Second Battle of Seoul
The Second Battle of Seoul was a battle that resulted in United Nations forces recapturing Seoul from the North Koreans in late September 1950. Before the battle, North Korea had just one understrength division in the city, with the majority of its forces south of the capital. MacArthur oversaw the 1st Marine Regiment as it fought through North Korean positions on the road to Seoul. Control of Operation Chromite was given to Major General Edward Almond, the X Corps commander. General Almond was in an enormous hurry to capture Seoul by September 25 three months after the North Korean assault across the 38th parallel; the advance on Seoul was bloody after the landings at Inchon. The reason was the appearance in the Seoul area of two first-class fighting units of the Korean People's Army, the 78th Independent Infantry Regiment and 25th Infantry Brigade, about 7,000 troops in all; the KPA launched a T-34 attack, trapped and destroyed, a Yak bombing run in Incheon harbor, which did little damage. The KPA attempted to stall the UN offensive to allow time to reinforce Seoul and withdraw troops from the south.
Though warned that the process of taking Seoul would allow remaining KPA forces in the south to escape, MacArthur felt that he was bound to honor promises given to the South Korean government to retake the capital as soon as possible. On the second day, vessels carrying the U. S. Army's 7th Infantry Division arrived in Incheon Harbor. General Almond was eager to get the division into position to block a possible enemy movement from the south of Seoul. On the morning of September 18, the division's 2nd Battalion, 32nd Infantry Regiment landed at Incheon and the remainder of the regiment went ashore in the day; the next morning, the 2nd Battalion moved up to relieve a U. S. Marine battalion occupying positions on the right flank south of Seoul. Meanwhile, the 7th Division's 31st Infantry Regiment came ashore at Incheon. Responsibility for the zone south of Seoul highway passed to the 7th Division at 18:00 on September 19; the 7th Infantry Division engaged in heavy fighting with KPA forces on the outskirts of Seoul.
The Marines entered Seoul shortly after 7:00am on September 25 to find it fortified. Buildings were defended by machine guns and snipers, on Ma Po Boulevard, the main road through the city, the KPA had established a series of 8-foot-high barricades of burlap bags filled with either sand or rice. Located about 200-300 yards apart, each major intersection of the city featured such a barricade, the approaches to which were laced with mines, which were defended by a 45mm anti-tank gun and machine guns; each had to be eliminated one at a time, it took the Marines, on average, 45–60 minutes to clear each position. Casualties mounted. Edwin H. Simmons, a Major in 3rd Battalion, 5th Marines, likened the experience of his company's advance up the boulevard to "attacking up Pennsylvania Avenue towards the Capital in Washington, D. C." He described the street as "once a busy, pleasant avenue lined with sycamores, groceries and tea shops." Anxious to pronounce the conquest of Seoul on MacArthur's insistence by the third-month anniversary of the war, Almond declared the city liberated on September 25, although Marines were still engaged in house-to-house combat.
Effective resistance would cease by September 27. After the battle, South Korean police executed citizens and their families who were suspected as communist sympathizers in what is known as the Goyang Geumjeong Cave and Namyangju massacres. Eugene A. Obregon, US Marine posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for shielding a fellow Marine during the battle First Battle of Seoul Third Battle of Seoul Operation Ripper Halberstam, David; the Coldest WInter – America and the Korean War. New York: Hyperion. ISBN 978-1-4013-0052-4. Hoyt, Edwin P. On To The Yalu, ISBN 0-8128-2977-8
Namyangju is a city in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. To the east is Gapyeong County, to the west is Guri City, to the north is Pocheon City. Namyangju historical character: Jeong Yak-yong Jeong Yag-yong or Dasan, was a leading Korean philosopher during the Joseon Dynasty, he is regarded as the greatest of the Silhak thinkers, who advocated that the formalist Neo-Confucian philosophy of Joseon return to practical concerns. Jeong Yag-yong and his brothers were among the earliest Korean converts to Roman Catholicism. Jeong was born, ended his days, in modern-day Namyangju, Gyeonggi province 1950 October to early 1951 Namyangju Massacre. 1980 April 1 Namyangju County was made with Guri-eup, Migeum-eup, Jinjeob-myeon, Jingeon-myeon, Hwado-myeon, Sudong-myeon, Wabu-myeon, Byeolnae-myeon 1980 December 1 Wabu-myeon became Wabu-eup 1983 February 15 Jingeon-myeon Yangji-ri, Onam-ri, Palheon-ri were absorbed by Jinjeob-myeon 1986 January 1 Guri-eup became Guri City 1986 April 1 Wabu-eup Joan branch office became Joan-myeon 1989 January 1 Migeum-eup became Miguem City 1989 April 1 Jinjeob-myeon became Jinjeob-eup 1989 April 1 Toegyewon branch office became Toegyewon-myeon 1991 December 1 Hwado-myeon became Hwado-eup 1992 April 1 In Jinjeob-eup, Onam branch office opened.
