Namibia the Republic of Namibia, is a country in southern Africa. Its western border is the Atlantic Ocean. Although it does not border Zimbabwe, less than 200 metres of the Zambezi River separates the two countries. Namibia gained independence from South Africa on 21 March 1990, following the Namibian War of Independence, its capital and largest city is Windhoek, it is a member state of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community, the African Union, the Commonwealth of Nations. Namibia, the driest country in Sub-Saharan Africa, was inhabited since early times by the San and Nama peoples. Around the 14th century, immigrating Bantu peoples arrived as part of the Bantu expansion. Since the Bantu groups, the largest being the Ovambo, have dominated the population of the country. In 1878, the Cape of Good Hope a British colony, had annexed the port of Walvis Bay and the offshore Penguin Islands. In 1884 the German Empire established rule over most of the territory as a protectorate.
It began to develop infrastructure and farming and maintained this German colony until 1915, when South African forces defeated its military. In 1920, after the end of World War I, the League of Nations mandated the country to the United Kingdom, under administration by South Africa, it imposed its laws, including racial rules. From 1948, with the National Party elected to power, South Africa applied apartheid to what was known as South West Africa. In the 20th century and demands for political representation by native African political activists seeking independence resulted in the UN assuming direct responsibility over the territory in 1966, but South Africa maintained de facto rule. In 1973 the UN recognised the South West Africa People's Organisation as the official representative of the Namibian people. Following continued guerrilla warfare, South Africa installed an interim administration in Namibia in 1985. Namibia obtained full independence from South Africa in 1990. However, Walvis Bay and the Penguin Islands remained under South African control until 1994.
Namibia has a population of a stable multi-party parliamentary democracy. Agriculture, herding and the mining industry – including mining for gem diamonds, gold and base metals – form the basis of its economy; the large, arid Namib Desert has resulted in Namibia being overall one of the least densely populated countries in the world. The name of the country is derived from the Namib Desert, considered to be the oldest desert in the world; the name Namib itself is of Nama origin and means "vast place". Before its independence in 1990, the area was known first as German South-West Africa as South-West Africa, reflecting the colonial occupation by the Germans and the South Africans; the dry lands of Namibia have been inhabited since early times by San and Nama. Around the 14th century, immigrating Bantu people began to arrive during the Bantu expansion from central Africa. From the late 18th century onward, Oorlam people from Cape Colony crossed the Orange River and moved into the area that today is southern Namibia.
Their encounters with the nomadic Nama tribes were peaceful. They received the missionaries accompanying the Oorlam well, granting them the right to use waterholes and grazing against an annual payment. On their way further north, the Oorlam encountered clans of the Herero at Windhoek and Okahandja, who resisted their encroachment; the Nama-Herero War broke out in 1880, with hostilities ebbing only after the German Empire deployed troops to the contested places and cemented the status quo among the Nama and Herero. The first Europeans to disembark and explore the region were the Portuguese navigators Diogo Cão in 1485 and Bartolomeu Dias in 1486, but the Portuguese did not try to claim the area. Like most of interior Sub-Saharan Africa, Namibia was not extensively explored by Europeans until the 19th century. At that time traders and settlers came principally from Sweden. In the late 19th century, Dorsland Trekkers crossed the area on their way from the Transvaal to Angola; some of them settled in Namibia instead of continuing their journey.
Namibia became a German colony in 1884 under Otto von Bismarck to forestall perceived British encroachment and was known as German South West Africa. The Palgrave Commission by the British governor in Cape Town determined that only the natural deep-water harbor of Walvis Bay was worth occupying and thus annexed it to the Cape province of British South Africa. From 1904 to 1907, the Herero and the Namaqua took up arms against brutal German colonialism. In calculated punitive action by the German occupiers, government officials ordered extinction of the natives in the Herero and Namaqua genocide. In what has been called the "first genocide of the 20th century", the Germans systematically killed 10,000 Nama and 65,000 Herero; the survivors, when released from detention, were subjected to a policy of dispossession, forced labor, racial segregation, and
African Growth and Opportunity Act
The African Growth and Opportunity Act, or AGOA is a piece of legislation, approved by the U. S. Congress in May 2000; the purpose of this legislation is to assist the economies of sub-Saharan Africa and to improve economic relations between the United States and the region. After completing its initial 15-year period of validity, the AGOA legislation was extended on 29 June 2015 by a further 10 years, to 2025. Rosa Whitaker, who served as the first Assistant U. S. Trade Representative for Africa in the administrations of Presidents George W. Bush and William J. Clinton took the final lead in developing and implementing the African Growth and Opportunity Act following nearly a decade of leadership on the part of activists such as Paul Speck at Environmental and Energy Institute, lawmakers, including Congressman Jim McDermott and Senator John Kerry, both senior lawmakers in the area of international trade. AGOA was signed by President Clinton into law in May 2000; the legislation was reviewed again in 2015, was renewed.
