Uttar Pradesh is a state in northern India. With over 200 million inhabitants, it is the most populous state in India as well as the most populous country subdivision in the world, it was created on 1 April 1937 as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh during British rule, was renamed Uttar Pradesh in 1950. The state is divided into 75 districts with the capital being Lucknow; the main ethnic group is the Hindavi people. On 9 November 2000, a new state, was carved out from the state's Himalayan hill region; the two major rivers of the state, the Ganga and Yamuna, join at Allahabad and flow as the Ganga further east. Hindi is the most spoken language and is the official language of the state; the state is bordered by Rajasthan to the west, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi to the northwest and Nepal to the north, Bihar to the east, Madhya Pradesh to the south, touches the states of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh to the southeast. It covers 243,290 square kilometres, equal to 7.33% of the total area of India, is the fourth-largest Indian state by area.
The economy of Uttar Pradesh is the fourth-largest state economy in India with ₹15.79 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹57,480. Agriculture and service industries are the largest parts of the state's economy; the service sector comprises travel and tourism, hotel industry, real estate and financial consultancies. President's rule has been imposed in Uttar Pradesh ten times since 1968, for different reasons and for a total of 1,700 days; the natives of the state are called Uttar Bhartiya, or more either Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Bundeli, Kannauji, or Rohilkhandi depending upon their region of origin. Hinduism is practised by more than three-fourths of the population, with Islam being the next largest religious group. Uttar Pradesh was home to powerful empires of medieval India; the state has several historical and religious tourist destinations, such as Agra, Vrindavan and Allahabad. Modern human hunter-gatherers have been in Uttar Pradesh since between around 85,000 and 72,000 years ago.
There have been prehistorical finds in Uttar Pradesh from the Middle and Upper Paleolithic dated to 21,000–31,000 years old and Mesolithic/Microlithic hunter-gatherer settlement, near Pratapgarh, from around 10550–9550 BC. Villages with domesticated cattle and goats and evidence of agriculture began as early as 6000 BC, developed between c. 4000 and 1500 BC beginning with the Indus Valley Civilisation and Harappa Culture to the Vedic period and extending into the Iron Age. The kingdom of Kosala, in the Mahajanapada era, was located within the regional boundaries of modern-day Uttar Pradesh. According to Hindu legend, the divine king Rama of the Ramayana epic reigned in Ayodhya, the capital of Kosala. Krishna, another divine king of Hindu legend, who plays a key role in the Mahabharata epic and is revered as the eighth reincarnation of the Hindu god Vishnu, is said to have been born in the city of Mathura, in Uttar Pradesh; the aftermath of the Mahabharata yuddh is believed to have taken place in the area between the Upper Doab and Delhi, during the reign of the Pandava king Yudhishthira.
The kingdom of the Kurus corresponds to the Black and Red Ware and Painted Gray Ware culture and the beginning of the Iron Age in northwest India, around 1000 BC. Control over Gangetic plains region was of vital importance to the power and stability of all of India's major empires, including the Maurya, Kushan and Gurjara-Pratihara empires. Following the Huns' invasions that broke the Gupta empire, the Ganges-Yamuna Doab saw the rise of Kannauj. During the reign of Harshavardhana, the Kannauj empire reached its zenith, it spanned from Punjab in the north and Gujarat in the west to Bengal in the east and Odisha in the south. It included parts of central India, north of the Narmada River and it encompassed the entire Indo-Gangetic plain. Many communities in various parts of India claim descent from the migrants of Kannauj. Soon after Harshavardhana's death, his empire disintegrated into many kingdoms, which were invaded and ruled by the Gurjara-Pratihara empire, which challenged Bengal's Pala Empire for control of the region.
Kannauj was several times invaded by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty, from the 8th century to the 10th century. After fall of Pala empire, the Chero dynasty ruled from 12th century to 18th century. Parts or all of Uttar Pradesh were ruled by the Delhi Sultanate for 320 years. Five dynasties ruled over the Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty, the Khalji dynasty, the Tughlaq dynasty, the Sayyid dynasty, the Lodi dynasty. In the 16th century, Babur, a Timurid descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan from Fergana Valley, swept across the Khyber Pass and founded the Mughal Empire, covering India, along with modern-day Afghanistan and Bangladesh; the Mughals were descended from Persianised Central Asian Turks. In the Mughal era, Uttar Pradesh became the heartland of the empire. Mughal emperors Humayun ruled from Delhi. In 1540 an Afghan, Sher Shah Suri, took over the reins of Uttar Pradesh after defeating the Mughal king Humanyun. Sher Shah and his son Islam Shah ruled Uttar Pradesh from their capital at Gwalior.