1995 January 1 Migeum City and Namyangju County were merged. 1995 May 6 Onam branch office became Onam-myeon 2001 September 12 Jingeon-myeon became Jingeon-eup 2001 September 12 Onam-myeon became Onam-eup 2005 June 1 In Byeolnae-mueon, Cheonghak branch office opened. 2006 January 20 Pungyang branch office opened. 2008 October 7 The population reached 500,000. 2009 December 14 Cheonghak branch office closed. 2011 September Namyangju Organic Museum opened, world's first museum of organic agriculture. 5 Eup-Hwado -Jinjeob -Jingeon -Onam -Wabu 4 Myeon-Byeolnae -Joan -Sudong -Toegyewon 7 Dong-Byeolnae -Donong -Geumgok -Hopyeong -Jigeum - Gaun, Suseok -Pyeongnae -Yangjeong - Ilpae, Sampae Namyangju is a northeastern city, part of the ring around Seoul. Seoul Ring Expressway passes through. Jungang Line passes through Namyangju. - Donong station, Yangjeong station, Dukso station, Dosim station, Paldang station, Ungilsan station A refurbished Gyeongchun Line reopened in late 2010 - Byeollae, Sareung, Pyeongnae-hopyeong, Maseok stations are in Namyangju.
The Transportation and Construction Committee of the National Assembly has approved that Line 4 will be extended from Danggogae to Jinjeop, Namyangju. The 2012 Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation drama Arang and the Magistrate, starring Lee Joon-gi, Shin Min-ah and Yeon Woo-jin, were filmed on location in Namyangju. There are 2 campuses of Gyeong Hee graduate school and Gyeong bok college, 15 high schools, 29 middle schools, 55 elementary schools; the royal tomb of Princess Hwahyeop, a Joseon dynasty princess, was discovered in Sampae-dong in 2015. Excavations in 2016 unearthed stone tablets detailing eulogies to her written by King Yeongjo, Crown Prince Sado, King Jeongjo. Namyangju is developing a reputation as a regional centre of excellence for organic farming; the Namyangju Organic Museum, the world's first museum dedicated to the history and development of organic agriculture, opened in September 2011. It is located west on the shores of the River Han; the museum caters for young and old, it includes a timeline of organic farming developments, there are exhibits of traditional Korean farming practices tied to the 24 seasonal divisions of the year.
The museum's opening coincided with Namyangju hosting the 17th IFOAM Organic World Congress. The sweet pears are exported to the USA, Canada. Organic vegetables are cultivated with ecofriendly methods. Gorosoei is a special product made in the Namyangju area, it is medicinal water. The term "Gorosoei" comes from "Gollisu" meaning "water for bones." The sap is extracted at Sudong-Myeon, Mountain Jugeum in Mount Chungnyeong Natural Recreation Forest, Mount Cheonma in Palhyeon and Onam township. Dartford, United Kingdom Changzhou, China Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia Gangjin County, South Jeolla Yeongwol, Gangwon Vinh, Vietnam List of cities in South Korea City government website City Council website
The Hankyoreh is a daily newspaper in South Korea. It was established in 1988 after widespread purges forced out dissident journalists, was envisioned as an alternative to existing newspapers, who were regarded as unduly influenced by the authoritarian government at the time; when it opened, it claimed to be "the first newspaper in the world independent of political power and large capital." As of 2016, it has been voted as the most trusted news organization by Korean journalists for nine consecutive years but it is the least influential news outlet by the survey. The newspaper was established as Hankyoreh Shinmun on 15 May 1988 by ex-journalists from the Dong-a Ilbo and Chosun Ilbo. At the time, government censors were in every newsroom, newspaper content was dictated by the Ministry of Culture & Information, newspapers had nearly the same articles on every page. Hankyoreh was intended to provide an independent, left-leaning, nationalist alternative to mainstream newspapers regarded as blindly pro-business, pro-American, opposed to national reunification.
