The Black Tusk
The Black Tusk is a stratovolcano and a pinnacle of volcanic rock in Garibaldi Provincial Park of British Columbia, Canada. At 2,319 m above sea level, the upper spire is visible from a great distance in all directions, it is noticeable from the Sea-to-Sky Highway just south of Whistler, British Columbia. Distinctive and identifiable, The Black Tusk is among the best known mountains in the Garibaldi Ranges of the Coast Mountains; the volcano is part of the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt, a segment of the Canadian Cascade Arc, but it is not within the geographic boundary of the Cascade Range. To Squamish people, this mountain is known as t. In their language it means "Landing Place of the Thunderbird", speaking of the supernatural in7in'a'xe7en or Thunderbird; the jagged shape of the mountain and its black colouring are said to come from the Thunderbird's lightning. The same is true for another stratovolcano farther north; the Black Tusk is considered to be the remnant of an extinct andesitic stratovolcano which formed between about 1.3 and 1.1 million years ago.
Following glacial dissection, renewed volcanism produced the lava dome and flow forming its summit about 170,000 years ago. According to Natural Resources Canada, The Black Tusk was "perhaps the conduit for lava within a cinder-rich volcano; the loose cinder has eroded, leaving only the hard lava core." The exposed lava rock of the core is friable. It is black, giving the mountain its name and character. Cinder Cone, to the east of The Black Tusk, produced a 9 km long lava flow during the late Pleistocene or early Holocene; the mountain hosts two significant glaciers, in large cirques carved into the northeastern and northwestern flanks of the broad cone below the lava pinnacle. Both glaciers start from about 2,100 flow northwards to below 1,800 m; the glaciers are covered in rocky debris due to the crumbling nature of the Tusk's rock. The Black Tusk is a member of the chain of volcanic peaks that run from southwestern British Columbia to northern California; the peaks formed in the past 35 million years as the Juan de Fuca and Explorer plates to its west have been subducting under the North American Plate at the Cascadia subduction zone.
The Black Tusk's lower flanks and south summit are a popular backcountry hiking and scrambling destination. Most hikers approach from the Taylor Meadows campground to the south near Garibaldi Lake, although there is a second route from the north that travels by way of Helm Lake; the upper summit area at the top of the lava column can only be reached by scrambling up a short but exposed rock chimney to reach the south summit. The true summit, only about a metre higher, lies just to the north across a precipitous drop, it is climbed, requiring a rappel of about 10 m into a notch followed by a loose and dangerous reascent up the crumbling lava. On the northern side of the north summit stands an isolated and intimidating rock formation known as the "Bishop's Mitre", rumoured to be unclimbed. Garibaldi Provincial Park Cascade Volcanoes Garibaldi Volcanic Belt List of volcanoes in Canada Volcanism of Canada Volcanism of Western Canada "The Black Tusk". Bivouac.com. "Black Tusk, The". BC Geographical Names.
"Black Tusk". Catalogue of Canadian volcanoes. Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Garibaldi Provincial Park "Garibaldi Lake". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Natural Resources Canada
The Tantalus Range is a subrange of the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains in southern British Columbia, Canada. The range is viewed from the "Sea to Sky Highway" that travels from Vancouver to Squamish and Whistler. To Squamish people, the local indigenous people of the area, the name of the Tantalus Range is Tsewílx'; the range's southern end is on the western edge of Squamish and it runs only about 35 km northwest on the west bank of the Squamish River and is less than 16 km wide at its widest. It is about 460000 ha in area. Mount Tantalus 2603 m is the highest in the range; the origin of the name, as well as the names of many of its peaks, are from Greek mythology. Tantalus was doomed in Hades to be half-submerged in cold water with fruit dangling close but not close enough to eat, where the word tantalize has its root; the name was conferred by a local mountain climber, "tantalized" by the sight of the range's impressive spires and icefalls from across the turbulent waters of the Squamish River.
