The greater kudu is a woodland antelope found throughout eastern and southern Africa. Despite occupying such widespread territory, they are sparsely populated in most areas due to declining habitat and poaching; the greater kudu is one of two species known as kudu, the other being the lesser kudu, T. imberbis. Kudu, or koodoo, is the Khoikhoi name for this antelope. Tragos elaphos a deer. Strepho means "twist", strephis is "twisting". Keras refers to the horn of the animal. Greater kudus have a narrow body with long legs, their coats can range from brown/bluish grey to reddish brown, they possess between 12 vertical white stripes along their torso. The head tends to be darker in colour than the rest of the body, exhibits a small white chevron which runs between the eyes. Greater kudu bulls tend to be much larger than the cows, vocalize much more, utilizing low grunts, clucks and gasping; the bulls have large manes running along their throats, large horns with two and a half twists, were they to be straightened, would reach an average length of 120 cm, with the record being 187.64 cm.
They diverge as they slant back from the head. The horns do not begin to grow until the bull is between the age of 6–12 months, twisting once at around 2 years of age, not reaching the full two and a half twists until they are 6 years old; this is one of the largest species of antelope. Bulls weigh 190–270 kg, with a maximum of 315 kg, stand up to 160 cm tall at the shoulder; the ears of the greater kudu are round. Cows stand as little as 100 cm tall at the shoulder; the head-and-body length is 185 -- 245 cm. Four subspecies have been described, but only one to three subspecies have been accepted based on colour, number of stripes and horn length: T. s. strepsiceros – southern parts of the range from southern Kenya to Namibia and South Africa T. s. chora – northeastern Africa from northern Kenya through Ethiopia to eastern Sudan, western Somalia and Eritrea T. s. cottoni – Chad and western SudanThis classification was supported by the genetic difference of one specimen of northern Kenya in comparison with several samples from the southern part of the range between Tanzania and Zimbabwe.
No specimen of the northwestern population, which may represent a third subspecies was tested within this study. In Groves and Grubb's book Ungulate Taxonomy, a recent taxonomic revision was made that evaluated all species and subspecies of kudu and other ungulates; this review split the genus Tragelaphus into 4 separate genera, Ammelaphus and their close relatives Taurotragus. The greater kudu was split into four species based on genetic morphological features; each species was based on a different subspecies, Strepsiceros strepsiceros, Strepsiceros chora, Strepsiceros cottoni, Strepsiceros zambesiensis, not accepted as a subspecies. The Cape kudu is found in south central South Africa, the Zambezi kudu is found from northern to southern Tanzania and northern South Africa and Angola through Zambia and eastern DR Congo, the northern kudu is found in eastern Sudan southwards through Ethiopia and Kenya to the Tanzanian border, the western kudu is found in southeastern Chad, western Sudan, in northern Central African Republic.
Although this alternative taxonomy is not accepted, it was accepted in the Handbook of the Mammals of the World. The range of the greater kudu extends from the east in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Kenya into the south where they are found in Zambia, Namibia, Botswana and South Africa. Other regions where greater kudu are located are Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Malawi, Somalia and Uganda, they have been introduced in small numbers into New Mexico, but were never released into the wild. Their habitat includes mixed scrub woodlands (the greater kudu is one of the few largest mammals that prefer living in settled areas – in scrub woodland and bush on abandoned fields and degraded pastures, mopane bush and acacia in lowlands and mountains, they will venture onto plains only if there is a large abundance of bushes, but avoid such open areas to avoid becoming an easy target for their predators. Their diet consists of leaves, grass and tubers, roots and fruit. During the day, greater kudus cease to be active and instead seek cover under woodland during hot days.