To underscore its patriotism and its break with tradition, the Hankyoreh became the first daily to reject the use of hanja and use only hangul. It was the first newspaper in Korea to be printed horizontally instead of vertically. On the conflictual nature of the territorial sovereignty of the Liancourt Rocks, although exceeded by the Chosun Ilbo in its coverage, the Hankyoreh's coverage has been described in “A Comparative Analysis of News Coverage of Dokdo Island” by Yoon Youngchul and E Gwangho as reflecting the foreign policy interest of South Korea versus the U. S or Japan. In general, on issues pertaining to national sovereignty, the Hankyoreh's editorial stance can be seen as one issuing aggressive criticism on a government's undemocratic attitude or United States unilateral policy towards Korea, the Korean peninsula or elsewhere. Where the Hankyoreh has criticized the Bush administration's foreign policies on numerous occasions, it has tended to be favorable on the Obama administration's foreign policies on North Korea.
On the domestic front, Hankyoreh has been characterized as opposed to big business, has been “nationalist, anti-American and anti-corporate.” The Hankyoreh does negate the philosophy of the free market economy, individual liberty and personal freedom, has been critical of Korean big business and conglomerates that overwhelm the market, the Korean university entrance system, widening income disparities in Korean society, the rapid opening and globalization of the Korean economy, while maintaining a favorable attitude towards organized labor, trade protectionism, the redistribution of income. Other legacies of its early dissident history include a strong emphasis on human rights in South Korea, a position it continues to hold today together with several international organizations have criticized South Korea for its retreat in democracy, human rights and press freedom; the Hankyoreh's advocacy of human rights extends to North Koreans and tends to support normalization of relations with the U.
S. and have been critical of approaches towards improving the situation by encouraging system collapse such as the Lefkowitz approach and absorption by South Korea or by encouraging defections. The Hankyoreh opposes censorship and wiretapping and encourages active debate on news, circulated, like many newspapers in South Korea, is opposed to circulation of graphic news content and took a strong stance in the instance of the video footage of Kim Sun-il's death in Iraq It endorsed the 2008 "mad cow protests" as a victory for "substantive democracy" over "procedural democracy." It encouraged coverage of the 2008 demonstrations and a greater understanding of "candlelight spirit" that academics are referring to as an emergence of a new social movement and form of democracy in South Korea that protests policy development on trade, liberalization of public education, the privatization of health, the environmental consequences of a cross-country canal project without substantial public opinion gathering.
In line with the newspaper's nationalism and aspirations for reunification, its reporting of inter-Korean and East Asian affairs is based on its editorial policy seeking reconciliation and peaceful co-prosperity through dialogue rather than pressure on government of North Korea. In terms of national affairs, Office of the President, studies on the editorial policies of South Korean newspapers have found that the "Hankyoreh Shinmun, which published its first issue early in the Roh Tae Woo administration, has shown little fluctuation from administration to administration. Hankyoreh runs a "Hankyoreh Foundation for Reunification and Culture" as a forum for advocacy of peace and reunification on the Korean peninsula. Notwithstanding the newspaper's support for democracy, human rights, free speech in South Korea, in June 2009, the Hankyoreh described the arrest and imprisonment of two US journalists in North Korea, condemned by Reporters Without Borders as a sham trial, as a "not negative signal" of North Korea's openness to communicate.
In its business, Hankyoreh departed from established convention by relying more on sales, periodic private donation campaigns, the sale of stock, rather than advertising from major corporations to sustain itself. The newspaper has more than 60,000 citizen shareholders, none of whom have a more than one percent share. Core shareholders include students, lawyers, dissidents, liberal, p
CBS is an American English language commercial broadcast television and radio network, a flagship property of CBS Corporation. The company is headquartered at the CBS Building in New York City with major production facilities and operations in New York City and Los Angeles. CBS is sometimes referred to as the Eye Network, in reference to the company's iconic symbol, in use since 1951, it has been called the "Tiffany Network", alluding to the perceived high quality of CBS programming during the tenure of William S. Paley, it can refer to some of CBS's first demonstrations of color television, which were held in a former Tiffany & Co. building in New York City in 1950. The network has its origins in United Independent Broadcasters Inc. a collection of 16 radio stations, purchased by Paley in 1928 and renamed the Columbia Broadcasting System. Under Paley's guidance, CBS would first become one of the largest radio networks in the United States, one of the Big Three American broadcast television networks.
