The Age is a daily newspaper, published in Melbourne, since 1854. Owned and published by Nine, The Age serves Victoria but is available for purchase in Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and border regions of South Australia and southern New South Wales, it is delivered in both hardcopy and online formats. The newspaper shares many articles with other Fairfax Media metropolitan daily newspapers, such as The Sydney Morning Herald; as at February 2017, The Age had an average weekday circulation of 88,000, increasing to 152,000 on Saturdays. The Sunday Age had a circulation of 123,000; these represented year-on-year declines of somewhere from 8% to 9%. The Age's website, according to third-party web analytics providers Alexa and SimilarWeb, is the 44th and 58th most visited website in Australia as of July 2015. SimilarWeb rates the site as the seventh most visited news website in Australia, attracting more than 7 million visitors per month; the Age was founded by three Melbourne businessmen, the brothers John and Henry Cooke, who had arrived from New Zealand in the 1840s, Walter Powell.
The first edition appeared on 17 October 1854. The venture was not a success, in June 1856 the Cookes sold the paper to Ebenezer Syme, a Scottish-born businessman, James McEwan, an ironmonger and founder of McEwans & Co, for 2,000 pounds at auction; the first edition under the new owners was on 17 June 1856. From its foundation the paper was self-consciously liberal in its politics: "aiming at a wide extension of the rights of free citizenship and a full development of representative institutions," and supporting "the removal of all restrictions upon freedom of commerce, freedom of religion and—to the utmost extent, compatible with public morality—upon freedom of personal action."Ebenezer Syme was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly shortly after buying The Age, his brother David Syme soon came to dominate the paper and managerially. When Ebenezer died in 1860, David became editor-in-chief, a position he retained until his death in 1908, although a succession of editors did the day-to-day editorial work.
In 1891, Syme bought out Ebenezer's heirs and McEwan's and became sole proprietor. He built up The Age into Victoria's leading newspaper. In circulation, it soon overtook its rivals The Herald and The Argus, by 1890 it was selling 100,000 copies a day, making it one of the world's most successful newspapers. Under Syme's control The Age exercised enormous political power in Victoria, it supported liberal politicians such as Graham Berry, George Higinbotham and George Turner, other leading liberals such as Alfred Deakin and Charles Pearson furthered their careers as The Age journalists. Syme was a free trader, but converted to protectionism through his belief that Victoria needed to develop its manufacturing industries behind tariff barriers. In the 1890s, The Age was a leading supporter of Australian federation and of the White Australia policy. After Syme's death the paper remained in the hands of his three sons, with his eldest son Herbert Syme becoming general manager until his death in 1939.
Syme's will prevented the sale of any equity in the paper during his sons' lifetimes, an arrangement designed to protect family control but which had the effect of starving the paper of investment capital for 40 years. Under the management of Sir Geoffrey Syme, his chosen editors Gottlieb Schuler and Harold Campbell, The Age failed to modernise, lost market share to The Argus and to the tabloid The Sun News-Pictorial, although its classified advertisement sections kept the paper profitable. By the 1940s, the paper's circulation was smaller than it had been in 1900, its political influence declined. Although it remained more liberal than the conservative Argus, it lost much of its distinct political identity; the historian Sybil Nolan writes: "Accounts of The Age in these years suggest that the paper was second-rate, outdated in both its outlook and appearance. Walker described a newspaper which had fallen asleep in the embrace of the Liberal Party, it is criticised not only for its increasing conservatism, but for its failure to keep pace with innovations in layout and editorial technique so demonstrated in papers like The Sun News-Pictorial and The Herald."
In 1942, David Syme's last surviving son, Oswald Syme, took over the paper. He modernised the paper's appearance and standards of news coverage. In 1948, convinced the paper needed outside capital, he persuaded the courts to overturn his father's will and floated David Syme and Co. as a public company, selling 400,000 pounds worth of shares, enabling a badly needed technical modernisation of the newspaper's production. A takeover attempt by the Warwick Fairfax family, publishers of The Sydney Morning Herald, was beaten off; this new lease on life allowed The Age to recover commercially, in 1957 it received a great boost when The Argus ceased publication. Oswald Syme retired in 1964, his grandson Ranald Macdonald became chairman of the company, he was the first chairman to hand over full control of the paper to a professional editor from outside the Syme family. This was Graham Perkin, appointed in 1966, who radically changed the paper's format and shifted its editorial line from the rather conservative liberalism of the Symes to a new "left liberalism" characterised by attention to issues such as race and the environment, opposition to White Australia and the death penalty.