They feed and drink in the early morning and late afternoon, acquiring water from waterholes or roots and bulbs that have a high water content. Although they tend to stay in one area, the greater kudu may search over a large distance for water in times of drought, in southern Namibia where water is scarce they have been known to cover extensive distances in short periods of time. Predators of the greater kudu consist of lions, Spotted hyenas, African hunting dogs. Although cheetahs and leopards prey on greater kudus, they are unable to bring down a bull, consequen
The red hartebeest is a species of even-toed ungulate in the family Bovidae found in Southern Africa. More than 130,000 individuals live in the wild; the red hartebeest is related to the tsessebe and the topi. Alcelaphus buselaphus caama is a large African antelope of the family Bovidae, one of ten subspecies. Known as the red hartebeest, it is the most colorful hartbeest, with black markings contrasting against its white abdomen and behind, it has a longer face. The average weight of a male is about 150 kg, female is 120 kg, their average shoulder height is 135 cm, horns are 60 cm long. The life expectancy of a red hartebeest is around 19 years. Little sexual dimorphism is noted between males and females, showing no distinct identifiable physical features, but body size is affected. Horn size, expresses more dimorphism between males and females, as males fight and defend themselves for sexual selection. Thus, male skull weight and circumference is greater than that of the female. Hartebeests have an excellent sense of smell, although their sense of sight is poor.
When alarmed, hartebeests elude confusion before running, by which they can reach a maximum speed of 55 km/h. Their evasion tactic is to run in a zigzag pattern. A. buselaphus subspecies have a gestation period of eight months, they give birth to single calves. They give birth in a seasonal pattern before the summer rain begins. After birth, calves are hidden in dense vegetation before joining a group to increase their chances of survival from predators, since they are weak. Most females begin breeding after the age of two, can conceive again 9 or 10 months after giving birth. Red hartebeests are grass feeders, evidenced by their long snouts, which give the advantage of an improved cropping ability to acquire and masticate grasses more efficiently. During the rainy season in southern Africa, the grass species Andropogon is in abundance and is the main source of dietary consumption; as grazers, their diets fluctuate seasonally, as they consume higher-quality, green primary production in wet seasons, lower-quality sheath material in the dry seasons.
Hartebeests are considered less water-dependent than most alcelaphines, only needing to drink water when melons and tubers are inaccessible. The few carnivores preying on hartebeests in southern Africa include lions, spotted hyenas and cheetahs. However, hartebeests are not the primary food source of any of these species spotted hyenas. Lions only consume hartebeests for about 7% of their diets, hyenas consume hartebeests in 3.5%, cheetahs consume hartebeests in 1.75%, leopards consume hartebeests in 6.25% of their diets. Lions prey on adult males, while both spotted hyenas and leopards tend to prey on young calves; these predatory habits are attributed to the difficulty of catching nomadic hartebeests, as well as the better success hyenas and leopards have with catching calves. Hunting is always an issue to consider in rural areas, since little enforcement of animal protection laws is possible, or there can be no established regulations at all. Hunting hartebeests for survival is an ancient practice: persistence hunting in the hottest part of the day was most common, when hunters could catch the animal at its weakest point.
Over the past 20 years, one of the only places where persistence hunting still occurs is in central Kalahari. The red hartebeest is found in southwestern Africa. Southern Africa's dissected topography, geologic diversity, climate oscillations, mosaic of distinct vegetation types has been the primary means for radiation and diversification amidst hartebeest species, which has led red hartebeests to vary in their capacity to consume the diets they do. Most ungulates in Africa are nomadic, as they are dependent on food sources that become depleted if they stay in one place. A. buselaphus lives in herds in open scrublands in the sub-Saharan African climate. In the early 1900s, "antelope" was a broad, ambiguous name given to most hollow-horned ruminants besides oxen and goats. Of these antelopes found in Africa and Europe, Africa has the most diverse populations of antelopes, with horn lengths ranging from six feet long, to a quarter of an inch. A. b. caama, from the family Bovidae, used to be categorized as the subfamily of Bubalinae, but are now classified under the subfamily Alcelaphini.