In 1974, CBS dropped its former full name and became known as CBS, Inc. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation acquired the network in 1995, renamed its corporate entity to the current CBS Broadcasting, Inc. in 1997, adopted the name of the company it had acquired to become CBS Corporation. In 2000, CBS came under the control of Viacom, formed as a spin-off of CBS in 1971. In late 2005, Viacom split itself into two separate companies and re-established CBS Corporation – through the spin-off of its broadcast television and select cable television and non-broadcasting assets – with the CBS television network at its core. CBS Corporation is controlled by Sumner Redstone through National Amusements, which controls the current Viacom. CBS operated the CBS Radio network until 2017, when it merged its radio division with Entercom. Prior to CBS Radio provided news and features content for its portfolio owned-and-operated radio stations in large and mid-sized markets, affiliated radio stations in various other markets.
While CBS Corporation owns a 72% stake in Entercom, it no longer owns or operates any radio stations directly, though CBS still provides radio news broadcasts to its radio affiliates and the new owners of its former radio stations. The television network has more than 240 owned-and-operated and affiliated television stations throughout the United States; the company ranked 197th on the 2018 Fortune 500 of the largest United States corporations by revenue. The origins of CBS date back to January 27, 1927, with the creation of the "United Independent Broadcasters" network in Chicago by New York City talent-agent Arthur Judson; the fledgling network soon needed additional investors though, the Columbia Phonograph Company, manufacturers of Columbia Records, rescued it in April 1927. Columbia Phonographic went on the air on September 18, 1927, with a presentation by the Howard L. Barlow Orchestra from flagship station WOR in Newark, New Jersey, fifteen affiliates. Operational costs were steep the payments to AT&T for use of its land lines, by the end of 1927, Columbia Phonograph wanted out.
In early 1928 Judson sold the network to brothers Isaac and Leon Levy, owners of the network's Philadelphia affiliate WCAU, their partner Jerome Louchheim. None of the three were interested in assuming day-to-day management of the network, so they installed wealthy 26-year-old William S. Paley, son of a Philadelphia cigar family and in-law of the Levys, as president. With the record company out of the picture, Paley streamlined the corporate name to "Columbia Broadcasting System", he believed in the power of radio advertising since his family's "La Palina" cigars had doubled their sales after young William convinced his elders to advertise on radio. By September 1928, Paley bought out the Louchhheim share of CBS and became its majority owner with 51% of the business. During Louchheim's brief regime, Columbia paid $410,000 to A. H. Grebe's Atlantic Broadcasting Company for a small Brooklyn station, WABC, which would become the network's flagship station. WABC was upgraded, the signal relocated to 860 kHz.
The physical plant was relocated – to Steinway Hall on West 57th Street in Manhattan, where much of CBS's programming would originate. By the turn of 1929, the network could boast to sponsors of having 47 affiliates. Paley moved right away to put his network on a firmer financial footing. In the fall of 1928, he entered into talks with Adolph Zukor of Paramount Pictures, who planned to move into radio in response to RCA's forays into motion pictures with the advent of talkies; the deal came to fruition in September 1929: Paramount acquired 49% of CBS in return for a block of its stock worth $3.8 million at the time. The agreement specified that Paramount would buy that same stock back by March 1, 1932 for a flat $5 million, provided CBS had earned $2 million during 1931 and 1932. For a brief time there was talk that the network might be renamed "Paramount Radio", but it only lasted a month – the 1929 stock market crash sent all stock value tumbling, it galvanized Paley and his troops, who "had no alternative but to turn the network around and earn the $2,000,000 in two years....
This is the atmosphere in which the CBS of today was born." The near-bankrupt movie studio sold its CBS shares back to CBS in 1932. In the first year of Paley's wa
Truth and Reconciliation Commission (South Korea)
South Korea's Truth and Reconciliation Commission, established on December 1, 2005, is a governmental body responsible for investigating incidents in Korean history which occurred from Japan's rule of Korea in 1910 through the end of authoritarian rule in Korea with the election of President Kim Young-sam in 1993. The body has investigated numerous atrocities committed by various government agencies during Japan's occupation of Korea, the Korean War, the authoritarian governments that ruled afterwards; the commission estimates that tens of thousands of people were executed in the summer of 1950. The victims include political prisoners, civilians who were killed by US forces, civilians who collaborated with communist North Korea or local communist groups; each incident investigated is based on a citizen's petition, with some incidents having hundreds of petitions. The commission, staffed by 240 people with an annual budget of $19 million, was expected to release a final report on their findings in 2010.
