Sarah Bernhardt was a French stage and early film actress. She was referred to as the most famous actress the world has ever known, Bernhardt made her fame on the stages of France in the 1870s, at the beginning of the Belle Epoque period, and was soon in demand in Europe and the Americas. She developed a reputation as a dramatic actress and tragedienne. In her career she starred in some of the earliest films ever produced, Sarah Bernhardt was born in Paris as Rosine Bernardt on October 23,1844. She was the daughter of a Dutch-Jewish courtesan, or upper-class prostitute, Judith Bernard. Four different addresses in Paris are claimed as her birthplace,125 rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré,5 rue de lEcole-de-Medicine,22 rue de la Michodière and 265 rue Saint-Honoré. The father, whoever he was, left a sum of one hundred francs for her future dowry when she came of age. Sarah lived for months with the nurse and her husband in the tiny apartment of the concierge. While there, the child showed the first signs of tuberculosis.
Sarah was discovered on the street by her aunt Rosine, who was passing by, when Sarahs mother finally returned to Paris, Sarah was taken to her apartment at 265 rue Saint-Honoré, where she lived, attended by servants, rarely ever seeing her mother. At the age of eight, Sarah could neither read or writer and her mother sent her away to a school for young ladies in Auteuil run by a Madame Fressard, where for the first time she was with other children her own age. The other children made fun of her appearance and curly hair. During the two years she attended the school, her mother came to see her only twice and she completely forgot all of her lines and fled the stage in tears. At the age of ten, by obtaining the sponsorship of the Duc de Morny, her mother sent Sarah to Grandchamp, at the convent, she was soon on the stage again, performing the part of the Archangel Raphael in the story of Tobias and the Angel. She received her first communion as a Roman Catholic in 1856, she never forgot her Jewish heritage.
When asked years by a reporter if she were a Christian, she replied, No, Im a Roman Catholic, Im waiting until Christians become better. At the age of fifteen, her mother withdrew her from the school and her mother summoned a family council, which included the Duc de Morny, one of her friends. Morny proposed that Sarah should become an actress, an idea which horrified the young girl, Morny arranged for her to attend her first theater performance at the Comedie Française in a party which included her mother, the Duc de Morny, and his friend Alexandre Dumas
Harrison Ford is an American actor and film producer. He gained worldwide fame for his roles as Han Solo in the Star Wars film series. Six of his films have been inducted into the National Film Registry, American Graffiti, The Conversation, Star Wars, The Empire Strikes Back, Raiders of the Lost Ark and Blade Runner. In 1997, Ford was ranked No.1 in Empires The Top 100 Movie Stars of All Time list. As of 2016, the U. S. domestic box-office grosses of Fords films total over US$4.7 billion, with worldwide grosses surpassing $6 billion, Ford is married to actress Calista Flockhart. Ford was born at the Swedish Covenant Hospital in Chicago, Illinois to Christopher Ford, an executive and former actor, and Dorothy. A younger brother, was born in 1945, Fords paternal grandparents, John Fitzgerald Ford and Florence Veronica Niehaus, were of Irish Catholic and German descent, respectively. Fords maternal grandparents, Harry Nidelman and Anna Lifschutz, were Jewish immigrants from Minsk, when asked in which religion he and his brother were raised, Ford jokingly responded, Democrat, to be liberals of every stripe.
Ford was active in the Boy Scouts of America, and achieved its second-highest rank and he worked at Napowan Adventure Base Scout camp as a counselor for the Reptile Study merit badge. Because of this, he and director Steven Spielberg decided to depict the young Indiana Jones as a Life Scout in the film Indiana Jones, in 1960, Ford graduated from Maine East High School in Park Ridge, Illinois. His was the first student voice broadcast on his high schools new radio station, WMTH and he attended Ripon College in Wisconsin, where he was a philosophy major and a member of the Sigma Nu fraternity. He took a class in the final quarter of his senior year to get over his shyness. Ford, a late bloomer, became fascinated with acting. In 1964, after a season of stock with the Belfry Players in Wisconsin. He did not get it, but stayed in California and eventually signed a contract with Columbia Pictures New Talent program. His first known role was a role as a bellhop in Dead Heat on a Merry-Go-Round. There is little record of his roles in film.