This youngest of all African bovid subfamilies dates back 5 million years ago, has exhibited great diversification. The oldest fossil of Alcelaphus has been dated to 740,000 years ago. Besides Alcelaphus, the three other genera from the Alcelaphini are Beatragus and Damaliscus. Over millions of years, the Alcelaphini have diversified to fill certain niches and have spread to different habitats across the continent of Africa; the genus Alcelaphus is suggested to have evolved and diversified due to climate variability over a range of habitats in the Pleistocene era. About 500,000 years ago, the Alcelaphini diverged into northern and southern clades, while the northern clade diverged once more into eastern and western lineages 400,000 years ago; the species Alcelaphus caama originated from the southern clade including lichtensteinii, in Namibia. The northern clade comprises the rest of the hartebeest complex. Diversification of these species has been attributed to environmental and habitat changes due to global warming around 250 to 195 thousand years ago, global cooling 175 to 125 thousand years ago.
National Geographic Video African
The roan antelope is a savanna antelope found in West, Central and Southern Africa. It is the namesake of the Chevaline project, whose name was taken from the French Antilope Chevaline. Roan antelope are one of the largest species of antelopes, only Elands and large male Kudus can exceed them in weight, they measure 190–240 cm from the head to the base of tail and the tail measures 37–48 cm. The body mass of males is 242–300 kg and of females is 223–280 kg; the shoulder of this species is around 130–140 cm. Named for their roan colour, they have lighter underbellies, white eyebrows and cheeks and black faces, lighter in females, they have short, erect manes light beards and prominent red nostrils. The horns are ringed and can reach a metre long in males shorter in females, they arch backwards slightly. They can be confused where their ranges overlap. Sable antelope males are darker, being black rather than dark brown. Roan antelope are found in woodland and grassland savanna in the tropical and subtropical grasslands and shrublands biome, which range in tree density from forest with a grassy understorey to grasslands dotted with few trees, where they eat midlength grasses.
They form harem groups of five to 15 animals with a dominant male. Roan antelope fight among themselves for dominance of their herd, brandishing their horns while both animals are on their knees; the roan antelope shares the genus Hippotragus with the extinct bluebuck and the sable antelope, is a member of the family Bovidae. It was first described by French naturalist Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire in 1803; the specific epithet equinus derives from the Latin equus, referring to the horse-like appearance of this antelope. In 1996, an analysis of mitochondrial DNA extracted from a mounted specimen of the bluebuck that it was outside the clade containing the roan and sable antelopes; the study therefore concluded that the bluebuck is a distinct species, not a subspecies of the roan antelope. The cladogram below shows the position of the roan antelope among its relatives, following the 1996 analysis: In 1974, palaeoanthropologist Richard Klein studied the fossils of Hippotragus species in South Africa.
Most of these were found to represent the roan antelope. The roan antelope seems to have appeared in the Nelson Bay Cave following climatic changes in the Holocene. Six subspecies are recognised: H. e. bakeri: Occurs in Sudan. H. e. cottoni Dollman and Burlace, 1928: Occurs in Angola, southern Democratic Republic of Congo and northern Malawi, Zambia. H. e. equinus É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1803: Occurs in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe. H. e. koba: Range extends from Senegal to Benin. H. e. langheldi Matschie, 1898: Occurs in Burundi, northern Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, South Sudan and Uganda. H. e. scharicus: Occurs in Cameroon, Central African Republic and eastern Nigeria. The roan antelope is a large antelope with a horse-like build, it is the largest antelope in the genus Hippotragus. The roan antelope stands 135–160 centimetres at the shoulder, weighs 230–320 kilograms; the head-and-body length is between 235 and 285 centimetres. The dark tail, terminating in a black tuft, measures 54 centimetres.