After the death of Islam Shah Suri, his prime minister Hemu became the de facto ruler of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, th
Chitrakoot, Madhya Pradesh
Chitrakoot is a famous pilgrimage centre and a nagar panchayat in the Satna district in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. It is a place of religious, cultural and archaeological importance, situated in the Bundelkhand region, it borders the Chitrakoot district in Uttar Pradesh, whose headquarters Chitrakoot Dham is located nearby. The town lies in the historical Chitrakoot region, divided between the present-day Indian states of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, it is known for a number of sites mentioned in Hindu scriptures. Many people gather here on each Amavasya. Somwati Amavasyas, Sharad-Poornima, Makar Sankranti and Ramanavami are special occasions for such gatherings and celebrations, it attracts crowds throughout the year including for Free Eye Hospital Camps. Noted'Ayurvedic' and'Yoga' centres like'Arogyadham' are located in Chitrakoot. Chitrakoot means the'Hill of many wonders'. Chitrakoot falls in the northern Vindhya range of mountains spread over the states of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
The Chitrakuta region is included in the District Chitrakuta of Uttar Pradesh and the District Satna of Madhya Pradesh. Chitrakoot district in Uttar Pradesh was created on 4 September 1998. Chitrakoot Parvat Mala includes Kamad Giri, Hanumaan Dhara, Janki Kund, Lakshman pahari, Devangana famous religious mountains. Chitrakoot’s spiritual legacy stretches back to legendary ages, it was in these deep forests that Ram, Goddess Sita and his brother Lakshman spent eleven and six months of their fourteen years of banishment. Great sages like Atri, Sati Anusuya, Maharshi Markandeya and many renowned seers and thinkers meditated here and the principal trinity of the Sanatana dharma, Brahma and Shiva visited this place according to Hindu legends, it is said that all the gods and goddesses came to Chitrakoot when Lord Rama performed the Shraddha ceremony of his father to partake of the shuddhi. The first known mention of the place is in the Valmiki Ramayan, believed to be the first Mahakavya composed by the first poet.
As Valmiki is said to be contemporaneous with Ram and is believed to have composed the Ramayan before the birth of Lord Ram, the antiquity of its fame can well be gauged. Valmiki speaks of Chitrakoot as an eminently holy place inhabited by the great sages, abounding in monkeys and various other kinds of fauna and flora. Both the sages Bharadwaj and Valmiki speaks of Chitrakoot in glowing terms and advise Lord Ram to make it his abode during the period of his exile. Lord Ram himself admits this bewitching impact of this place. In the Ramopakhyan and descriptions of teerths at various places in the Mahabharat, Chitrakoot finds a favoured place. In'Adhyatma Ramayan' and Brihat Ramayan testify to the throbbing spiritually and natural beauty of Chitrakuta. Various Sanskrit and Hindi poets have paid similar tributes to Chitrakuta. Mahakavi Kalidas has described this place beautifully in his epic Raghuvansha, he was so much impressed with its charms that he made Chitrakuta the place of exile of his yaksha in Meghdoot.
Tulsidas, the saint-poet of Hindi has spoken reverently of Chitrakoot in all his major works-Ramcharit Manas, Kavitawali and Vinaya Patrika. The last-mentioned work contains many verses which show a deep personal bond between Tulsidas and Chitrakoot, he spent quite some part of his life craving his darshan. It was here; the darshan of his beloved deity Lord Ram at the intercession of Hanumanji. His eminent friend, the noted Hindi poet Rahim spent some time here, when he had fallen from favour with Akbar's son Emperor Jahangir; when Bharat was asked by his ministers to take his seat upon the throne of Ayodhya, he refused and came to Chitrakoot to meet Lord Ram. Here at place called Bharat Milap, Bharat met Lord Ram and requested him to return to Ayodhya and rule. Bharat returned to Ayodhya and installed the sandals on the throne, living in retirement, carried on the government as their minister. Now Lord Rama decided for two reasons to leave Chitrakuta: first, inasmuch as hosts of rakshasas, out of hatred of him, annoyed the hermits of that place.