The revisions made it easier to become eligible and focused on improving the future business environment in developing African countries. The legislation authorized the President of the United States to determine which sub-Saharan African countries would be eligible for AGOA on an annual basis; the eligibility criteria was to improve labor rights and movement toward a market-based economy. Each year, the President evaluates the sub-Saharan African countries and determines which countries should remain eligible. Countries' inclusion has fluctuated with changes in the local political environment. In December 2009, for example, Guinea and Niger were all removed from the list of eligible countries. Notice was given that Burundi would lose its AGOA eligibility status as of 1 January 2016. In August, 2017, Togo was recognized as an eligible country. Having AGOA eligibility does not imply automatic eligibility for a "Wearing Apparel" provision. To export apparel and certain textile to the United States under the AGOA duty-free, an eligible country must have implemented a "Visa System" that satisfies American authorities and proves compliance with the AGOA Rules of Origin.
AGOA provides trade preferences for quota and duty-free entry into the United States for certain goods, expanding the benefits under the Generalized System of Preferences program. Notably, AGOA expanded market access for textile and apparel goods into the United States for eligible countries, though many other goods are included; this resulted in the growth of an apparel industry in southern Africa, created hundreds of thousands of jobs. However, the dismantling of the Multi Fibre Agreement's world quota regime for textile and apparel trade in January 2005 reversed some of the gains made in the African textile industry due to increased competition from developing nations outside of Africa China; some factories shut down in Lesotho. Orders from African manufacturers stabilised somewhat after the imposition of certain safeguard measures by U. S. authorities, but Africa's share of the U. S. market was still reduced after the phaseout. AGOA has resulted in limited successes in some countries. In addition to growth in the textile and apparel industry, some AGOA countries have begun to export new products to the United States, such as cut flowers, horticultural products, automotive components and steel.
While Nigeria and Angola are the largest exporters under AGOA, other countries South Africa's have been more diverse and unlike the former are not concentrated in the energy sector. To some countries, including Lesotho, Swaziland and Madagascar, AGOA remains of critical importance. Agricultural products are a promising area for AGOA trade. S. sanitary and phytosanitary standards. The U. S. government is providing technical assistance to AGOA eligible countries to help them benefit from the legislation, through the U. S. Agency for International Development and other agencies; the U. S. government has established three regional trade hubs in Africa in Accra, Ghana. AGOA was set to expire in 2008, but the United States Congress passed the AGOA Acceleration Act of 2004, which extended the legislation to 2015, it has since been extended by 10 years from 2015 to 2025. The Act's apparel special provision, which permits lesser-developed countries to use foreign fabric for their garment exports, was to expire in September 2007.
However, legislation passed by Congress in December 2006 extended it through 2012, to 2025 as part of the general AGOA extension in June 2015. Every year an AGOA Forum is held, which brings together government leaders and private sector stakeholders from Africa and the United States; the Forum is held in Washington every other year, in an AGOA eligible African country in the other years. So far, the Forum has been held four times in Washington, once each in Mauritius, Ghana, Zambia, Ethiopia and Togo.. Statistics suggest a positive balance of trade for AGOA participant countries. In FY2008, the United States exported $17,125,389 in goods to the 41 AGOA countries, the U. S. imported $81,426,951 for a balance of $64,301,562 in favor of the AGOA countries. Some allege. Furthermore, it is seen as a one-sided agreement as there was little African involvement in its prep
Foreign relations of Namibia
Namibia follows a independent foreign policy, with strong affiliations with states that aided the independence struggle, including Libya and Cuba. In Africa, Namibia has been involved in conflicts in neighbouring Angola as well as Democratic Republic of the Congo. Namibia is a member of 47 international organizations; these are: Namibia became the 160th member of the United Nations on 23 April 1990 upon independence. With a small army and a fragile economy, the Namibian Government's principal foreign policy concern is developing strengthened ties within the Southern African region. A dynamic member of the Southern African Development Community, Namibia is a vocal advocate for greater regional integration. Namibia is involved in several minor international disputes. Commission established with Botswana to resolve small residual disputes along the Caprivi Strip, including the Situngu marshlands along the Linyanti River Botswana residents protest Namibia's planned construction of the Okavango hydroelectric dam on Popa Falls Managed dispute with South Africa over the location of the boundary in the Orange River Dormant dispute remains where Botswana, Namibia and Zimbabwe boundaries converge Angolan rebels and refugees still reside in Namibia Namibia has been a Commonwealth republic since 1990, when South West Africa became independent of South Africa.