Ford was at the bottom of the hiring list, having offended producer Jerry Tokovsky after he played a bellboy in the feature
Hank Williams Jr.
Randall Hank Williams, known professionally as Hank Williams Jr. is an American singer and musician. His musical style is considered a blend of Southern rock, blues. He is the son of country music singer Hank Williams and the father of Hank Williams III, Holly Williams, Hilary Williams, Samuel Williams. Williams began his career by following in his fathers footsteps, singing his fathers songs. Williams own style evolved as he struggled to find his own voice and place within the country music industry. This trend was interrupted by a fall off the side of Ajax Peak in Montana on August 8,1975. After an extended recovery, he challenged the country music establishment with a blend of country, Williams enjoyed much success in the 1980s, from which he earned considerable recognition and popularity both inside and outside the country music industry. As a multi-instrumentalist, Williams repertoire of skills include guitar, bass guitar, upright bass, steel guitar, dobro, keyboards, harmonica and drums.
From 1989 until October 2011, a version of his song All My Rowdy Friends Are Coming Over Tonight was used as the opening for broadcasts of Monday Night Football, Williams was born on May 26,1949 in Shreveport, Louisiana. After his fathers death in 1953, he was raised by his mother, while he was a child, a number of contemporary musicians visited his family, who influenced and taught him various music instruments and styles. Among these figures of influence were Johnny Cash, Fats Domino, Earl Scruggs, Lightnin Hopkins, Williams first stepped on the stage and sang his fathers songs when he was eight years old. In 1964, he made his debut with Long Gone Lonesome Blues. Williams provided the voice of his father in the 1964 film Your Cheatin Heart. He recorded an album of duets with recordings of his father, by the mid-1970s Williams began to pursue a musical direction that would eventually make him a superstar. While recording a series of successful songs, Williams began a heavy pattern of both drug and alcohol abuse.
Hank Williams Jr. and Friends, often considered his watershed album was the product of these then-groundbreaking collaborations, in 1977 Williams recorded and released One Night Stands and The New South, and worked closely with his old friend Waylon Jennings on the song Once and For All. On August 8,1975 Williams was nearly killed in a mountain-climbing accident, while he was climbing Ajax Peak in Montana, the snow beneath him collapsed and he fell almost 500 feet onto rock. He suffered multiple skull and facial fractures, the incident was chronicled in the semi-autobiographical, made-for-television film Living Proof, The Hank Williams Jr. Story
Oxford English Dictionary
The Oxford English Dictionary is a descriptive dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press. The second edition came to 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, in 1895, the title The Oxford English Dictionary was first used unofficially on the covers of the series, and in 1928 the full dictionary was republished in ten bound volumes. In 1933, the title The Oxford English Dictionary fully replaced the name in all occurrences in its reprinting as twelve volumes with a one-volume supplement. More supplements came over the years until 1989, when the edition was published. Since 2000, an edition of the dictionary has been underway. The first electronic version of the dictionary was available in 1988. The online version has been available since 2000, and as of April 2014 was receiving two million hits per month. The third edition of the dictionary will probably appear in electronic form, Nigel Portwood, chief executive of Oxford University Press. As a historical dictionary, the Oxford English Dictionary explains words by showing their development rather than merely their present-day usages, therefore, it shows definitions in the order that the sense of the word began being used, including word meanings which are no longer used.
The format of the OEDs entries has influenced numerous other historical lexicography projects and this influenced volumes of this and other lexicographical works. As of 30 November 2005, the Oxford English Dictionary contained approximately 301,100 main entries, the dictionarys latest, complete print edition was printed in 20 volumes, comprising 291,500 entries in 21,730 pages. The longest entry in the OED2 was for the verb set, as entries began to be revised for the OED3 in sequence starting from M, the longest entry became make in 2000, put in 2007, run in 2011. Despite its impressive size, the OED is neither the worlds largest nor the earliest exhaustive dictionary of a language, the Dutch dictionary Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal is the worlds largest dictionary, has similar aims to the OED and took twice as long to complete. Another earlier large dictionary is the Grimm brothers dictionary of the German language, begun in 1838, the official dictionary of Spanish is the Diccionario de la lengua española, and its first edition was published in 1780.