He went, with Sita and Lakshmana toward Dandaka forest. As of the 2011 Census of India Chitrakoot had a population of 23,316. Males constitute 57% of the population and females 43%. Chitrakoot has an average literacy rate of 50%, lower than the national average of 59.5%. 18% of the population is under 6 years of age. The ghats that line the Mandakini river are called Ramghat. During the exile period Rama and Sita took bath here and are believed to have appeared before the poet Tulsidas. Kamadgiri, the original Chitrakuta, is a place of religious significance. A forested hill, it is skirted all along its base by a chain of temples and is venerated today as the holy embodiment of Rama. Lord Rama is known as Kamadnathji which means fulfiller of all wishes. There is a 5 km Parikrama Path around the Kamadgiri Mountain. Bharat Milap temple is located here, marking the spot where Bharata is said to have met Rama to persuade him to return to the
Bhairon Singh Shekhawat
Bhairon Singh Shekhawat was the 11th Vice President of India. He served in that position from August 2002, when he was elected to a five-year term by the electoral college following the death of Krishan Kant, until he resigned on 21 July 2007, after losing the presidential election to Pratibha Patil. Shekhawat was a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party, a leading member of the National Democratic Alliance at the time of election, he served as the Chief Minister of Rajasthan three times, from 1977 to 1980, 1990 to 1992 and 1993 to 1998. Referred to as "Rajasthan ka ek hi Singh" or "Babosa", Bhairon Singh Shekhawat entered politics in 1952. In 1952 he was MLA in 1957 from Sri Madhopur, 1962 and 1967 he was MLA from Kisan Pol. In 1972 elections he lost but in 1973 he was elected to Rajya Sabha from Madhya Pradesh. In 1975 during emergency he was sent to Rohtak jail. After emergency in 1977 he became MLA from Chhabra as Janata Party candidate. In that year the Janata Party won 151 of the 200 seats in the state assembly elections of Rajasthan and Shekhawat took over as the first non Congress Chief Minister of Rajasthan in 1977.
His government was dismissed by Indira Gandhi in 1980. In 1980, Shekhawat joined the Bharatiya Janata Party and became MLA again from Chabda and was leader of opposition. In 1985, he was MLA from Nimbahera. However, in 1989 an alliance between the BJP and the Janata Dal won all 25 of the Rajasthan seats in the Lok Sabha and 138 seats in the 1990 elections to the Ninth Rajasthan Legislative Assembly. Shekhawat once was MLA from Dholpur, his government was dismissed in 1992 and President's rule imposed. In the next elections, in 1993, Shekhawat led the BJP to be the single largest party, winning 96 seats, himself becoming MLA from Bali and lost from Ganganagar seat. Three BJP-supported independents won seats and other independents who supported the BJP took its total to 116 and became Chief Minister of Rajasthan for third time. In 1998, Shekhawat elected from Bali again but the BJP lost power and Shekhawat became Leader of Opposition in the legislative assembly. Shekhawat won every election to the Rajasthan Legislative Assembly, except in 1972 when he lost from Gandhi Nagar in Jaipur and in Ganganagar by Radheshyam Ganganagar.
Shekhawat was elected as the Vice-President of India in 2002, when he defeated the opposition candidate, Sushil Kumar Shinde by a margin of 149 votes out of the 750 votes polled. In July 2007, Shekhawat fought the Presidential election as an independent candidate backed by National Democratic Alliance as a popular Presidential candidate next to A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, he became the first vice-president to lose presidential election. Following this defeat, Shekhawat resigned from the post of Vice-President on 21 July 2007. Shekhawat started the "Antyoday Yojna" scheme, intended to uplift the poorest of the poor; the chairman of the World Bank, Robert McNamara, referred to him as the Rockefeller of India. Shekhawat was known for his control over bureaucracy and the police, he had involvement in policies designed to improve literacy and industrialisation in Rajasthan, as well as tourism centred on the themes of heritage and villages. He was lauded by both and international leaders for his historic conduct of the Rajya Sabha.
