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Namespace

In computing, a namespace is a set of symbols that are used to organize objects of various kinds, so that these objects may be referred to by name. A namespace ensures that all the identifiers within it have unique names so that they can be identified. Prominent examples include: file systems are namespaces that assign names to files; as an analogy, consider a system of naming of people where each person has a proper name, as well as a family name shared with their relatives. If the first names of family members are unique only within each family each person can be uniquely identified by the combination of first name and family name. Within the namespace of the Doe family, just "Jane" suffices to unambiguously designate this person, while within the "global" namespace of all people, the full name must be used. In a similar way, hierarchical file systems organize files in directories; each directory is a separate namespace, so that the directories "letters" and "invoices" may both contain a file "to_jane".

In computer programming, namespaces are employed for the purpose of grouping symbols and identifiers around a particular functionality and to avoid name collisions between multiple identifiers that share the same name. In networking, the Domain Name System organizes websites into hierarchical namespaces. Element names are defined by the developer; this results in a conflict when trying to mix XML documents from different XML applications. This XML carries HTML table information: This XML carries information about a table: If these XML fragments were added together, there would be a name conflict. Both contain a <table> element. An XML parser will not know. Name conflicts in XML can be avoided using a name prefix; the following XML distinguishes between information about the HTML table and furniture by prefixing "h" and "f" at the beginning of the elements. A name in a namespace consists of a local name; the namespace name is applied as a prefix to the local name. In augmented Backus–Naur form: name = <namespace identifier> separator <local name> When local names are used by themselves, name resolution is used to decide which particular name is alluded to by some particular local name.

Delegation of responsibilities between parties is important in real-world applications, such as the structure of the World Wide Web. Namespaces allow delegation of identifier assignment to multiple name issuing organisations whilst retaining global uniqueness. A central Registration authority registers the assigned namespace identifiers allocated; each namespace identifier is allocated to an organisation, subsequently responsible for the assignment of names in their allocated namespace. This organisation may be a name issuing organisation that assign the names themselves, or another Registration authority which further delegates parts of their namespace to different organisations. A naming scheme that allows subdelegation of namespaces to third parties is a hierarchical namespace. A hierarchy is recursive if the syntax for the namespace identifiers is the same for each subdelegation. An example of a recursive hierarchy is the Domain name system. An example of a non-recursive hierarchy are Uniform Resource Name representing an Internet Assigned Numbers Authority number.

A namespace identifier may provide context to a name, the terms are sometimes used interchangeably. However, the context of a name may be provided by other factors, such as the location where it occurs or the syntax of the name. For many programming languages, namespace is a context for their identifiers. In an operating system, an example of namespace is a directory; each name in a directory uniquely identifies one subdirectory. As a rule, names in a namespace cannot have more than one meaning. A namespace is called a context, because the same name in different namespaces can have different meanings, each one appropriate for its namespace. Following are other characteristics of namespaces: Names in the namespace can represent objects as well as concepts, be the namespace a natural or ethnic language, a constructed language, the technical terminology of a profession, a dialect, a sociolect, or an artificial language. In the Java programming language, identifiers that appear in namespaces have a short name and a unique long "qualified" name for use outside the namespace.

Some compilers combine namespaces and names for internal use in the compiler in a process called name mangling. As well as its abstract language technical usage as described above, some languages have a specific keyword used for explicit namespace control, amongst other uses. Below is an example of a namespace in C++: A namespace in computer science, is an abstract container or environment created to hold a logical grouping of unique identifiers or symbols. An identifier defined in a namespace is associated only with that namespace; the same identifier can be independently defined in multiple namespaces. T

Pick-Up (1975 film)

Pick-Up is a 1975 American film directed by Bernard Hirschenson, marketed as an exploitation film full of sexy hippies, but praised by some critics for deeper artistic qualities. Two young women, free spirit Carol and introverted Maureen are hitchhiking when they are picked up by Chuck in his mobile home, they disappear into the Florida Everglades. It was the only feature film directed by Hirschenson, an advertising man and documentary-maker, it was distributed by Crown International Pictures. From 1975, Film Review Digest gives it a mixed review: recognising its artistic pretensions, it says the filmmakers went "just about as far as they could dare in a commercial context". On its DVD release in 2007, DVD Drive-In praised it as more than exploitation cinema: they called it a "stylish art movie", comparing it to Easy Rider and the symbolist films of Alejandro Jodorowsky. DVD Verdict compared it to the work of Dennis Hopper, compared it favorably to Michelangelo Antonioni's overblown Zabriskie Point.