Operating under the Framework Act on Clearing up Past Incidents for Truth and Reconciliation, the purpose of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission is to investigate and reveal the truth behind violence and human rights abuses that occurred throughout the course of Japan's rule of Korea and Korea's authoritarian regimes. Korea's history during the last 60 years as it transitioned from a colony to a democracy has been filled with violence and civil disputes. With Japan's defeat in World War II in 1945, Korea was divided in two at the 38th parallel, with administration of the north side given to the Soviet Union, while the south side was administered by the United States. In 1948, two separate governments formed, each claiming to be the legitimate government of all of Korea. South Korea was formally established on August 15, 1948, by Korean statesman and authoritarian dictator Syngman Rhee; the establishment of a legitimate government body in South Korea was marked by civil unrest and several instances of violence.
Two years after the establishment of the Republic of Korea, North Korean forces invaded South Korea, precipitating the Korean War. The war ended with the Korean Armistice Agreement, signed on July 27, 1953. Syngman Rhee attempted to maintain his control of the government by pushing through constitutional amendments, declaring martial law, jailing members of parliament who stood against him, his rule came to an end in April 1960 as protests throughout Korea forced him to resign on April 26. After Syngman Rhee's resignation, an interim government held power until Major General Park Chung-hee took control through a military coup on May 16, 1961. Amid pressure from the United States, the new military government decided to hold elections in 1963 to return power to a civilian government. Park Chung-hee was narrowly elected. In 1967 and 1971, Park Chung-hee ran for re-election and won using a constitutional amendment that allowed a president to serve more than two terms. During his rule, Korea saw dramatic economic growth and increased international recognition as it maintained close ties with, received aid from, the United States.
On October 17, 1972, Park Chung-hee declared martial law, dissolving the national assembly and putting forth the Yushin Constitution, which gave the president effective control of parliament, leading to civil unrest and the jailing of hundreds of dissidents. In 1979, Park Chung-hee was assassinated by Korean NIS Director Kim Jaegyu, which led to another military coup by Major General Chun Doo-hwan; this coup led to more civil government clampdowns. Public outrage over government killings led to more popular support for democracy. In 1987, Roh Tae-woo, a colleague of Chun Doo-hwan, was elected president. During his rule, he promised a more democratic constitution, a wide program of reforms, popular election of the president. In 1993, Kim Young-sam was elected president. Independence movements preceding and during the Japanese occupation, efforts by overseas Koreans to uphold Korea's sovereignty, are described below; the TRCK verified that the government abused its power by fabricating facts concerning the owners of farmland in Guro.
In 1942, the Japanese Ministry of Defense confiscated the land of 200 farmers in the Guro area. The farmers continued to use the land under the supervision of the Central Land Administration Bureau after Korea's liberation in 1945. Beginning in 1961, the government constructed an industrial public housing on the land. In 1964, the farmers claimed rightful ownership of the land and brought several civil action lawsuits against the government; the rulings for many of these cases were not issued until after 1968. The government began appealing the rulings in 1968, appealing three cases in 1968 and one case in 1970; the government launched an investigation. The prosecutor arrested the accused without warrants or explanation, coerced them into surrendering their rights through the use of violence. However, the investigation did not uncover any evidence; the lack of evidence and the fact that the civil action suit rulings were passed did not deter the government from demanding that the defendants surrender their rights.
After 40 of the defendants refused to obey the demand, several lawsuits were brought against them. The prosecution accused them of fraud and attempted to punish the defendants by holding criminal trials. Official documents verify that
Gyeonggi-do is the most populous province in South Korea. Its name, Gyeonggi means "the area surrounding the capital", thus Gyeonggi-do can be translated as "province surrounding Seoul". The provincial capital is Suwon. Seoul—South Korea's largest city and national capital—is in the heart of the province but has been separately administered as a provincial-level special city since 1946. Incheon—South Korea's third-largest city—is on the coast of the province and has been administered as a provincial-level metropolitan city since 1981; the three jurisdictions are collectively referred to as Sudogwon and cover 11,730 km2, with a combined population of 25.5 million—amounting to over half of the entire population of South Korea. Gyeonggi-do has been a politically important area since 18 BCE, when Korea was divided into three nations during the Three Kingdoms period. Since King Onjo, the founder of Baekje, founded the government in Wiryeseong of Hanam, the Han River Valley was absorbed into Goguryeo in the mid-fifth century, became Silla's territory in the year 553.