Characteristic features include a short and erect mane of greyish brown hair extending from the back of the neck along the midline of the back up to the rump, white patches around the eyes and the mouth on the otherwise black face, long, narrow ears with 3–5 centimetres long tufts. The long legs are supported by false hooves; the short, smooth coat is brown to amber. The ventral parts are yellow to white, while the mane are grey to black; the sable antelope is notably darker. "Maharif". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. A subspecies
Nama are an African ethnic group of South Africa and Botswana. They traditionally speak the Nama language of the Khoe-Kwadi language family, although many Nama speak Afrikaans; the Nama are the largest group of the Khoikhoi people, most of whom have disappeared as a group, except for the Namas. Many of the Nama clans live in Central Namibia and the other smaller groups live in Namaqualand, which today straddles the Namibian border with South Africa. For thousands of years, the Khoisan peoples of South Africa and southern Namibia maintained a nomadic life, the Khoikhoi as pastoralists and the San people as hunter-gatherers; the Nama are a Khoikhoi group. The Nama lived around the Orange River in southern Namibia and northern South Africa; the early colonialists referred to them as Hottentots. Their alternative historical name, "Namaqua", stems from the addition of the Khoekhoe language suffix "-qua/khwa", meaning "people", to the language name. From 1904 to 1907, the Germans, who had colonised present-day Namibia, waged war against the Nama and the Herero, leading to the Herero and Namaqua genocide in which they killed at least 80% of the Nama and Herero populations.
This was motivated by the German desire to establish a prosperous colony which required displacing the indigenous people from their agricultural land. Large herds of cattle were confiscated and Nama and Herero people were driven into the desert and in some cases interned in concentration camps on the coast, for example at Shark Island. Additionally, the Nama and Herero were forced into slave labour to build railways and to dig for diamonds during the diamond rush. In the 1920s diamonds were discovered at the mouth of the Orange River, prospectors began moving there, establishing towns at Alexander Bay and Port Nolloth; this accelerated the appropriation of traditional lands. Under apartheid, remaining pastoralists were encouraged to abandon their traditional lifestyle in favour of village life. In 1991, a part of Namaqualand was named the Richtersveld National Park. In December 2002, ancestral lands, including the park, were returned to community ownership and the governments of South Africa and Namibia began creating a trans-frontier park from the west coast of southern Africa to the desert interior, absorbing the Richtersveld National Park.
Today, the Richtersveld National Park is one of the few places where the original Nama traditions survive. There, the Nama speak their language; the traditional Nama dwelling – the |haru oms, or portable rush-mat covered domed hut – protects against the blistering sun, is easy to move when grazing becomes scarce. At the dawn of the 19th century, Oorlam people encroached into Damaraland, they descended from indigenous Khoikhoi but were a group with mixed ancestry including Europeans and slaves from Madagascar and Indonesia. After two centuries of assimilation into the Nama culture, many Oorlams today regard Khoikhoigowab as their mother tongue, though others speak Afrikaans; the distinction between Namas and Oorlams has disappeared over time to an extent where they are today regarded as one ethnic group, despite their different ancestries. Apart from Oorlam clans there are clans, of Nama, their names and tribal centres are: Khaiǁkhaun at Hoachanas, the main group and the oldest Nama clan in Namibia ǃGamiǂnun at Warmbad ǂAonin at Rooibank ǃGomen at Sesfontein ǃKharakhoen at Gochas.
After being defeated by Imperial Germany's Schutztruppe in the Battle of Swartfontein on 15 January 1905, this Nama group split into two. Part of the ǃKharakhoen fled to Lokgwabe and stayed there permanently, the part that remained on South West African soil relocated their tribal centre to Amper-Bo. In 2016 David Hanse was inaugurated as chief of the clan. ǁHawoben at Koës! Aman at Bethanie, led by Cornelius Frederick ǁOgain at Schlip ǁKhauǀgoan at Rehoboth at Salem and Franzfontein The Kharoǃoan under the leadership of Hendrik Tseib split from the Red Nation in February 1850 and settled at Keetmanshoop. In general the Nama practice a policy of communal land ownership. Music and story telling are important in Nama culture and many stories have been passed down orally through the generations; the Nama have a culture, rich in the musical and literary abilities of its people. Traditional music, folk tales and praise poetry have been handed down for generations and form the base for much of their culture.