The Onion AV Club described a typical scene. Buried.com scored it 5.9/10. DVD Talks Paul Mavis was less enthusiastic, complaining that it was dull without the influence of drugs, the more trippy psychedelic bits were silly or unintentionally funny, it was released on DVD by BCI Eclipse in a 2-film pack with Howard Avedis's 1974 film The Teacher. Pick-Up on IMDb

History of the Paraguay national football team

The history of the Paraguay national football team began in 1910 when the national team played a friendly match. The Paraguay played its first international in a 5 -- 1 loss to Argentina. Paraguay have won the Copa América twice, in 1953 and 1979. Soon after the introduction of football in Paraguay by Williams Paats, the Liga Paraguaya de Futbol was created in 1906; the first national football team was organized in 1910 when an invitation by the Argentine club Hércules of Corrientes was received to play a friendly match. Members of that first national team where F. Melián, G. Almeida, A. Rodríguez, M. Barrios, P. Samaniego, J. Morín, Z. Gadea, D. Andreani, C. Mena Porta, B. Villamayor, M. Rojas and E. Erico; the match ended in a 0–0 draw. Because of the increasing number of invitations to play matches and international tournaments, the Asociación Paraguaya de Fútbol decided to create the national team and select the striped red and white jerseys that until this date remain as the official colours.

In late 1919, Paraguay accepted the invitation to play the 1921 Copa América and in order to prepare for that occasion a number of friendly matches were played between 1919 and the start of the tournament in 1921. The first of those friendly matches was a 5–1 loss against Argentina, it marked the first international game by the Paraguayan national football team; when the 1921 Copa América arrived, Paraguay surprised everybody by beating three-time South American champions Uruguay by 2–1, being this the first match in an official competition for the Paraguayan football team. Paraguay finished fourth in the tournament and became a regular participant of the tournament for the next editions. In 1930, Paraguay participated in the first World Cup, organized by Uruguay. In the first round, Paraguay debuted and lost to the United States, to defeat Belgium with a goal by Luis Vargas Peña. Only one team was to advance from the group stage, the U. S. left Paraguay behind. After strong participations in the Copa América tournaments of 1929, 1947 and 1949, Paraguay was ready for their next World Cup competition.

The return to the World Cup was in 1950, where Paraguay faced Sweden and Italy in Group 3. Paraguay failed to advance to the next round after a 2–2 draw against Sweden and a 2–0 loss against Italy; the first big success came in 1953. In their road to the championship, Paraguay defeated Chile and Brazil. Since Paraguay and Brazil were tied in points at the end of the tournament, a final playoff match was played between them, with Paraguay winning the final by 3–2. Key players of the campaign included Heriberto Herrera and Rubén Fernández; the coach was Manuel Fleitas Solich. For the 1958 World Cup, Paraguay qualified ahead of Uruguay with a team that contained a formidable attacking lineup with stars such as Juan Bautista Agüero, José Parodi, Juan Romero, Cayetano Ré and Florencio Amarilla. In their first game in Sweden, Paraguay were 3–2 up against France in a game they lost 7–3. A 3 -- 2 win over Scotland and a 3 -- 3 draw with Yugoslavia saw; the departure of several of their stars for European football resulted in a weakening of Paraguay's football fortunes somewhat, but they were only edged out by Mexico in the 1962 qualifiers.