The Kangxi dictionary of Chinese was published in 1716, trench suggested that a new, truly comprehensive dictionary was needed. On 7 January 1858, the Society formally adopted the idea of a new dictionary. Volunteer readers would be assigned particular books, copying passages illustrating word usage onto quotation slips, the same year, the Society agreed to the project in principle, with the title A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. He withdrew and Herbert Coleridge became the first editor, on 12 May 1860, Coleridges dictionary plan was published and research was started
Ford Motor Company
The Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16,1903, the company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and most luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. Ford owns Brazilian SUV manufacturer and Australian performance car manufacturer FPV, in the past, it has produced tractors and automotive components. Ford owns an 8% stake in Aston Martin of the United Kingdom, and it has a number of joint-ventures, one in China, one in Taiwan, one in Thailand, one in Turkey, and one in Russia. It is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and is controlled by the Ford family, Fords former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover, acquired in 1989 and 2000 respectively, were sold to Tata Motors in March 2008. Ford owned the Swedish automaker Volvo from 1999 to 2010, in 2011, Ford discontinued the Mercury brand, under which it had marketed entry-level luxury cars in the United States, Canada and the Middle East since 1938.
During the financial crisis at the beginning of the 21st century, it was close to bankruptcy, Ford is the second-largest U. S. -based automaker and the fifth-largest in the world based on 2015 vehicle production. At the end of 2010, Ford was the fifth largest automaker in Europe, Ford is the eighth-ranked overall American-based company in the 2010 Fortune 500 list, based on global revenues in 2009 of $118.3 billion. In 2008, Ford produced 5.532 million automobiles and employed about 213,000 employees at around 90 plants, the company went public in 1956 but the Ford family, through special Class B shares, still retain 40 percent voting rights. The Ford Motor Company was launched in a factory in 1903 with $28,000 in cash from twelve investors, most notably John. During its early years, the company produced just a few cars a day at its factory on Mack Avenue and its factory on Piquette Avenue in Detroit, Michigan. Groups of two or three men worked on car, assembling it from parts made mostly by supplier companies contracting for Ford.
Henry Ford was 39 years old when he founded the Ford Motor Company and it has been in continuous family control for over 100 years and is one of the largest family-controlled companies in the world. The first gasoline powered automobile had been created in 1885 by the German inventor Carl Benz, between 1903 and 1908, Ford produced the Models A, B, C, F, K, N, R, and S. Hundreds or a few thousand of most of these were sold per year, in 1908, Ford introduced the mass-produced Model T, which totalled millions sold over nearly 20 years. In 1927, Ford replaced the T with the Model A, Ford launched the first low-priced car with a V8 engine in 1932. In an attempt to compete with General Motors mid-priced Pontiac, Henry Ford purchased the Lincoln Motor Company in 1922, in order to compete with such brands as Cadillac and Packard for the luxury segment of the automobile market. The creation of a laboratory in Dearborn, Michigan in 1951, doing unfettered basic research
Trump Tower is a 58-story, 664-foot-high mixed-use skyscraper located at 721–725 Fifth Avenue between 56th and 57th Streets in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Trump Tower serves as the headquarters for The Trump Organization, several members of the Trump family reside in the building. The tower stands upon a plot where the store of department-store chain Bonwit Teller was formerly located. Designed by Der Scutt of Poor, Hayden & Connell and developed by Trump and the Equitable Life Assurance Company, despite being located in one of Midtown Manhattans special zoning districts, the tower was approved because it was built as a mixed-use development. Trump was able to add additional stories to the due to his construction of the atrium on the ground floor. The atrium, apartments and stores opened on a schedule from February to November 1983. At first, there were few tenants willing to move into the commercial, on the other hand, the residential units were sold out within months of opening. Since 2016, the tower has seen a surge in visitation due to Trumps 2016 presidential campaign.