They are known for crafts which include leatherwork, skin karosses and mats, musical instruments, clay pots, tortoiseshell powder containers. Many of the Nama people in South Namibia have lost their lands during German colonialism. New Namibian minister of land reform, Uutoni Nujoma has been accused of preferring other Namibians from other regions over native Namas; the traditional dress of Nama women consists of long, formal dresses that resemble Victorian traditional fashion. The long, flowing dresses were developed from the style of the missionaries in the 1800s, this traditional clothing is today an integral part of the Nama nation's culture, they have abandoned their traditional religion through the sustained efforts of Christian proselytisers. The majority of the Nama people in Namibia today are therefore Christian whil
South African rand
The rand is the official currency of South Africa. The rand is subdivided into 100 cents; the ISO 4217 code is ZAR, from Zuid-Afrikaanse rand. The rand is legal tender in the Common Monetary Area between South Africa, Swaziland and Namibia, although the last three countries do have their own currencies pegged at par with the rand; when referring to the currency, the abbreviation is upper case "R", but the name is spelt "rand" in lower case in both English and Afrikaans. Before 1976, the rand was legal tender in Botswana; the rand takes its name from the Witwatersrand, the ridge upon which Johannesburg is built and where most of South Africa's gold deposits were found. The rand was introduced in the Union of South Africa on 14 February 1961, three months before the country declared itself a republic. A Decimal Coinage Commission had been set up in 1956 to consider a move away from the denominations of pounds and pence, it replaced the South African pound as legal tender, at the rate of 2 rand to 1 pound, or 10 shillings to the rand.
The government introduced a mascot, Decimal Dan, "the rand-cent man". This was accompanied by a radio jingle. One rand was worth US$1.40 from the time of its inception in 1961 until late-1971. Its value thereafter fluctuated as various exchange rate dispensations were implemented by the South African authorities. By the early-1980s, high inflation and mounting political pressure combined with sanctions placed against the country due to international opposition to the apartheid system had started to erode its value; the currency broke above parity with the dollar for the first time in March 1982, continued to trade between R 1 and R 1.30 to the dollar until June 1984, when depreciation of the currency gained momentum. By February 1985, it was trading at over R 2 per dollar, in July that year, all foreign exchange trading was suspended for three days to try to stop the depreciation. By the time that State President P. W. Botha made his Rubicon speech on 15 August 1985, it had weakened to R 2.40 per dollar.
The currency recovered somewhat between 1986–88, trading near the R 2 level most of the time and breaking beneath it sporadically. The recovery was short-lived, by the end of 1989, the rand was trading at more than R 2.50 per dollar. As it became clear in the early-1990s that the country was destined for Black majority rule and one reform after the other was announced, uncertainty about the future of the country hastened the depreciation until the level of R 3 to the dollar was breached in November 1992. A host of local and international events influenced the currency after that, most notably the 1994 general election which had it weaken to over R 3.60 to the dollar, the election of Tito Mboweni as the Governor of the South African Reserve Bank, the inauguration of President Thabo Mbeki in 1999 which had it slide to over R 6 to the dollar. The controversial land reform programme, initiated in Zimbabwe, followed by the September 11, 2001 attacks, propelled it to its weakest historical level of R 13.84 to the dollar in December 2001.
This sudden depreciation in 2001 led to a formal investigation, which in turn led to a dramatic recovery. By the end of 2002, the currency was trading under R 9 to the dollar again, by the end of 2004 was trading under R 5.70 to the dollar. The currency softened somewhat in 2005, was trading around R 6.35 to the dollar at the end of the year. At the start of 2006, the currency resumed its rally, as of 19 January 2006, was trading under R 6 to the dollar again. However, during the second and third quarters of 2006, the rand weakened significantly. In sterling terms, it fell from around 9.5p to just over 7p, losing some 25% of its international trade-weighted value in just six months. In late-2007, the rand rallied modestly to just over 8p, only to experience a precipitous slide during the first quarter of 2008; this downward slide could be attributed to a range of factors: South Africa's worsening current account deficit, which widened to a 36‑year high of 7.3% of gross domestic product in 2007.