Paraguay fell short in subsequent World Cup qualifying campaigns, but Copa América success in 1979 shored up Paraguay as a solid player on the continent. The 1979 Copa América was won by Paraguay after finishing first in Group C with two wins and two draws. In the semi-finals, Paraguay defeated Brazil by an aggregate score of 4–3. In the finals, Paraguay defeated Chile by an aggregate score of 3–1 to claim its second continental crown. Players such as Romerito, Carlos Alberto Kiese, Alicio Solalinde, Roberto Paredes, Hugo Ricardo Talavera and Eugenio Morel where an important part of the team, coached by Ranulfo Miranda. Paraguay ended a 28-year absence from the World Cup in 1986 with a team starring Roberto Fernández in goal. In first round matches, Paraguay defeated Iraq and tied Mexico and Belgium, they reached the second round. A drought followed once again, as Paraguay failed to reach the 1994 World Cups. In 1992, Paraguay won the South American Pre-Olympic tournament, which guaranteed a spot in the 1992 Summer Olympics football competition.

In the Olympics, Paraguay finished second in its group and were eliminated by Ghana in the quarter-finals. The most important aspect of that Paraguay team was the emergence of new young players like Carlos Gamarra, Celso Ayala, José Luis Chilavert, Francisco Arce and José Cardozo, which became part of the "golden generation" that led Paraguay to three-straight World Cups and good performances in continental competitions, establishing Paraguay as one of the top teams in South America alongside Brazil and Uruguay. Paraguay concluded the qualifiers in one point below Argentina; the Albirroja returned to the FIFA World Cup final stages for the first time si

Xenesis

Xenesis is a 2004 techno-thriller by Beat Glogger, a Swiss science journalist, published by Rowohlt Verlag. The book builds around a theme of livestock that are genetically modified for xenotransplantation, as a remedy for human organ donor shortages. A film adaptation may be in progress; the title combines the Greek words "xenos" and "genesis". The book was awarded the Media Prix in 2005 by the Swiss Academy of Natural Sciences and was nominated for the 2006 Descartes Prize by the European Commission. Https://web.archive.org/web/20080101212615/http://www.medical-thriller.de/beat_glogger.html

Alan Hovhaness

Alan Hovhaness was an American composer. He was one of the most prolific 20th-century composers, with his official catalog comprising 67 numbered symphonies and 434 opus numbers; the true tally is well over 500 surviving works since many opus numbers comprise two or more distinct works. The Boston Globe music critic Richard Buell wrote: "Although he has been stereotyped as a self-consciously Armenian composer, his output assimilates the music of many cultures. What may be most American about all of it is the way it turns its materials into a kind of exoticism; the atmosphere is hushed, mystical, nostalgic." He was born as Alan Vaness Chakmakjian in Somerville, Massachusetts, to Haroutioun Hovanes Chakmakjian and Madeleine Scott. When he was five, his family moved from Somerville to Massachusetts. A Hovhaness family neighbor said his mother had insisted on moving from Somerville because of discrimination against Armenians there. After her death, he began to use the surname "Hovaness" in honor of his paternal grandfather, changed it to "Hovhaness" around 1944.

He stated the name change from the original Chakmakjian reflected the desire to simplify his name because "nobody pronounced it right". However, Hovhaness' daughter Jean Nandi has written in her book Unconventional Wisdom, "My father's name at the time of my birth was'Hovaness', pronounced with accent on the first syllable, his original name was'Chakmakjian', but in the 1930s he wanted to get rid of the Armenian connection and so changed his name to an Americanized version of his middle name. Some years deciding to re-establish his Armenian ties, he changed the spelling to'Hovhaness', accent on the second syllable. Hovhaness was interested in music from a early age. At the age of four, he wrote his first composition, a cantata in the early Italian style inspired by a song of Franz Schubert, his family was concerned about his late-night composing and about the financial future he could have as an artist. He decided for a short time to pursue astronomy, another of his early loves; the fascination of astronomy remained with him through his entire life and composing career, with many works titled after various planets and stars.