Alternately, another version of the legend has Tantalus and his family frozen before a banquet, unable to move - descriptive of the ice-draped and somehow regal character of the peaks and icefields of the range.. The Tantalus Range is a favourite with climbers, with photographers and filmmakers; the best views of it can be had just north of Squamish from the Brohm Ridge and Cheakamus Canyon stretches of BC Highway 99. Neighbouring ranges: Garibaldi Ranges North Shore Mountains Clendinning Range Tantalus Provincial Park
The Bendor Range is a small but once-famous subrange of the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains, about It is 7,000 square kilometres in area and about 40 km long and about 18 km at its widest. It lies between Anderson Lake on the southeast and the Carpenter Lake Reservoir or the Bridge River Power Project on the north, with the gold-rich valley of Cadwallader Creek on its southwest; the range's western flank is the site of a series of now-semi-abandoned mining towns. One of these, Bralorne, is among the deepest mines in Canada and in its heyday was the third-richest gold mine in the world, its shafts plunge a mile beneath sea level under the range. The name "Bendor" is believed by some locally to be a Gaelic-French hybrid - ben d'or - mountain of gold - and while it does mean that, more or less, the name was conferred in honour of Bend Or, a famous racehorse of the 1890s; the range has only a few small icefields, but a number of high and difficult peaks. The highest is Whitecap Mountain 2918 m, visible from the Lillooet end of Seton Lake but, as it is located near the heart of the range, invisible from the towns and lakes around its perimeter.
At the northwest of the range, but invisible from the towns below because of the terrain of its flanks, is Mount Truax 2870 m. East of it are Mount Williams 2775 m and Mount Bobb 2821 m. Note: some classification systems assign the Bendor to the Chilcotin Ranges subgrouping of the Pacific Ranges, but this is incorrect as it is on the south side of the Bridge River, the limit of the Chilcotin Ranges. "Bendor Range". BC Geographical Names. Bridge River-Lillooet Country Archive Bendor Range entry in the Canadian Mountain Encyclopedia
Mount Bishop (Fannin Range)
Mount Bishop is a mountain located on the northern border of Mount Seymour Provincial Park in the District of North Vancouver, British Columbia. It is a part of the North Shore Mountains, rising from the shores of Indian Arm to a summit of 1,509 metres. Mount Bishop is a rocky summit with old growth on its lower slopes; the mountain was named in honour of Joseph Charles Bishop, the first president of the British Columbia Mountaineering Club, who died in 1913 after falling into a crevasse whilst climbing on Mount Baker. The first ascent of Mount Bishop was made in 1909 by a party of climbers from the British Columbia Mountaineering Club led by Fred Mills; the mountain was approached by boat to the top of Indian Arm, opposite Crocker Island, where the group camped overnight. In the morning they broke into two groups, the others climbing Mount Elsay and headed up Bishop Creek. Among the Bishop party was a Mr Cromie, former owner of the Vancouver News-Advertiser. Upon reaching the summits of the two mountains at about 9.30am, the two parties of climbers called to each other.
Although Mount Bishop is close to Vancouver, it is climbed. Hikers now approach this mountain from either the BCMC trail on the west shoulder of Mount Elsay, or the North Shore Rescue trail which runs up from the East side of the Seymour Dam. Both these trails bring one to Vicar Lake a steep climb brings the hiker up the west ridge of the mountain to the peak; the Peak is flanked by Mount Dickens on the North, with Elsay Lake and Mount Elsay to the South. This should be approached only with caution and experience. West Trail West Trail description on Club Tread website South Trail South Trail on Club Tread Archives Website of the North Vancouver Archives BCMC Website of the British Columbia Mountaineering Club Mount Bishop hiking route description Website of the Outdoor Vancouver
The Camelsfoot Range is a sub-range of the Chilcotin Ranges subdivision of the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains in British Columbia. The Fraser River forms its eastern boundary; the range is 90 km at its maximum length and less than 30 km wide at its widest. The far southeast end of the Camelsfoot is rugged, dropping to one last point at 7000'-plus before plunging into the gorge of the Fraser Canyon at Fountain, near Lillooet. For 45 km NW from there, the range is rocky and forested with lodgepole pine, breaking into high benchlands and large creek basins draining through benchland country via small canyons. Beyond that the range's terrain is much more gentle, with high, meadowed ridges running east towards the Fraser Canyon between treed plateaus and small canyons, a few large, barren domes running further north along the Fraser; the range is bounded on the north and west by a large and impressive benchland-and-hoodoo sand canyon similar to those along the range's east flank - that of Churn Creek, a provincial protected area.
