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Names of large numbers

This article lists and discusses the usage and derivation of names of large numbers, together with their possible extensions. The following table lists those names of large numbers that are found in many English dictionaries and thus have a claim to being "real words." The "Traditional British" values shown are unused in American English and are obsolete in British English, but their other-language variants are dominant in many non-English-speaking areas, including continental Europe and Spanish-speaking countries in Latin America. Indian English does not use millions, but has its own system of large numbers including lakhs and crores. English has many words, such as "zillion", used informally to mean large but unspecified amounts. Apart from million, the words in this list ending with -illion are all derived by adding prefixes to the stem -illion. Centillion appears to be the highest name ending in -"illion", included in these dictionaries. Trigintillion cited as a word in discussions of names of large numbers, is not included in any of them, nor are any of the names that can be created by extending the naming pattern.

All of the dictionaries included googol and googolplex crediting it to the Kasner and Newman book and to Kasner's nephew. None include any higher names in the googol family; the Oxford English Dictionary comments that googol and googolplex are "not in formal mathematical use". Some names of large numbers, such as million and trillion, have real referents in human experience, are encountered in many contexts. At times, the names of large numbers have been forced into common usage as a result of hyperinflation; the highest numerical value banknote printed was a note for 1 sextillion pengő printed in Hungary in 1946. In 2009, Zimbabwe printed a 100 trillion Zimbabwean dollar note, which at the time of printing was worth about US$30. Names of larger numbers, have a tenuous, artificial existence found outside definitions and discussions of the ways in which large numbers are named. Well-established names like sextillion are used, since in the context of science, including astronomy, where such large numbers occur, they are nearly always written using scientific notation.

In this notation, powers of ten are expressed as 10 with a numeric superscript, e.g. "The X-ray emission of the radio galaxy is 1.3×1045 joules." When a number such as 1045 needs to be referred to in words, it is read out as "ten to the forty-fifth". This is easier to say and less ambiguous than "quattuordecillion", which means something different in the long scale and the short scale; when a number represents a quantity rather than a count, SI prefixes can be used—thus "femtosecond", not "one quadrillionth of a second"—although powers of ten are used instead of some of the high and low prefixes. In some cases, specialized units are used, such as the astronomer's parsec and light year or the particle physicist's barn. Large numbers have an intellectual fascination and are of mathematical interest, giving them names is one of the ways in which people try to conceptualize and understand them. One of the earliest examples of this is The Sand Reckoner, in which Archimedes gave a system for naming large numbers.

To do this, he called the numbers up to a myriad myriad "first numbers" and called 108 itself the "unit of the second numbers". Multiples of this unit became the second numbers, up to this unit taken a myriad myriad times, 108·108=1016; this became the "unit of the third numbers", whose multiples were the third numbers, so on. Archimedes continued naming numbers in this way up to a myriad myriad times the unit of the 108-th numbers, i.e. = 10 8 ⋅ 10 8, embedded this construction within another copy of itself to produce names for numbers up to = 10 8 ⋅ 10 16. Archimedes estimated the number of grains of sand that would be required to fill the known universe, found that it was no more than "one thousand myriad of the eighth numbers". Since many others have engaged in the pursuit of conceptualizing and naming numbers that have no existence outside the imagination. One motivation for such a pursuit is that attributed to the inventor of the word googol, certain that any finite number "had to have a name".

Another possible motivation is competition between students in computer programming courses, where a common exercise is that of writing a program to output numbers in the form of English words. Most names proposed for large numbers belong to systematic schemes which are extensible. Thus, many names for large numbers are the result of following a naming system to its logical conclusion—or extending it further; the words bymillion and trimillion were first recorded in 1475 in a manuscript of Jehan Adam. Subsequently, Nicolas Chuquet wrote a book Triparty en la science des nombres, not published during Chuquet's lifetime. However, most of it was copied by Estienne de La Roche

Patti Rothberg

Patti Rothberg is a singer-songwriter and painter. Born in New York City, Rothberg grew up in Scarsdale, New York, playing piano from the age of 3 and writing songs by the age of 15, joining a high school Rod Stewart cover band. Rothberg played all the guitar and bass parts on her debut album, Between the 1 and the 9, released on April 2, 1996; the album went on to sell over another 200,000 in Europe and Japan. The first single, "Inside", reached number 25 on the Billboard magazine Alternative chart. During this time, two of Rothberg's songs appeared in film: a cover of "Kung Fu Fighting" in Beverly Hills Ninja and "Inside" in The Misadventures of Margaret. Rothberg's third album, Double Standards, was released by indie label Megaforce on May 13, 2008; the release show was at the Blender Theater in New York City on May 22, 2008. Between the 1 and the 9 – UK No. 83 Candelabra Cadabra Double Standards Overnight Sensation Black Widow Ulterior Motives "Kung-Fu Fighting" Anywhere - Original Soundtrack Official website Patti Rothberg's profile on IMDB Review of Candelabra Cadabra on Page 6 Review of Anywhere - Original soundtrack

Bernard Delfont

Bernard Delfont, Baron Delfont, born Boris Winogradsky, was a leading Russian-born British theatrical impresario. Delfont was born in the second son of Isaac and Olga Winogradsky, his brothers Lew Grade and Leslie Grade entered showbusiness. His nephew Michael Grade, Leslie's son, has had a career in the film industries, he had a sister, Rita Grade, who wrote a book about the family called "My Fabulous Brothers." His family was Jewish. Delfont entered theatrical management in 1941, after a career as first a dancer an agent, he presented over 200 shows in London and New York City, including more than 50 musicals, such as the original productions of Little Me, Stop the World - I Want to Get Off, City Of Angels and Sweet Charity. He presented summer variety shows in many towns across the country seaside resorts. In Blackpool, he owned all three of its piers, he converted the London Hippodrome into the Talk of the Town nightclub, bringing in entertainers such as Shirley Bassey, Frank Sinatra, Eartha Kitt and Judy Garland, securing the exclusive rights from Paul Derval to stage the Folies Bergère for the first time outside Paris.

While the Chief Executive of EMI, Delfont withdrew funding for the film Life of Brian in 1978 at the last moment, due to worries over the religious implications of the screenplay. Delfont married the actress Carole Lynne in 1946, they had two daughters. He was knighted in 1974 and created a life peer as Baron Delfont, of Stepney in Greater London in 1976, he died from a heart attack at his Angmering home. Lord Delfont was the life president of the Entertainment Artistes' Benevolent Fund, while his wife served as life governor, his widow Carole Lynne, 89, died as a result of motor neurone disease on 17 January 2008 at her home in Sussex, England. In the 2018 film Stan & Ollie which recounts the 1953 tour of the United Kingdom by Laurel & Hardy, he is portrayed by Rufus Jones, he is played by Michael Gambon in the 2019 film Judy. EMI Ltd Chief executive Entertainment Artistes' Benevolent Fund Life President, for which he presented the annual Royal Variety Performance Entertainment Charities Fund President Companion of the Grand Order of Water Rats Member of Saints and Sinners Printers Charitable Corporation President 1979 First Leisure Corporation Chief executive 1980–1986 Executive chairman 1986–1988 Chairman 1988–1992 President 1992–1994 Bernard Delfont Organisation Director Entertainment Artistes' Benevolent Fund