Hovhaness's parents soon supported their son's precocious composing, set up his first piano lessons with a neighborhood teacher. Hovhaness continued his piano studies with Adelaide Proctor and Heinrich Gebhard. By age 14 he decided to devote himself to composition. Among his early musical experiences were Baptist hymns and recordings of Gomidas Vartabed, an eminent Armenian composer, he composed two operas during his teenage years which were performed at Arlington High School, composer Roger Sessions took an interest in his music during this time. Following his graduation from high school in 1929, he studied with Leo Rich Lewis at Tufts and under Frederick Converse at the New England Conservatory of Music. In 1932, he won the Conservatory's Samuel Endicott prize for composition with his Sunset Symphony. In July 1934, Hovhaness traveled with his first wife, Martha Mott Davis, to Finland to meet Jean Sibelius, whose music he had admired since childhood; the two continued to correspond for the next twenty years.

In 1935, Hovhaness named his daughter and only child from his first marriage Jean Christina Hovhaness after Jean Christian Sibelius, her godfather and Hovhaness's friend for three decades. In 1936, Hovhaness attended a performance in Boston by the Indian dance troupe of Uday Shankar, which inspired his lifelong interest in the music of India. During the 1930s, he worked in Franklin D. Roosevelt's Federal Music Project. During the 1930s and 1940s, Hovhaness famously destroyed many of his early works, he claimed that he had burned at least 1000 different pieces, a process that took at least two weeks. In an interview with Richard Howard, he stated that the decision was based on Sessions' criticism of his works of that period, that he wanted to make a new start in composition. Hovhaness became interested in Armenian culture and music in 1940 as organist for the St. James Armenian Apostolic Church in Watertown, remaining in this position for about ten years. In 1942, he won a scholarship at Tanglewood to study in Czech composer Bohuslav Martinů's master class.

During a seminar in composition, while a recording of Hovhaness's first symphony was being played, Aaron Copland talked loudly in Spanish to Latin-American composers in the room. Angered and distraught by this experience, he left Tanglewood early, abandoning his scholarship and again destroying a number of his works in the aftermath of that major disappointment; the next year he devoted himself to Armenian subject matter, in particular using modes distinctive to Armenian music, continued in this vein for several years, achieving some renown and the support of other musicians, including radical experimentalist composer John Cage and choreographer Martha Graham, all the while continuing as church organist. Beginning in the mid-1940s, Hovhaness and two artist friends, Hyman Bloom and Hermon di Giovann

Beautiful firetail

The beautiful firetail is a common species of estrildid finch found in Australia. It has an estimated global extent of occurrence of 1,000,000 km2; the species inhabits temperate shrubland habitats in Australia. The IUCN has classified the species as being of least concern. At 10 to 13 cm long and weighing 14g the beautiful firetail is a small plump bird smaller than the diamond firetail, its plumage is olive-brown. The white chest has a fine pattern of dark lines; the head has a black mask with pale blue rings around a thick red beak. Its rump is a deep red, its legs and feet are creamy pink; the wings and tail are rounded. Juvenile birds are less colourful with a blackish beak; the male has a black abdomen. The beautiful firetail is endemic to Southeastern Australia, its distribution range extends from Newcastle to Kangaroo Island, the bird is most prolific in Tasmania and off-shore islands. It lives in coastal heathland and shrubbery, never far from water, its preference for near water habitats was shown in a study of its occurrence in intact forest areas of the Victorian Central Highlands, where it was exclusively found in riparian habitat.

The beautiful firetail is considered a resident bird. The beautiful firetail feeds on grass seed and Casuarina and Melaleuca seeds, it can be found in association with Banksia ericifolia heathland in coastal New South Wales. Small insects and snails complement this herbivore diet; the birds are found in pairs or forming small groups of up to 20 individuals. In the breeding season lasting from October to January, the beautiful firetail nests in dense foliage near the ground; the nest is made of grass and thin twigs, its insides are covered in feathers. It is bottle-shaped with a long tunnel-like entrance on one side leading to a spherical nesting chamber. Both parents build the nest together, brood the five to eight egg clutch for about 20 days, feed the hatched chicks, which leave the nest after about another 20 days. After another four weeks the chicks are left to their own devices and reach sexual maturity at about nine to twelve months of age; the Australian "Firetail" wine brand is named after this species.

Birds in Backyards web page Arthur Grosset's beautiful firetail web page Oiseaux.net web page BirdLife International species factsheet BirdLife Australia profile