with a good name and he called us Usonians, and our Nation of combined States, Usonia. –Frank Lloyd Wright on Architecture, Selected Writings 1894–1940, p.100, this seems to be a misattribution, as there is as yet no published evidence that Butler ever used the word. It has become the name for the United States in Esperanto. The creator of Esperanto, L. L.
Zamenhof, used Usono in his speech at the 1910 World Congress of Esperanto in Washington, D. C. coincidentally the same year Wright was in Europe. Zamenhofs aprobo José F. Buscaglia-Salgado reclaims the term Usonian to refer to the peoples, national ideology, miguel Torres-Castro uses the term Usonian to refer to the origin of the Atlantic Puffin bird used in the childrens book Jupu the Puffin, A Usonian Story. The bird is a puffin from Maine, USA