The rand depreciation was exacerbated by the Eskom electricity crisis, which arose from the utility being unable to meet the country's growing energy demands. A stalled mining industry in late-2012 led to new lows in early-2013. In late January 2014, the rand slid to R11.25 to the dollar, with analysts attributing the shift to "word from the US Federal Reserve that it would trim back stimulus spending, which led to a massive sell-off in emerging economies." In 2014, South Africa experienced its worst year against the US dollar since 2009, in March 2015, the rand traded at its worst since 2002. At the time, Trading Economics released data that the rand "averaged R4.97 to the dollar between 1972–2015, reaching an all time high of R12.45 in December 2001 and a record low of R0.67 in June of 1973." By the end of 2014, the rand had weakened to R 15.05 per dollar due to South Africa's consistent trade account deficit with the rest of the world. From 9–13 December 2015, over a four-day period, the r
Samuel Shafiishuna Daniel Nujoma, is a Namibian revolutionary, anti-apartheid activist and politician who served three terms as the first President of the Republic of Namibia, from 1990 to 2005. Nujoma was a founding member and the first president of the South West Africa People's Organization in 1960. Prior to 1960, SWAPO was known as OPO, he played an important role as leader of the national liberation movement in campaigning for Namibia's political independence from South African rule. He established the People's Liberation Army of Namibia in 1962 and launched a guerrilla war against the apartheid government of South Africa in August 1966 at Omungulugwombashe, beginning after the United Nations withdrew the mandate for South Africa to govern the territory. Nujoma led SWAPO during the lengthy Namibian War of Independence, which lasted from 1966 to 1989. During World War I, South Africa defeated the German colonial forces in South West Africa and established martial law in the colony after making a peace treaty in July 1915.
After the war, the League of Nations assigned the former German colony to the United Kingdom as a mandate under the administration of South Africa. When the National Party won the 1948 election in South Africa, it passed laws establishing racial segregation known as apartheid, it applied these laws to South West Africa as well, which it governed as the de facto fifth province of South Africa. Apartheid reduced the rights of natives, in particular. Nujoma became involved in anti-colonial politics during the 1950s. In 1959, he cofounded and served as the first president of the Ovamboland People's Organization, a nationalist organization advocating an independent Namibia. In December 1958 he was an organizer of the Old Location resistance and was arrested and deported to Ovamboland. In 1960 he went into exile in Tanzania where he was welcomed by Julius Nyerere. Namibia achieved independence in 1990, holding its first democratic elections. SWAPO won a majority and Nujoma was elected as the country's first President on 21 March 1990.
He was re-elected for two more terms in 1994 and 1999. Nujoma retired as SWAPO party president on 30 November 2007, he published his autobiography Where Others Wavered in 2005. He has received multiple honors and awards for his leadership, including the Lenin Peace Prize, Indira Gandhi Peace Prize, the Ho Chi Minh Peace Prize; the Parliament of Namibia honored him with the titles "Founding President of the Republic of Namibia" and "Father of the Namibian Nation". In 2007 SWAPO named him as "Leader of the Namibian Revolution." Samuel Shafiishuna Daniel Nujoma was born at Etunda, a village in Ongandjera, near the town of Okahao, Southwest Africa on 12 May 1929. Nujoma was born to Daniel Uutoni Nujoma, he is the eldest of his parents' eleven children. He spent much of his early childhood looking after his siblings and tending to the family's cattle and traditional farming activities, his educational opportunities were limited. He started attending a Finnish missionary school at Okahao when he was ten and completed Standard Six, as high as possible for blacks during the time.
In 1946, at age 17, he moved to Walvis Bay to live with his aunt, where he began his first employment at a general store for a monthly salary of 10 Shillings. He would also work at a whaling station. While there he was exposed to world politics by meeting soldiers from Argentina and other parts of Europe who had come during World War II. In 1949, Nujoma moved to Windhoek where he started work as a cleaner for the South African Railways, while attending adult night school at St Barnabas Anglican Church School in the Windhoek Old Location with the aim of improving his English, he further studied for his Junior Certificate through correspondence at the Trans‐Africa Correspondence College in South Africa. Nujoma became involved in politics in the early 1950s through trade unions. Nujoma's political outlook was shaped by his work experiences, his awareness of the contract labour system, his increasing knowledge of the independence campaigns across Africa. In 1957, at age 29, Nujoma resigned from SAR.