It became more s
Joseph Benedict Chifley was an Australian politician who served as the 16th Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 1945 to 1949. He was leader of the Labor Party from 1945 until his death. Chifley was born in New South Wales, he joined the state railways after leaving school qualifying as an engine driver. He was prominent in the trade union movement before entering politics, was a director of The National Advocate. After several previous unsuccessful candidacies, Chifley was elected to parliament in 1928. In 1931, he was appointed Minister for Defence in the government of James Scullin, he served in cabinet for less than a year before losing his seat at the 1931 election, which saw the government suffer a landslide defeat. After his electoral defeat, Chifley remained involved in politics as a party official, siding with the federal Labor leadership against the Lang Labor faction, he served on a royal commission into the banking system in 1935, in 1940 became a senior public servant in the Department of Munitions.
Chifley was re-elected to parliament that year, on his third attempt since 1931. He was appointed Treasurer in the new Curtin Government in 1941, as one of the few Labor MPs with previous ministerial experience; the following year Chifley was additionally made Minister for Postwar Reconstruction, making him one of the most powerful members of the government. He became prime minister following Curtin's death in office in 1945, defeating caretaker prime minister Frank Forde in a leadership ballot. At the 1946 election, Chifley was re-elected with a reduced majority – the first time that an incumbent Labor government had won re-election; the war had ended a month after he took office, over the following four years his government embarked on an ambitious program of social reforms and nation-building schemes. These included the expansion of the welfare state, a large-scale immigration program, the establishment of the Australian National University, ASIO, the Snowy Mountains Scheme; some of the new legislation was challenged in the High Court, as a result the constitution was amended to give the federal government extended powers over social services.
Some of Chifley's more interventionist economic policies were poorly received by Australian business an attempt to nationalise banks. His government was defeated at the 1949 election, which brought Robert Menzies' Liberal Party to power for the first time, he stayed on as Leader of the Opposition until his death, which came a few months after the 1951 election. For his contributions to post-war prosperity, Chifley is regarded as one of Australia's greatest prime ministers, he is held in high regard by the Labor Party, with his "light on the hill" speech seen as seminal in both the history of the party and the broader Australian labour movement. Joseph Benedict Chifley was born at 29 Havannah Street, New South Wales, on 22 September 1885, he was the first of three sons born to Mary Anne and Patrick Chifley II. His father – a blacksmith – was born in Bathurst to Irish immigrants from County Tipperary, while his mother was born in County Fermanagh, in present-day Northern Ireland. At the age of five, Chifley was sent to live with his widowed grandfather, Patrick Chifley I, who had a small farm at Limekilns.
An aunt, Mary Bridget Chifley, kept house for them. Chifley began his education at the local state school, known as a "half-time school" due to it being too small to offer daily classes, he moved back to his parents' home at the age of 13, following his grandfather's death in January 1899, attended a Patrician Brothers school for about two years. He was a voracious reader from a young age, would supplement his limited formal education by attending classes at night schools or mechanics' institutes. After leaving school, Chifley's first job was as a cashier's assistant at a local department store, he worked at a tannery for a period, in September 1903 joined the New South Wales Government Railways as a "shop boy" at the Bathurst locomotive shed. Over the following decade, he was promoted through the ranks to engine-cleaner and fireman, finally in March 1914 to engine-driver; the position of driver was considered prestigious, Chifley had to sit various examinations before being certified. He developed an intimate technical understanding of his locomotives, became a lecturer and instructor at the Bathurst Railway Institute.
Chifley drove both goods passenger trains. He was based in Bathurst and worked on the Main Western line, except for a few months in 1914 when he drove on the Main Southern line and worked out of Harden. Chifley became involved with the labour movement as a member of the Locomotive Enginemen's Association, he never held executive office, preferring to work as an organiser, but did serve as a divisional delegate to state and federal conferences. He developed a reputation for compromise, maintaining good relations with both the railway management and the more militant sections of the union. However, Chifley was one of the local leaders of the 1917 general strike, as a result was dismissed from the railway, he and most of the other strikers were reinstated, but lost seniority and related privileges. Despite repeated lobbying, their pre-1917 benefits were not restored until 1925. After the strike, the state government of William Holman de-registered their union, placing it at a severe disadvantage against other railway unions.