List of diplomatic missions in Namibia List of diplomatic missions of Namibia
Djibouti–United States relations
Djibouti – United States relations are bilateral relations between Djibouti and the United States. In April 1977, the United States established a consulate general in Djibouti and, upon independence in June 1977, raised the status of its mission to an embassy; the first U. S. ambassador to the Republic of Djibouti arrived in October 1980. Over the past decade, the United States has been a principal provider of humanitarian assistance for famine relief and has sponsored health care, good governance and security assistance programs. Djibouti has allowed the U. S. military, as well as other nations' militaries, access to its airport facilities. The Djiboutian Government has been supportive of U. S. and Western interests during the Gulf crisis of 1990-91 and after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. In 2002, Djibouti agreed to host a U. S. military presence at Camp Lemonnier, a former French Foreign Legion base outside the capital that now houses four thousand personnel. U. S. service members provide humanitarian support and development as well as security and counterterrorism assistance to people and governments of the Horn of Africa and Yemen.
As a victim of past international terrorist attacks, President Guelleh continues to take a proactive position against terrorism. "The fact that we welcome the U. S. forces in our country show our support for international peace and for peace in our region as well," Said Guelleh. "We do that all for peace in the world and for peace in Africa." In 2014, the U. S. reached a long term agreement with the government of Djibouti to continue utilizing Camp Lemonnier. The U. S. military uses airstrips in more remote parts of the country for drone operations. Outside of the base agreement, President Barack Obama pledged to increase financial aid to Djibouti, including helping to expand skills training and foreign aid. Principal U. S. officials include: Ambassador – Larry André Jr. Foreign relations of the United States Foreign relations of Djibouti History of Djibouti - U. S. relations Embassy of U. S. A. - Djibouti This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm
Foreign relations of the United States
The United States has formal diplomatic relations with most nations. This includes all U. N. member states except for Bhutan, North Korea, Syria. Additionally, the U. S. has diplomatic relations with the Holy See and Kosovo. The United States federal statutes relating to foreign relations can be found in Title 22 of the United States Code. American relations with Eastern Europe are influenced by the legacy of the Cold War. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, former Communist-bloc states in Europe have transitioned to democracy and capitalism. Many have joined the European Union and NATO, strengthening economic ties with the broader Western world and gaining the military protection of the United States via the North Atlantic Treaty; the United States has many important allies in the Greater Middle East region. These allies are Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Israel, Kuwait and Qatar. Israel and Egypt are leading recipients of United States foreign aid, receiving $2.775 billion and 1.75 billion in 2010.
Turkey is an ally of the United States through its membership in NATO, while all of the other countries except Saudi Arabia and Qatar are major non-NATO allies. The United States toppled the government of Saddam Hussein during the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Turkey is host to 90 B61 nuclear bombs at Incirlik Air Base. Other allies include Qatar, where 3,500 U. S. troops are based, Bahrain, where the United States Navy maintains NSA Bahrain, home of NAVCENT and the Fifth Fleet. Many countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations are important partners for United States in both economic and geostrategic aspects. ASEAN's geostrategic importance stems from many factors, including: the strategic location of member countries, the large shares of global trade that pass through regional waters, the alliances and partnerships which the United States shares with ASEAN member states. In July 2009, the United States signed ASEAN's Treaty of Amity and Cooperation, which establishes guiding principles intended to build confidence among its signatories with the aim of maintaining regional peace and stability.
Trade flows are robust and increasing between the ASEAN region. Belarus Libya Sudan Syria Yemen Andorra Antigua and Barbuda Bhutan Comoros Dominica Grenada Guinea-Bissau Iran Kiribati Liechtenstein Maldives Monaco Nauru North Korea Palestine Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino São Tomé and Príncipe Seychelles Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu Abkhazia Artsakh Northern Cyprus Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Somaliland South Ossetia Transnistria Arctic policy of the United States Criticism of United States foreign policy Foreign policy of the United States List of diplomatic missions in the United States List of diplomatic missions of the United States Major non-NATO ally United States involvement in regime change United States foreign aid Watching America Guide to Countries, Office of the Historian, U. S. Department of State This article i
Ethiopia–United States relations
Ethiopia–United States relations are bilateral relations between Ethiopia and the United States. Ethiopia is a strategic partner of the United States in the Global War on Terrorism; the United States is the largest donor to Ethiopia: in 2008 U. S. foreign aid to Ethiopia totaled US$969 million, in 2009 US$916, with 2010 estimated at US$513 and US$586 requested for 2011. U. S. development assistance to Ethiopia is focused on reducing famine vulnerability and poverty and emphasizes economic and social sector policy reforms. Some military training funds, including training in such issues as the laws of war and observance of human rights are provided; the Ethiopian government has been criticized for severe human rights violations. According to Human Rights Watch, the aid given by the United States is being abused to erode democracy in Ethiopia; the current Ambassador of Ethiopia to the United States is Girma Birru. Principal U. S. Officials include Ambassador Michael A. Deputy Chief of Mission Troy Fitrell.