Afterward, the current location of Gyeonggi-do, one of the nine states of Later Silla, was called Hansanju. The Gyeonggi region started to rise as the central region of Goryeo as King Taejo of Goryeo set up the capital in Gaesong. Since 1018, this area has been called "Gyeonggi." During the Joseon, founded after the Goryeo, King Taejo of Joseon set the capital in Hanyang, while restructuring Gyeonggi's area to include Gwangju, Suwon and Anseong, along with the southeast region. Since the period of King Taejong and Sejong the Great, the Gyeonggi region has been similar to the current administrative area of Gyeonggi-do. In 1895 the 23-Bu system, which reorganized administrative areas, was effected; the Gyeonggi region was divided into Hanseong, Chungju and Kaesong. During the Japanese colonial period, Hanseong-bu was incorporated into Gyeonggi-do. On October 1, 1910, it was renamed Keijo and a provincial government was placed in Keijo according to the reorganization of administrative districts. After liberation and the foundation of two Korean governments, Gyeonggi-do and its capital, were separated with partial regions of Gyeonggi-do being incorporated into Seoul thereafter.
Additionally, Kaesong became North Korean territory, the only city to change control after the countries were divided at the 38th parallel, now part of North Korea's North Hwanghae Province. In 1967 the seat of the Gyeonggi provincial government was transferred from Seoul to Suwon. After Incheon separated from Gyeonggi-do in 1981, Gyeonggi regions such as Ongjin County and Ganghwa County were incorporated into Incheon in 1995. Gyeonggi-do is the western central region of the Korean Peninsula, vertically situated in Northeast Asia and is between east longitude of 126 and 127, north latitude of 36 and 38, its dimension is 10 % of 10,171 square kilometres. It is in contact with 86 kilometres of cease-fire line to the north, 413 kilometres of coastline to the west, Gangwon-do to the east, Chungcheongbuk-do and Chungcheongnam-do to the south, has Seoul, the capital of the Republic of Korea, in its center, its provincial government is in Suwon, but some of its government buildings are in Uijeongbu for the administrative conveniences of the northern region.
The climate of Gyeonggi-do is the continental climate, which has a severe differentiation of temperature between summer and winter, has distinctions of four seasons. Spring is warm, summer is hot and humid, autumn is cool, winter is cold and snowy; the annual average temperature is between 11–13 °C, where the temperature in the mountainous areas to the northeast is lower and the coastal areas to the southwest is higher. For January's average temperature, the Gyeonggi Bay is −4 °C, the Namhangang Basin is −4 to −6 °C, the Bukhangang and Imjingang Basins are −6 to −8 °C, it becomes higher in temperature differentiation from coastal to inland areas. Summer has a lower local differentiation compared to winter; the inland areas are hotter than the Gyeonggi Bay area, the hottest area is Pyeongtaek, making the average temperature of August 26.5 °C. The annual average precipitation is around 1,100 millimetres, with a lot of rainfall, it is dry during winter. The northeastern inland areas of Bukhangang and the upper stream of Imjingang has a precipitation of 1,300–1,400 millimetres, whereas the coastal area has only 900 millimetres of precipitation.
The topography of Gyeonggi-do is divided into southern and northern areas by the Han River, which flows from east to west. The area north to the Han River is mountainous, while the southern area is plain; the configuration of Gyeonggi-do is represented by Dong-go-seo-jeo, where the Gwangju Mountain Range and the Charyeong Mountain Range spreads from the east and drops in elevation in the west. The fields of Gimpo and Pyeongtaek extend to the west. Gyeonggi-do boasts beautiful nature stocked with rivers, lakes and seas, its representative rivers are the Hangang and Anseongcheon, which flow into the Yellow Sea, with Gyeonggi Plain, Yeonbaek Plain and Anseong Plain forming a fertile field area around the rivers. The Gwangju Mountain Range and the Charyeong Mountain Range stre
South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n