Chifley worked to secure its re-registration, which occurred in 1921, and
The Argus (Melbourne)
The Argus was a morning daily newspaper in Melbourne, Australia, established in 1846 and closed in 1957. It was considered to be the general Australian newspaper of record for this period. Known as a conservative newspaper for most of its history, it adopted a left-leaning approach from 1949; the Argus's main competitor was The Age. The newspaper was owned by William Kerr, a journalist who had worked with The Sydney Gazette before moving to Melbourne in 1839 to work on John Pascoe Fawkner's newspaper, the Port Phillip Patriot; the first edition was published on 2 June 1846, with the paper soon known for its scurrilous abuse and sarcasm, such that by 1853, Kerr had lost ownership after a series of libel suits. The paper was published under the name of Edward Wilson. By the 1880s, Richard Twopeny regarded it as "the best daily paper published out of England." The paper become a stablemate to the weekly, The Australasian, to become The Australasian Post in 1946. During the Depression in 1933, it launched the Melbourne Evening Star in competition with The Herald newspaper of The Herald and Weekly Times Ltd, but was forced to close the venture in 1936.
In 1949 the paper was acquired by the London-based Daily Mirror newspaper group. On 28 July 1952, The Argus became the first newspaper in the world to publish colour photographs in a daily paper; the paper had interests in radio and, in 1956, the new medium of television, being part of the consortium General Telecasters Victoria and its television station GTV-9. The company's newspaper operation experienced a severe loss of profitability in the 1950s, attributable to increased costs of newsprint and acute competition for newspaper circulation in Melbourne. In 1957, the paper was discontinued and sold to the Herald and Weekly Times group, which undertook to re-employ Argus staff and continue publication of selected features, HWT made an allocation of shares to the UK owners; the final edition was published on 19 January 1957. The company's other print and broadcasting operations were unaffected; the takeover of The Argus by the powerful Mirror Group, of Fleet Street, led to hopes of a renaissance for The Argus.
Fresh capital, new ideas, new strategies from London. But instead, the new arrivals from England finished up destroying their new possession. Frederick William Haddon – Argus sub-editor in 1863, editor 1867–1898 Edward Wilson Andrew Murray, editor in 1855 and 1856 Howard Willoughby Julian Howard Ashton, journalist and critic Roy Curthoys, editor 1929–1935 List of newspapers in Australia Argus Building Argus finals system, a series of systems for determining the Premiers of the Victorian Football League and other Australian rules football competitions in the early 20th century Australasian Sketcher with Pen and Pencil Don Hauser, The Printers of the Streets and Lanes Of Melbourne Nondescript Press, Melbourne 2006 Jim Usher The Argus – life and death of a newspaper Australian Scholarly Publishing, Melbourne 2008 The Melbourne Argus at Trove The Argus at Trove The Argus: Special War Edition – 1 May 1915 Digitised World War I Victorian newspapers from the State Library of Victoria
Melbourne Football Club
The Melbourne Football Club, nicknamed the Demons, is a professional Australian rules football club, playing in the Australian Football League. It is named after and based in the city of Melbourne and plays its home games at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. Melbourne is the world's oldest professional club of any football code; the club's origins can be traced to an 1858 letter in which Tom Wills, captain of the Victoria cricket team, calls for the formation of a "foot-ball club" with its own "code of laws". An informal Melbourne team played that winter and was formed in May 1859 when Wills and three other members codified "The Rules of the Melbourne Football Club"—the basis of Australian rules football; the club was a dominant force in the earliest Australian rules football competition, the Challenge Cup, was a foundation member of the Victorian Football Association in 1877 and the Victorian Football League in 1896, which became the national Australian Football League. Melbourne has won 12 VFL/AFL premierships, the latest in 1964.