Bhairon Singh Shekhawat succumbed to cancer and other age-related health problems, dying on 15 May 2010 at the Sawai Man Singh Hospital in Jaipur. He was cremated the next day, at a plot of land provided by the government of Rajasthan, where his memorial is now built, his funeral was attended by thousands of people. He was survived by his wife, Suraj Kanwar, his daughter, Ratan Kanwar, married to BJP leader Narpat Singh Rajvi. Suraj Kanwar died on 9 March 2014 at age 86 and was cremated at Shekhawat's memorial as per her last wish. Shekhawat was a member of the Rajasthan Legislative Assembly on the following occasions: 1952-1957, first Rajasthan Legislative Assembly 1957-1962, second Rajasthan Legislative Assembly 1962-1967, third Rajasthan Legislative Assembly 1967-1972, fourth Rajasthan Legislative Assembly 1977-1980, sixth Rajasthan Legislative Assembly 1980-1985, seventh Rajasthan Legislative Assembly 1985-1990, eighth Rajasthan Legislative Assembly 1990-1992, ninth Rajasthan Legislative Assembly 1993-1998, tenth Rajasthan Legislative Assembly 1998-18 August 2002, eleventh Rajasthan Legislative AssemblyHe held the following offices: 1974–77 Rajya Sabha 1977–18 August 2002 Rajasthan Legislative Assembly 22 June 1977 – 16 February 1980 Chief Minister of Rajasthan 1980–90 Leader of the Opposition, Rajasthan Legislative Assembly 4 March 1990 – 15 December 1992 Chief Minister of Rajasthan 4 December 1993 – 29 November 1998 Chief Minister of Rajasthan December 1998–August 2002 Leader of the Opposition, Rajasthan Legislative Assembly 19 August 2002 – 21 July 2007 Vice-President of India and ex officio Chairman of Rajya Sabha First Bhairon Singh Shekhawat ministry Bhairon Singh Shekhawat ministry Rediff/August 28, 2006: Bhairon Singh Shekhawat: The next President?
Shekhawat sworn in as Vice-President Bhairon Singh Shekhawat Profile on the Official Indian Government Site Shekhawat on British payroll in 1942
Gorakhpur is a city located along the banks of the Rapti river in the north-eastern part of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is located near the Nepal border, 273 kilometres east of the state capital Lucknow, it is the administrative headquarters of Gorakhpur Gorakhpur division. The city is home to a Gorakshanath temple; the name "Gorakhpur" comes from the Sanskrit Gorakshapuram, which means abode of Gorakshanath, a renowned ascetic, a prominent saint of the Nath Sampradaya. Gorakhpur is one of the flood vulnerable districts in Eastern Uttar Pradesh. Data over the past 100 years show a considerable increase in the intensity and frequency of floods, with extreme events occurring every three to four years. 20% of the population is affected by floods, which are an annual occurrence in some areas, causing huge loss of life and livelihoods for the poor inhabitants, as well as damage to public and private property. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfa". Gorakhpur is connected through Gorakhpur railway station.
The station offers Class A-1 railway station facilities. On 6 October 2013, Gorakhpur has the world's Longest Railway platform, after inauguration of the remodelled Gorakhpur Yard, with a stretch of around 1.36 kilometres. Gorakhpur is the headquarters of North Eastern Railways. An airforce station in Gorakhpur was extended for public transport. Named Mahayogi Gorakhnath Airport. Gorakhpur has 2 universities named Deen Dayal Upadhyay Gorakhpur University and Madan Mohan Malaviya University of Technology, two medical college named Baba Raghav Das Medical College and AIIMS and a sports college named Veer Bahadur Singh Sports College. Yogi Adityanath, Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh Shakir Ali, barrister Leopold Amery, British Cabinet Minister Ram Upendra Das, economist Amrapali Dubey, actress Ravi Dubey, actor Mahmood Farooqui Indian writer and director Firaq Gorakhpuri,writer. Narendra Hirwani, international cricket player Anurag Kashyap, filmmaker Syed Modi, badminton player, winner of Arjuna Award Raghupati Sahay, critic Asit Sen, Bollywood actor Jimmy Shergill, actor Saurabh Shukla, actor Shri prakash shukla,Indian contract killer Kedarnath Singh, critic Lilavati Singh, educator Vir Bahadur Singh, Former Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh.
Paramahansa Yogananda, Yoga guru, founder of Self-Realization Fellowship/Yogoda Satsanga Society of India. Captain Mahendra Nath Mulla, Officer of the Indian Navy. Kafeel Khan, lecturer at BRD medical college Gorakhpur Cantonment railway station Ramgarh Tal Lake Deoria District
Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Atal Bihari Vajpayee was an Indian statesman who served three terms as the Prime Minister of India: first for a term of 13 days in 1996 for a period of 13 months from 1998 to 1999, for a full term from 1999 to 2004. A member of the Bharatiya Janata Party, he was the first Indian prime minister, not a member of the Indian National Congress party to have served a full five-year term in office, he was a member of the Indian Parliament for over four decades, having been elected to the Lok Sabha, the lower house, ten times, twice to the Rajya Sabha, the upper house. He served as the Member of Parliament for Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh until 2009 when he retired from active politics due to health concerns. Vajpayee was among the founding members of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh, of which he was the president from 1968 to 1972; the BJS merged with several other parties to form the Janata Party, which won the 1977 general election. Vajpayee became the Minister of External Affairs in the cabinet of Prime Minister Morarji Desai.