The historic Empire Valley Ranch is near the mouth of Churn Creek and is provincially protected for heritage and environmental reasons. It is on a high side-valley above the Fraser Canyon. Camelsfoot Peak and the range itself take their name from an odd episode in the story of the Fraser and Cariboo Gold Rushes. Frank Laumeister, a United States veteran of the Camel Corps, bought 23 camels from the US military, ending their use, he used the animals to carry freight on the Douglas Road and the Old Cariboo Road from Lillooet to Fort Alexandria, on the new Cariboo Wagon Road from Yale. After this, he discontinued using the camels. Horses could not stand their smell, the camels' soft feet were hurt by the rocky soils of the BC Interior and the canyon trails, handlers found them difficult. Many escaped retirement into the wilds; the last confirmed sighting was in the Ashcroft area in 1905 1910 by some claims. Barroom stories recount sightings elsewhere in the southern Interior into the 1930s, but these are taken with the same amount of stock as the Sasquatch or the Cariboo Alligator.
The original Log Cabin Theatre in Lillooet, still exists today was used by Laumeister for a camel barn. No one knows; the new highway bridge in Lillooet is named the Bridge of the Twenty-Three Camels to commemorate their role in local history. The name of the Yalakom River is a simplified version of the Chilcotin word for the ewe of the mountain sheep. Shulaps, the name of the range to the west of the Camelsfoot, is a simplified version of the Chilcotin for the ram. There have been copper prospects operating on Red Mountain 2445 m, the highest in the range, on Poison Mountain 2264 m, just south Red, is located where the spine of the Shulaps Range intersects with that of the Camelsfoot, at the apex of the Yalakom valley which runs SE towards Lillooet from this point. Poison Mountain's name comes from the toxic leaching of its orebodies into local streams while Red's comes from the colour of its cuprous earth. Red's flanks show ziggurat-like scars that are evidence of the scale of ore-sampling that at one time was underway.
There are projected open-pit mine and smelter plans for the Poison Mountain-Red Mountain orebody, using power from the projected Hat Creek lignite deposits nearby on the other side of the Fraser. These have never been brought forward in the public planning process, nor are they to be given the scope of First Nations land claims in the immediate region. Red has a twin summit, French Mountain 2231 m named French Bar Mountain after a rich gold-bearing bar on the Fraser just east. North of them is a remote, gentle summit known as Black Dome Mountain 2252 m. China Head 2125 m and Nine Mile Ridge 2422 m are southeast of Red and are large, wide ridges covered in meadow. China Head's name is thought by some to have to do with a conical-shaped hill atop the ridge visible from the Fraser, but the name may have to do with long-established Lillooet entrepreneur Cheng Won, who owned a hog ranch on Leon Creek, another valley south and "Wo Hing General Store" in Lillooet; the term "head" in 19th-century frontier usage was a synonym for mountain or ridge or headland, not meant as a reference to a head.
Due south of it is the isolated massif of Yalakom Mountain 2424 m, one of the highest in the range and remains a redoubt of mountain sheep and other big game, was part of a long-standing wildlife preserve. East of Yalakom Mountain is Hogback Mountain 2149 m, whose name is not descriptive but concerns Cheng Won's hog ranch on its shoulders from which the pigs would run wild onto the mountain. South of Hogback and Leon Creek the range becomes much more rugged as it narrows. Mount Birch 2232 m, just south of Leon Creek, is named after the Lieutenant-Governor who ran the Crown Colony of British Columbia for most of the alcoholic Frederick Seymour's term as Governor. Birch has a twin summit on its short, sharp ridge - Mount Duncan 2182 m and a southern foreshoulder overlooking the confluence of the Yalakom and Bridge Rivers is named Mount Bishop 1,721 m. From Bishop south to the Fraser the boundary of the range is the lower stretches of the Bridge River, after its confluence with the Yalakom. A rural farming and ranching community named Moha called Yalakom, is located around that confluence, the lower end of the Big Canyon of the Bridge River.
Southeast from Duncan there is S
Brandywine Mountain, 2,213 m or 7,260 ft, is a summit in the Powder Mountain Icefield of the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains of southwestern British Columbia, about 25 km west of the resort town of Whistler. Its name is derived from that of Brandywine Falls, the result of a bet over the falls' height. Mount Fee Mount Cayley Mount Callaghan Brandywine Creek