The club celebrated its 150th anniversary in 2008 by naming "150 Heroes" as well as creating a birthday logo which appeared on its official guernsey. The football club has been a sporting section of the Melbourne Cricket Club since 2009, having been associated with the MCC between 1889 and 1980. In the winter and spring of 1858, a loosely organised football team known as Melbourne played in a series of scratch matches in the parklands outside the Melbourne Cricket Ground; this team was captained by Tom Wills, a prominent athlete and captain of the Victoria cricket team, who, on 10 July that year, had a letter of his published by the Melbourne-based Bell's Life in Victoria and Sporting Chronicle, in which he calls for the formation of a "foot-ball club" with a "code of laws" to keep cricketers fit during winter. Other figures associated with this embryonic Melbourne side include cricketers Jerry Bryant, William Hammersley and J. B. Thompson, teacher Thomas H. Smith. During meetings held on 17 and 21 May 1859, Hammersley and Smith met near the MCG at the Parade Hotel, owned by Bryant, to draft "The Rules of the Melbourne Football Club".
The resulting ten codified rules are the laws. The first mention of an interclub match played under the new code was between Melbourne and South Yarra in July 1859, with Hammersley as Melbourne's inaugural captain. In 1861, Melbourne participated in the Caledonian Society's Challenge Cup, but lost the trophy to the Melbourne University Football Club; the club pushed for its rules to be the accepted rules, however many of the early suburban matches were played under compromised rules decided between the captains of the competing clubs. Although some Melbourne players and officials were associated with the cricket club, the football club was not allowed to use the MCG, so it used a nearby field at Yarra Park as its home ground instead. By 1866 several other clubs had adopted an updated version of Melbourne's rules, drafted at a meeting chaired by Wills' cousin, H. C. A. Harrison. Harrison was a key figure in the early years of the club. Due to his popular reputation and administrative efforts, he was named "Father of Australian Football" in 1908, the year of the sport's golden jubilee.
During the 1870s, Melbourne fielded teams in the Seven South Yarra Cup competitions. After a visit to England by one of the club's officials, the colours of red and green were adopted by the club. Shortly afterward, the club began wearing a predominantly red strip and became informally known by supporters as the "Redlegs"; the name "Redlegs" was coined after a Melbourne official returned from a trip to England with one set of red and another of blue woollen socks. Melbourne wore the red set while the blue set was given to the Carlton Football Club; this may be the source of Carlton's nickname,'The Blueboys'. In 1877, the club became a foundation member of the Victorian Football Association. During the same year the club took part in the first interstate football match involving a South Australian side, defeating the home side 1-0. During this time, the club was known as the "Fuchsias". Melbourne never won a VFA premiership, although they were one of the stronger teams in the competition, finishing runner-up four times, to Carlton in 1877, to Geelong in 1878 and twice to Essendon in 1893 and 1894.
In 1889, the MFC was reincorporated into the MCC, for many years the two organisations remained unhappily linked. The MFC's close association with the MCC allowed it to claim the MCG as its home ground and gave it access to a wealthy membership base, but Melbourne's reputation as an "establishment" club was not always an advantage. MCC members have the automatic right to attend all events at the ground, including MFC football games; this meant many potential members had a reduced incentive to join the football club, Melbourne's membership remained one of the lowest in the competition. In 1897, the MFC was part of the breakaway Victorian Football League, has been a part of the competition since; the team became known as the "Redlegs". This nickname is still used by some members and supporter groups within the club. In 1900 Melbourne won its first VFL premiership. Melbourne's greatest player of these early years of the VFL was Ivor Warne-Smith, who in 1926 won the club's first Brownlow Medal, the League's annual award for the fairest and best player.
In that year Melbourne won its second flag. Warne-Smith went on to win a second Brownlow in 1928. Frank'Checker' Hughes became Melbourne's coach in 1933, a
Dame Enid Muriel Lyons was an Australian politician, the first woman elected to the House of Representatives and the first woman to serve in federal cabinet. Prior to her own political career, she was best known as the wife of Joseph Lyons, Prime Minister of Australia and Premier of Tasmania. Lyons was born in Tasmania, she grew up in various small towns in northern Tasmania, trained as a schoolteacher. At the age of 17, she married politician Joseph Lyons, 18 years her senior, they would have twelve children together. As her husband's career progressed, Lyons began assisting him in campaigning and developed a reputation as a talented public speaker. In 1925, she became one of the first two women to stand for the Labor Party at a Tasmanian state election, she followed her husband into the new United Australia Party following the Labor split of 1931. After her husband became prime minister in 1932, Lyons began living at The Lodge in Canberra, she was one of the best-known prime minister's wives, writing newspaper articles, making radio broadcasts, giving open-air speeches.