Designed by Der Scutt, Trump Tower was constructed on the site of the former Bonwit Teller flagship store, the building was purchased by Trump in 1979, with the intention of building the citys first super-luxury high-rise. The Trump Organization demolished the store at Fifth Avenue and 56th Street, HRH Construction was the contractor on the building. Barbara Res, who had worked on some of Trumps other projects, at the time, Res was the first woman who had been assigned to oversee a major New York City construction site. The building is located in a special zoning district that spans Fifth Avenue between 38th and 58th Streets, ordinarily, a building of that height could not have been built on the small site. However, the building was approved partially because it was mixed-use, with retail, office, in particular, Trump built an atrium of 15,000 square feet in exchange for building 20 extra stories to his tower. At the time, the building was the only skyscraper on Fifth Avenue with its own retail space, as originally planned, the tower would have 60 stories consisting of 13 office floors,40 condominium floors, and 2 floors for mechanical uses, but this was amended.
However, in the plan, there were 26 office floors on the buildings base. Originally, it was estimated that it would take $100 million to construct the tower, when the tower eventually opened, it had 58 stories, with the top story marked as 68 because, according to Trump, the five-story-tall public atrium occupies the height of 10 ordinary stories. However, several Bloomberg L. P. writers determined that Trumps calculations did not account for the fact that the heights in Trump Tower were much taller than in comparable buildings. As a result of miscalculation, the tower does not have any floors numbered 6–13
Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest federal court of the United States. In the legal system of the United States, the Supreme Court is the interpreter of federal constitutional law. The Court normally consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight justices who are nominated by the President. Once appointed, justices have life tenure unless they resign, retire, in modern discourse, the justices are often categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. Each justice has one vote, and while many cases are decided unanimously, the Court meets in the United States Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C. The Supreme Court is sometimes referred to as SCOTUS, in analogy to other acronyms such as POTUS. The ratification of the United States Constitution established the Supreme Court in 1789 and its powers are detailed in Article Three of the Constitution. The Supreme Court is the court specifically established by the Constitution.
The Court first convened on February 2,1790, by which five of its six initial positions had been filled. According to historian Fergus Bordewich, in its first session, he Supreme Court convened for the first time at the Royal Exchange Building on Broad Street and they had no cases to consider. After a week of inactivity, they adjourned until September, the sixth member was not confirmed until May 12,1790. Because the full Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the Courts full membership to make decisions, under Chief Justices Jay and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases, its first decision was West v. Barnes, a case involving a procedural issue. The Courts power and prestige grew substantially during the Marshall Court, the Marshall Court ended the practice of each justice issuing his opinion seriatim, a remnant of British tradition, and instead issuing a single majority opinion. Also during Marshalls tenure, although beyond the Courts control, the impeachment, the Taney Court made several important rulings, such as Sheldon v.
Nevertheless, it is primarily remembered for its ruling in Dred Scott v. Sandford, which helped precipitate the Civil War. In the Reconstruction era, the Chase and Fuller Courts interpreted the new Civil War amendments to the Constitution, during World War II, the Court continued to favor government power, upholding the internment of Japanese citizens and the mandatory pledge of allegiance. Nevertheless, Gobitis was soon repudiated, and the Steel Seizure Case restricted the pro-government trend, the Warren Court dramatically expanded the force of Constitutional civil liberties. It held that segregation in public schools violates equal protection and that traditional legislative district boundaries violated the right to vote
The traditional diaspora language of Ashkenazi Jews is Yiddish, with Hebrew used only as a sacred language until relatively recently. Throughout their time in Europe, Ashkenazim have made important contributions to philosophy, literature, music. Ashkenazim originate from the Jews who settled along the Rhine River, in Western Germany, there they became a distinct diaspora community with a unique way of life that adapted traditions from Babylon, The Land of Israel, and the Western Mediterranean to their new environment. The Ashkenazi religious rite developed in such as Mainz, Worms. The eminent French Rishon Rabbi Shlomo Itzhaki would have a significant impact on the Jewish religion, in the late Middle Ages, the majority of the Ashkenazi population shifted steadily eastward, moving out of the Holy Roman Empire into the Pale of Settlement. The genocidal impact of the Holocaust devastated the Ashkenazim and their culture, immediately prior to the Holocaust, the number of Jews in the world stood at approximately 16.7 million.