The U. S. Embassy in Ethiopia is located in Addis Ababa. According to the 2016 U. S. Global Leadership Report, 29% of Ethiopians approve of U. S. leadership, with 4% disapproving and 67% uncertain. U. S.-Ethiopian relations were established in 1903, after nine days of meetings in Ethiopia between Emperor Menelik II and Robert P. Skinner, an emissary of President Theodore Roosevelt; this first step was augmented with treaties of arbitration and conciliation signed at Addis Ababa 26 January 1929. These formal relations included a grant of Most Favored Nation status, were good up to the Italian occupation in 1935. Warqenah Eshate, while visiting the United States in 1927, visited Harlem, where he delivered Ras Tafari's greetings to the African-American community and Tafari's invitation to skilled African Americans to settle in Ethiopia. A number of African-Americans did travel to Ethiopia, such as John Robinson who became the commander of the Ethiopian Air force, where they played a number of roles in the modernization of the country before the Italian conquest in 1935.
In his autobiography, Emperor Haile Selassie notes that the United States was one of only five countries which refused to recognize the Italian conquest of his country. Following the return of Emperor Haile Selassie to Ethiopia, the United States certified Ethiopia for participation in Lend-Lease; this was followed on 16 May 1944 by the arrival of what was called the Fellows Mission, led by James M. Landis. Another significant event transpired in January 1944, when President Franklin Roosevelt met with Emperor Haile Selassie aboard the USS Quincy in the Great Bitter Lake of Egypt. Although no matters of substance were resolved, the meeting both strengthened the Emperor's strong predilection towards the United States, as well as discomforted the British, at odds with the Ethiopian government over the disposition of Eritrea and the Ogaden; these ties were strengthened with the signing of the September 1951 treaty of amity and economic relations. In 1953, a further two agreements were signed: a mutual defense assistance agreement, under which the United States agreed to furnish military equipment and training, an accord regularizing the operations of a U.
S. communication facility at Kagnew Station. In 1957 U. S. Vice President Richard Nixon visited Ethiopia and called it "one of the United States' most stalwart and consistent allies". In addition, during the 1960s the U. S. Army provided mapping for much of the country of Ethiopia in an operation known as the Ethiopia-United States Mapping Mission. Through fiscal year 1978, the United States provided Ethiopia with $282 million in military assistance and $366 million in economic assistance in agriculture, public health, transportation. Ethiopia was one of the first countries to take part in the American Peace Corps program, which emphasized agriculture, basic education, health, economic development and teaching English as a foreign language; the Peace Corps reports that since 1962, when its first volunteers arrived in Ethiopia, a total of 2,934 volunteers have served in that country. U. S. Information Service educational and cultural exchanges were an important part of their relations. After the Ethiopian Revolution, the bilateral relationship began to cool due to the Derg's linking with international communism and U.
S. revulsion at the junta's human rights abuses. The United States rebuffed Ethiopia's request for increased military assistance to intensify its fight against the Eritrean secessionist movement and to repel the Somali invasion; the International Security and Development Act of 1985 prohibited all U. S. economic assistance to Ethiopia with the exception of humanitarian disaster and emergency relief. In July 1980, the U. S. Ambassador to Ethiopia was recalled at the request of the Ethiopian Government, the U. S. Embassy in Ethiopia and the Ethiopian Embassy in the United States were headed subsequently by Charges d'Affaires. With the downfall of Mengistu Haile Mariam, U. S.-Ethiopian relations improved as legislative restrictions on non-humanitarian assistance to Ethiopia were lifted. Diplomatic relations were upgraded to the ambassadorial level in 1992. Total U. S. government assistance, including food aid, between 1991 and 2003 was $2.3 billion. During the severe drought year of 2003, the U. S. provided a record $553.1 million in assistance.
The U. S. Congress, attempted to set conditions, over the objections of the Bush Administration. In October, 2007, the House of Representatives passed the Ethiopia Democracy and Accountability Act of 2007, banning military aid, for other th