Her husband's sudden death in office in 1939 came as a great shock, she withdrew from public life for a time. At the 1943 federal election, Lyons stood for the UAP in the Division of Darwin, she and Senator Dorothy Tangney became the first two women elected to federal parliament. Lyons joined the new Liberal Party in 1945, served as Vice-President of the Executive Council in the Menzies Government from 1949 to 1951 – the first woman in cabinet, she retired from parliament after three terms, but remained involved in public life as a board member of the Australian Broadcasting Commission and as a social commentator. Lyons was born Enid Muriel Burnell in Smithton, one of three daughters of William and Eliza Burnell, she was educated at the Burnie State School, went on to the Teacher's Training College, Hobart, to train as a school teacher. Her mother was an activist in Labor and community groups in Tasmania, was one of the first women appointed as a Justice of the Peace in Tasmania. Eliza Burnell introduced her 15-year-old daughter to Joseph Lyons, a rising Tasmanian Labor politician.
On 28 April 1915, the two married at Tasmania. Enid became, at Lyons' request, a Roman Catholic, they would have twelve children. In 1931 Joseph Lyons left the Labor Party and joined the United Australia Party, becoming prime minister at the subsequent election. Enid Lyons was made a Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire in the Coronation Honours of 1937. Joseph Lyons died in 1939, aged 59, the first Australian prime minister to die in office, Dame Enid returned to Tasmania, she bitterly resented Joseph Lyons's successor as leader of the UAP, Robert Menzies, who had, she believed, betrayed her husband by resigning from the cabinet shortly before Joseph's death. At the 1943 election Dame Enid Lyons narrowly won the Division of Darwin in north-western Tasmania for the UAP, becoming the first woman in the House of Representatives, her Labor opponent, who received more primary votes than she did, was the future Tasmanian Premier Eric Reece. At the same election, Dorothy Tangney was elected as a Labor Senator for Western Australia, the nation's first woman Senator.
In 1945 the UAP became the Liberal Party of Australia. On 23 August 1944, Lyons was one of four speakers in a debate on population which became the Australian Broadcasting Commission's "largest controversy during the war years" Lyons devoted a chapter to this Australian Broadcasting Corporation debate in her 1972 autobiography, calling it'one of the most disturbing experiences I was to know as a member of parliament', her fellow debaters were Jessie Street and the economist Colin Clark. By the time she was elected to parliament in her own right, there was little left of her Labor ties, her speeches in parliament espoused traditional views on the family and other social issues. In 1949 the Liberals came to power under Menzies' leadership; the frosty personal relations between Menzies and Dame Enid thawed when Menzies gave her the role of Vice-President of the Executive Council. This was a honorary post which gave her a seat in cabinet but no departmental duties, her health declined under the strain of regular travel between Canberra and Tasmania, she retired from parliament prior to the 1951 election.
In retirement, Dame Enid's health recovered. She was a newspaper columnist, a commissioner of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, remained active in public life promoting family and women's issues, she published three volumes of memoirs, which embarrassed the Liberal Party by reviving her complaints about Menzies' 1939 behaviour towards her husband. Lyons was made a Dame of the Order of Australia on Australia Day 1980, the second woman to receive this honour after Alexandra Hasluck, she was the first Australian woman to receive damehoods in different orders. She died the following year and was accorded a state funeral in Devonport, before being buried next to her husband at Mersey Vale Memorial Park. An informal political faction of the Liberal/National opposition parties called the Lyons Forum was formed in 1992; the group's name alluded to Lyons' maiden speech to the House of Representatives. The faction was considered to be defunct in 2004. Lyons first fell pregnant a few months after her marriage, but miscarried just after her 18th birthday.
She suffered a second miscarriage the following year, in her memoirs recoun
West Australian Football League
The West Australian Football League is an Australian rules football league based in Perth, Western Australia. The WAFL is the third-most popular league in the nation, behind the nationwide Australian Football League and South Australian National Football League; the league consists of nine teams, which play each other in a 24-round season lasting from March to September, with the top five teams playing off in a finals series, culminating in a Grand Final. The league runs reserves and colts competitions; the WAFL was founded in 1885 as the West Australian Football Association, has undergone a variety of name changes since re-adopting its current name in 2001. For most of its existence, the league was considered one of the traditional "big three" Australian rules football leagues, along with the Victorian Football League and South Australian National Football League. However, since the introduction of two Western Australia-based clubs into the VFL – the West Coast Eagles in 1987 and the Fremantle Football Club in 1995 – the popularity and standard of the league has decreased to the point where it is considered a feeder competition to the AFL.