Statistical figures vary for the demography of Ashkenazi Jews, oscillating between 10 million and 11.2 million. Sergio DellaPergola in a calculation of Sephardic and Mizrahi Jews. Other estimates place Ashkenazi Jews as making up about 75% of Jews worldwide, genetic studies on Ashkenazim—researching both their paternal and maternal lineages—suggest a significant proportion of Middle Eastern ancestry. Ashkenazi Jews are popularly contrasted with Sephardi Jews, who are descendants of Jews from the Iberian Peninsula, there are some differences in how the two groups pronounce certain Hebrew letters, and in points of ritual. The name Ashkenazi derives from the figure of Ashkenaz, the first son of Gomer, son of Khaphet, son of Noah. The name of Gomer has often been linked to the ethnonym Cimmerians, the intrusive n in the Biblical name is likely due to a scribal error confusing a waw ו with a nun נ. In Jeremiah 51,27, Ashkenaz figures as one of three kingdoms in the far north, the others being Minni and Ararat, perhaps corresponding to Urartu, called on by God to resist Babylon.
Ashkenaz is linked to Scandza/Scanzia, viewed as the cradle of Germanic tribes and his contemporary Saadia Gaon identified Ashkenaz with the Saquliba or Slavic territories, and such usage covered the lands of tribes neighboring the Slavs, and Eastern and Central Europe. In modern times, Samuel Krauss identified the Biblical Ashkenaz with Khazaria, sometime in the early medieval period, the Jews of central and eastern Europe came to be called by this term. In conformity with the custom of designating areas of Jewish settlement with biblical names, Spain was denominated Sefarad, France was called Tsarefat, Rashi uses leshon Ashkenaz to describe German speech, and Byzantium and Syrian Jewish letters referred to the Crusaders as Ashkenazim. Given the close links between the Jewish communities of France and Germany following the Carolingian unification, the term Ashkenazi came to refer to both the Jews of medieval Germany and France. Outside of their origins in ancient Israel, the history of Ashkenazim is shrouded in mystery, the most well-supported theory is the one that details a Jewish migration from Israel through what is now Italy and other parts of southern Europe
Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr.
Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. was an American physician and polymath based in Boston. A member of the Fireside Poets, he was acclaimed by his peers as one of the best writers of the day and his most famous prose works are the Breakfast-Table series, which began with The Autocrat of the Breakfast-Table. He was an important medical reformer, in addition to his work as an author and poet, Holmes served as a physician, professor and inventor, and although he never practiced it, he received formal training in law. Born in Cambridge, Holmes was educated at Phillips Academy, after graduating from Harvard in 1829, he briefly studied law before turning to the medical profession. He began writing poetry at an age, one of his most famous works. Following training at the medical schools of Paris, Holmes was granted his M. D. from Harvard Medical School in 1836. He taught at Dartmouth Medical School before returning to teach at Harvard and, for a time, Holmes retired from Harvard in 1882 and continued writing poetry and essays until his death in 1894.
Many of his works were published in The Atlantic Monthly, a magazine that he named, for his literary achievements and other accomplishments, he was awarded numerous honorary degrees from universities around the world. Holmess writing often commemorated his native Boston area, and much of it was meant to be humorous or conversational, some of his medical writings, notably his 1843 essay regarding the contagiousness of puerperal fever, were considered innovative for their time. He was often called upon to issue occasional poetry, or poems written specifically for an event, Holmes popularized several terms, including Boston Brahmin and anesthesia. Holmes was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on August 29,1809 and his birthplace, a house just north of Harvard Yard, was said to have been the place where the Battle of Bunker Hill was planned. He was the first son of Abiel Holmes, minister of the First Congregational Church and avid historian, Sarah was the daughter of a wealthy family, and Holmes was named for his maternal grandfather, a judge.