In 1957, a group of Namibians working in Cape Town led by Andimba Toivo ya Toivo formed the Ovamboland People's Congress. OPC was opposed to South African policies in South West Africa including the inhumane contract labour system under which people were forced to work for meagre wages. In 1958, ya Toivo sent a petition to the United Nations to force the apartheid regime to relinquish South West Africa to the Trusteeship Council of the United Nations, he was expelled from Cape Town to Windhoek and to Ovamboland where he was restricted. On 19 April 1959, Nujoma and OPC cofounder Jacob Kuhangua adapted a copy of the OPC constitution and formed the Ovamboland People's Organization in Windhoek. At its first congress Nujoma was elected president. During the next year he travelled Namibia in secret mobilizing and setting up branch structures of OPO. In September 1959, the South West African National Union was formed as an umbrella body for anti-colonial resistance groups. Nujoma joined its executive committee representing OPO.
After the Old Location Massacre on 10 December 1959, Nujoma was arrested and charged for organising the resistance and faced threats of deportation to the north of the country. By the directive of OPO leadership and in collaboration with Chief Hosea Kutako, it was decided that Nujoma join the other Namibians in exile who were lobbying the United Nations on behalf of the anti-colonial cause for Namibia. In 1960, Nujoma petitioned the UN through letters and even
The Namibia dollar has been the currency of Namibia since 1993. It is abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or alternatively N$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies, it is divided into 100 cents. The dollar replaced the South African rand, the country's currency while it was under South African rule as South-West Africa from 1920 until 1990, at par; the rand is still legal tender, as the Namibian dollar is linked to the South African rand and can be exchanged on a one-to-one basis locally. Namibia was part of the Common Monetary Area from independence in 1990 until the introduction of the dollar in 1993; the Bank of Namibia issued the first banknotes on 15 September 1993 and, in December, issued the first national coins. Coins in circulation 5 c 10 c 50 c $1 $5 $10Years of mintage are 1993, 1996, 1998, 2000, 2002, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2012, 2015; the cent coins are made of the dollar coins of brass. Banknotes in circulation $10 $20 $50 $100 $200Historically, Hendrik Witbooi, once chief of the Namaqua people and instrumental in leading the revolts against German rule at the turn of the 20th century, has been depicted on all Namibian banknotes.
However, on 21 March 2012, the Bank of Namibia introduced a new series of banknotes to be issued in May 2012. The new family of banknotes will have the same denomination structure as the current series. All denominations have improved anti-counterfeiting features, the portrait of Hendrik Witbooi are retained for all but the 10- and 20-dollar notes, which feature a new portrait of Sam Nujoma, the founding president and father of the Namibian nation; the Bank of Namibia has discovered that the diamond-shaped optically variable ink patch on the N$10 and N$20 notes was cracking after multiple folding and handling. The Bank of Namibia has issued in limited quantity, the N$10 and N$20 notes on paper with improved quality and shifted the placement of the diamond-shaped optically variable ink feature. During the planning phase of the introduction of a new national currency replacing the South African rand, the newly founded Bank of Namibia minted a proof series of coins denominated in dollars as well as in marks, for the consideration of the Namibian Ministry of Finance.
The decision fell in favour of the name ‘dollar’ for the new currency. The proof series consisted of four different coins: 1 mark, 1 dollar, 10 marks and 10 dollars; the obverse of the mark pieces shows a sitting lion where the dollar pieces depict a San with bow and arrow. All obverse sides bear the indication of denomination as well as the remark ‘PROBE’/‘ESSAI’; the reverse of the 1-mark/1-dollar pieces shows Namibia’s former coat of arms surrounded by the inscription ‘NAMIBIA’, the year and two ears of corn. The ten-mark/ten-dollar pieces bear the inscription ‘INDEPENDENCE’/‘UNABHÄNGIGKEIT’ instead of the ears. There was a series of Namibian pattern coins denominated in South African Rand dated 1990; this short-lived tender was cited in the 2005 edition of Krause's'Unusual World Coins'. Heiko Otto. "The banknotes of Namibia". Retrieved 2017-05-19