Although payments are made to players, it is considered to be a semi-professional competition. A salary cap of A$200,000 per club is in place; the league is affiliated with the two Western Australia-based AFL clubs. Players who are not selected to play with their respective AFL clubs instead play for allocated clubs in the WAFL; the competition is governed by the West Australian Football Commission, based at Subiaco Oval. There are ten teams that compete in the WAFL: a Claremont played at the Claremont Showgrounds from 1925 to 1927 and again from 2014 until 2016 when Claremont Oval was closed for re-development, at Subiaco Oval from 1945 to 1947 when Claremont Oval was being rebuilt after a grandstand fire in 1944. B East Fremantle played at Fremantle Oval from 1898 to 1952, excluding a period in 1906 where home games were played at East Fremantle Oval. C East Perth played at Wellington Square from 1902 to 1909, at Perth Oval from 1910 to 1987 and from 1990 to 1999, at the WACA Ground during 1988 and 1989.
D Perth played at the WACA Ground from 1899 to 1958 and during 1987 and 1988. E Subiaco played at Shenton Park between 1901 and 1905, at Mueller Park in 1906 and 1907, at Subiaco Oval from 1908 to 2003. F West Perth played at Leederville Oval from 1915 to 1993. Ten other clubs competed in the competition: Fremantle Football Club was known as Unions Football Club from 1886 to 1889.a Up until the turn of the century, there were a limited number of grounds available for use by the clubs, with all clubs sharing the different grounds. As such, the Esplanade Park and Fremantle Park in Fremantle, the Old Recreation Ground and the New Recreation Ground in Perth were all used as "home" grounds by the above teams. B The High School withdrew from the competition due to lack of players two rounds into the inaugural season. C Rovers were a "wandering" team – they had no home ground, drew players from all over the metropolitan area. D West Australian Football Club merged with Victorians in 1889 to form the Metropolitan Football Club, which in turn became the West Perth Football Club.
The WAFL has a salary cap in place. In 2016 the Total Player Payments cap is $294,000 for the non-AFL aligned clubs, while the cap for East Perth and Peel Thunder is $191,100. In January 2015, the WAFL executive announced. Under the arrangement, Seven agreed to a three-year deal involving the telecast of 18 home and away matches as well as all Finals matches, broadcast throughout Western Australia; the WAFL match of the round was broadcast on ABC throughout Western Australia every Saturday afternoon during the regular home and away season. Matches were replayed nationwide on-demand from the ABC iView service and re-broadcast on the ABC2 channel early Friday morning at 2.30 am local time. Radio stations which cover the competition include 720 ABC Perth, ABC Grandstand Digital, 91.3 SportFM, 107.3 HFM and KIX Country Digital. Since 2015, the current major sponsor of the WAFL Premiership is Telecommunications Company Optus. Prior to that, AAMI were major sponsors of the league. Attendance at WAFL matches dropped when each of the two Western Australian based AFL teams entered the league.
In recent years, however the attendances have increased with 2009 recording the first combined annual attendance of more than 200,000 since 1994. A largest recent crowd was 24,638 at the 2010 WAFL Grand Final between Swan Districts and Claremont at Subiaco Oval; the all-time attendance record is 52,781 in 1979 for East Fremantle v South Fremantle at Subiaco Oval. Patrons at the WAFL pay at the gates; the following are the most recent attendance figures. Organised football in the Perth/Fremantle region of Western Australia dates back to 1881. Back though rugby union was the dominant football code, with only one senior club, "Unions", playing Australian Rules. In 1883 a second club, "Swans", but Australian Rules' growth remained much subdued compared to that of Victoria and South Australia. However, in those days many young men of Perth's wealthier families were educated in Adelaide, the capital of South Australia. On returning home from there they wished to play the sport they'd grown up with and no doubt exerted some influence on their less affluent peers as to such.