The first Wendell, Evert Jansen, left the Netherlands in 1640 and settled in Albany, through his mother, Holmes was descended from Massachusetts Governor Simon Bradstreet and his wife, Anne Bradstreet, the first published American poet. From a young age, Holmes was small and suffered from asthma, when he was eight, he took his five-year-old brother, John, to witness the last hanging in Cambridges Gallows Lot and was subsequently scolded by his parents. After being exposed to such as John Dryden, Alexander Pope and Oliver Goldsmith. His first recorded poem, which was copied down by his father, was written when he was 13, although a talented student, the young Holmes was often admonished by his teachers for his talkative nature and habit of reading stories during school hours. He studied under Dame Prentiss and William Bigelow before enrolling in what was called the Port School, One of his schoolmates was future critic and author Margaret Fuller, whose intellect Holmes admired. Holmess father sent him to Phillips Academy in Andover, Abiel chose Phillips, which was known for its orthodox Calvinist teachings, because he hoped his oldest son would follow him into the ministry
Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.
United States, and is one of the most influential American common law judges, honored during his lifetime in Great Britain as well as the United States. Holmes retired from the Court at the age of 90 years and he served as an Associate Justice and as Chief Justice on the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court, and was Weld Professor of Law at the Harvard Law School, of which he was an alumnus. Holmes espoused a form of skepticism and opposed the doctrine of natural law. As he wrote in one of his most famous decisions, his dissent in Abrams v and these positions as well as his distinctive personality and writing style made him a popular figure, especially with American progressives. He was one of only a handful of justices to be known as a scholar, Holmes was born in Boston, the son of the prominent writer and physician Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. and abolitionist Amelia Lee Jackson. Known as Wendell in his youth, Henry James Jr. Holmes accordingly grew up in an atmosphere of intellectual achievement, and early formed the ambition to be a man of letters like Emerson.
While still in Harvard College he wrote essays on philosophic themes, Emerson famously replied, If you strike at a king, you must kill him. He supported the Abolitionist movement that thrived in Boston society during the 1850s, at Harvard, he was a member of the Hasty Pudding and the Porcellian Club, both of which his father had been a member. In the Pudding, he served as Secretary and Poet, as his father had, in the summer of 1861 with his fathers help he obtained a lieutenants commission in the Twentieth Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry. Holmess early life was described in detail by Mark DeWolfe Howe, Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes--The Shaping Years, 1841-1870. He saw much action, from the Peninsula Campaign to the Wilderness, suffering wounds at the Battle of Balls Bluff and Chancellorsville, Holmes particularly admired and was close to his fellow officer in the 20th Massachusetts, Henry Livermore Abbott. Holmes rose to the rank of lieutenant colonel, but eschewed promotion in his regiment, Abbott took command of the regiment in his place, and was killed.
Holmes is said to have shouted to Lincoln to take cover during the Battle of Fort Stevens, Holmes himself expressed uncertainty about who had warned Lincoln and other sources state he likely was not present on the day Lincoln visited Fort Stevens. Holmes received a promotion to colonel in recognition of his services during the war. He retired to his home in Boston after his enlistment ended in 1864, weary and ill. But by the fall, when it became clear that the war would end, Holmes enrolled in the Harvard Law School, kicked into the law by his father. He attended lectures there for a year, reading extensively in theoretical works. He was admitted to the bar in 1866, and after a visit to London, to complete his education
A fedora /fɪˈdɔːrə/ is a felt hat with a soft brim and indented crown. It is typically creased lengthwise down the crown and pinched near the front on both sides, Fedoras can be creased with teardrop crowns, diamond crowns, center dents, and others, and the positioning of pinches can vary. The typical crown height is 4.5 inches, the brim is usually approximately 2.5 inches wide, but may be wider, can be left raw edged, finished with a sewn overwelt or underwelt, or bound with a trim-ribbon. Stitched edge means that there is one, two or more rows of stitching radiating inward toward the crown, the Cavanagh Edge is a welted edge with invisible stitching to hold it in place and is a very expensive treatment that can no longer be performed by modern hat factories. The term fedora was in use as early as 1891 and its popularity soared, and eventually it eclipsed the similar-looking homburg. Fedoras can be made of wool, rabbit or beaver felt and these felts can be blended to each other with mink or chinchilla and rarely with vicuña, cervelt, or mohair.