Coincidentally, the press at the time reported there was a growing dissatisfaction with rugby as a spectacle. During the 1880s, the discoveries of gold
Geography of Australian rules football
Australian rules football is a sport played in many countries around the world at amateur level only. In 2016, about 106,000 people played in structured competitions outside of Australia and at least 20 leagues that are recognised by the game's governing body, exist outside Australia. In 2007 there was a total of 34,845 players. In contrast, there are over 800,000 players in Australia. Australian rules football is played professionally by men and women in Australia and is a major spectator sport in Australia and Nauru. There have been several players in the VFL/AFL who were born outside Australia and since 1982, an increasing number of players have been recruited from outside Australia through initiatives such as the Irish experiment and more international scholarship programs. Despite the amateur competitions outside of Australia, no player from these competitions has yet debuted in the AFL Premiership Season; some have, featured in semi-professional competitions in Australia as well as in AFL pre-season practice matches.
The international growth of Australian rules in the 19th century and early 20th century was rapid, but it went into rapid decline following World War I. After World War II, the sport experienced a small amount of growth in the Pacific region in Nauru, Papua New Guinea and New Zealand. Australian Football emerged as an international sport much than other forms of football, such as soccer or rugby, but has grown as an amateur sport in some countries since the 1980s; the sport grew with the Australian diaspora, aided by multiculturalism and assisted by exhibition matches and players who have converted to and from other football codes. In Papua New Guinea, New Zealand, South Africa, the United States, there are many thousands of players. Canada, Japan and Sweden have shown strong potential in the sport in the lead up to the 2008 Australian Football International Cup; the AFL became the de facto international governing body for the sport when created the AFL International Development Committee and the IAFC was dissolved between 2002 and 2006.
Australian Football is played professionally by men, in Australia, is the dominant spectator sport, with the exception of exhibition games staged in other countries. The game is played in many countries, the Australian Football League and has more than 13 affiliated international governing bodies, AFL Canada, Danish Australian Football League, BARFL, AFL Japan, ARFLI, Nauru Australian Football Association, New Zealand AFL, USAFL, AFL South Africa, AFL PNG, AFL Samoa, Tonga Australian Football Association and AFL Germany; the league has working relationships with bodies in additional countries, who have sent, or may in future send, teams to the International Cup. In 2010, a European association of 18 Countries was founded which re-branded as AFL Europe; this association is affiliated to the Australian Football League, which funds the retention of a regional manager in Europe. Australian rules football traditionally has seen its greatest support in Western Australia, South Australia, Tasmania, the Northern Territory and the Riverina region of New South Wales.
Prior to the establishment of the AFL in 1990, leagues were state-specific, with the Victorian Football League beginning to expand prior to this point. Since becoming a national league, the AFL has continued its attempt to grow in the rest of Australia, with the success of teams in those areas helping to fuel interest in the game; as soon as the game was becoming established in Australia, it had spread to New Zealand and South Africa because of the Otago Gold Rush and Witwatersrand Gold Rush. The game was further fuelled in South Africa by Australian soldiers in the First and Second Boer Wars. There were reports of early competitions in England and Japan, started by expatriate Australians and servicemen. In New Zealand, where proximity to Australia saw a formidable league, the sport grew to a sizeable 115 clubs by the turn of the 20th century; as the game spread, it became known as Australasian Football, with delegates from New Zealand added to the newly formed Australasian Football Council.
In 1908, New Zealand defeated both New South Wales and Queensland at the Jubilee Australasian Football Carnival, an event held to celebrate 50 years of Australian Football. World War I saw the game being played by Australian servicemen around the world in Egypt, in Europe in France and England. Following the war, the game went into a sharp decline outside of Australia, with all international domestic competitions dying out. National teams and international competition in the sport became non-existent for three quarters of the 20th century; the return of many Australian expatriates from overseas gold fields and tours of duty, combined with Australia's low profile on the world stage, offered few opportunities for the game to grow during this time. With the withdrawal of its New Zealand delegates, the sport returned to the title of Australian Football, governed by the Australian Football Council. Concerned with the growth of their own domestic competitions, the Australian leagues and governing bodies made little effort to develop or promote the game until the 1950s, the council's role was to oversee the growing importance of interstate test matches.
The longest running fixture outside of Australia, the annual Varsity match between Oxford University Australian Rules Football Club and Cambridge University in England, has been held since 1921, has emerged into a fierce rivalry, worthy of half-blue status at Oxford. Apart from this match, however the game was rarel