They can be made of straw, waxed or oiled cotton, many fedoras have a wide brim. Those with small brims are often called trilbies, a special variation is the rollable, foldaway or crushable Fedora with a certain or open crown. Special Fedoras have a crown with grommets, meshinlets or with penetrations for a better air circulation. Fedoras can be lined or unlined and have a leather or cloth or ribbon sweatband, small feathers are sometimes added as decoration. Fedoras can be equipped with a chinstrap, but this is rare, the term fedora was in use as early as 1891. Its popularity soared, and eventually it eclipsed the similar-looking homburg, the word fedora comes from the title of an 1882 play by dramatist Victorien Sardou, Fédora, which was written for Sarah Bernhardt. The play was first performed in the United States in 1889, Bernhardt played Princess Fédora Romanoff, the heroine of the play. During the play, Bernhardt – a notorious cross-dresser – wore a center-creased, the hat was fashionable for women, and the womens rights movement adopted it as a symbol.
After Edward, Prince of Wales started wearing them in 1924, it became popular among men for its stylishness and its ability to protect the head from the wind. Since the early part of the 20th century, many Haredi, Fedoras became widely associated with gangsters and Prohibition, a connection coinciding with the height of the hats popularity between the 1920s and the early 1950s. In the second half of the 1950s, the fedora fell out of favor in a shift towards more informal clothing styles, though Greasers wore the hats with their leather jackets, by the early 21st century, the fedora had become a symbol of hipsters. Indiana Jones re-popularized the fedora in the Indiana Jones franchise, johnny Depp is known to often wear a fedora
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was an American statesman, explorer, soldier and reformer who served as the 26th president of the United States from 1901 to 1909. As a leader of the Republican Party during this time, he became a force for the Progressive Era in the United States in the early 20th century. Born a sickly child with debilitating asthma, Roosevelt successfully overcame his health problems by embracing a strenuous lifestyle and he integrated his exuberant personality, vast range of interests, and world-famous achievements into a cowboy persona defined by robust masculinity. Home-schooled, he began a lifelong naturalist avocation before attending Harvard College and his first of many books, The Naval War of 1812, established his reputation as both a learned historian and as a popular writer. Upon entering politics, he became the leader of the faction of Republicans in New Yorks state legislature. Returning a war hero, he was elected governor of New York in 1898, the state party leadership distrusted him, so they took the lead in moving him to the prestigious but powerless role of vice presidential candidate as McKinleys running mate in the election of 1900.
Roosevelt campaigned vigorously across the country, helping McKinleys re-election in a victory based on a platform of peace, prosperity. Following the assassination of President McKinley in September 1901, Roosevelt succeeded to the office at age 42, making conservation a top priority, he established a myriad of new national parks and monuments intended to preserve the nations natural resources. In foreign policy, he focused on Central America, where he began construction of the Panama Canal and he greatly expanded the United States Navy and sent the Great White Fleet on a world tour to project the United States naval power around the globe. His successful efforts to end the Russo-Japanese War won him the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize, elected in 1904 to a full term, Roosevelt continued to promote progressive policies, but many of his efforts and much of his legislative agenda were eventually blocked in Congress. Roosevelt successfully groomed his close friend, William Howard Taft, to succeed him in the presidency, after leaving office, Roosevelt went on safari in Africa and toured Europe.
Returning to the United States, he became frustrated with Tafts approach, failing to win the Republican presidential nomination in 1912, Roosevelt founded his own party, the Progressive, so-called Bull Moose Party, and called for wide-ranging progressive reforms. The split among Republicans enabled the Democrats to win both the White House and a majority in the Congress in 1912, Republicans aligned with Taft nationally would control the Republican Party for decades. Frustrated at home, Roosevelt led an expedition to the Amazon basin. During World War I, he opposed President Woodrow Wilson for keeping the country out of the war, and offered his military services, although planning to run again for president in 1920, Roosevelt suffered deteriorating health and died in early 1919. Roosevelt has consistently ranked by scholars as one of the greatest American presidents. Historians admire Roosevelt for rooting out corruption in his administration, but are critical of his 1909 libel lawsuits against the World and his face was carved into Mount Rushmore, alongside those of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Abraham Lincoln.
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was born on October 27,1858, at East 20th Street in New York City and he was the second of four children born to socialite Martha Stewart Mittie Bulloch and glass businessman and philanthropist Theodore Roosevelt Sr