He resigned in 1979, the Janata alliance collapsed soon after. The erstwhile members of the BJS formed the BJP in 1980, with Vajpayee as its first president. During his tenure as prime minister, India carried out the Pokhran-II nuclear tests in 1998. Vajpayee sought to improve diplomatic relations with Pakistan, travelling to Lahore by bus to meet with Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif. After the 1999 Kargil War with Pakistan, he sought to restore relations through engaging with President Pervez Musharraf, inviting him to India for a summit at Agra, he was conferred India's highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna, by the President of India, Pranab Mukherjee in 2015. The administration of Narendra Modi declared in 2014 that Vajpayee's birthday, 25 December, would be marked as Good Governance Day, he died on 16 August 2018 due to age-related illness. Vajpayee was born to Krishna Bihari Vajpayee on 25 December 1924 in Gwalior, his grandfather, Pandit Shyam Lal Vajpayee, had migrated to Morena, Gwalior from his ancestral village of Bateshwar, Uttar Pradesh.
His father, Krishna Bihari Vajpayee, was a school teacher in his hometown. Vajpayee did his schooling at the Saraswati Shishu Mandir in Gwalior. In 1934, Atal Bihari was admitted to AVM School Barnagar Distt Ujjain after his father joined as headmaster, he spoke about his'lifechanging moment' at a public rally on the 1996 Lok Sabha election trail. He said "But I learned a lesson. I took a pledge, it was my first speech at AVM School,”. He subsequently attended Gwalior's Victoria College for B. A. in Hindi and Sanskrit. He completed his post-graduation with an M. A. in Political Science from DAV College, Kanpur. His activism started with Arya Kumar Sabha of Gwalior, the youth wing of the Arya Samaj, of which he became the general secretary in 1944, he joined the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh as a swayamsevak, or volunteer, in 1939. Influenced by Babasaheb Apte, he attended the Officers Training Camp of the RSS during 1940–44 and became a pracharak, RSS terminology for a full-time worker, in 1947, he gave up studying law due to the partition riots.
He was sent as a vistarak, a probationary pracharak, to Uttar Pradesh and began working for the newspapers of Deendayal Upadhyaya, Rashtradharma and the dailies Swadesh and Veer Arjun. By 1942, at the age of 16 years, Vajpayee became an active member of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. In August 1942, he and his elder brother Prem were arrested for 24 days during the Quit India Movement, he was released after giving a written undertaking stating that while he was a part of the crowd, he did not participate in the militant events in Bateshwar on 27 August 1942. In 1951, Vajpayee was seconded by the RSS, along with Deendayal Upadhyaya, to work for the newly formed Bharatiya Jana Sangh, a Hindu right-wing political party associated with the RSS, he was appointed as a national secretary of the party in charge of the Northern region, based in Delhi. He soon became a aide of party leader Syama Prasad Mukherjee. In 1954, Vajpayee was with Mukherjee when the latter went on a hunger strike in Kashmir to protest the perceived inferior treatment of non-Kashmiri Indian visitors to the state.
Mookerjee died in prison during this strike. In the 1957 Indian general election, Vajpayee contested elections to the Lok Sabha, the lower house of Indian parliament, he was elected from Balrampur. In the Lok Sabha his oratorial skills so impressed Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru that he predicted that Vajpayee would someday become the Prime Minister of India. Vajpayee's oratorial skills won him the reputation of being the most eloquent defender of the Jana Sangh's policies. After the death of Deendayal Upadhyaya, the leadership of the Jana Sangh passed to Vajpayee, he became the national president of the Jana Sangh in 1968, running the party along with Nanaji Deshmukh, Balraj Madhok, L. K. Advani. In 1975, Vajpayee was arrested along with several other opposition leaders during the Internal Emergency imposed by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi of the Indian National Congress party. Interned in Bangalore, Vajpayee appealed his imprisonment on the grounds of bad health, was moved to a hospital in Delhi.
Gandhi ended the state of emergency in 1977. A coalition of parties, including the BJS, came together to form the Janata Party, which won the subsequent general elections. Morarji Desai, the chosen leader of the alliance, became the prime minister. Vajpayee served as the Minister of External Affairs, or fo
The British Raj was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent from 1858 to 1947. The rule is called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India; the region under British control was called British India or India in contemporaneous usage, included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom, which were collectively called British India, those ruled by indigenous rulers, but under British tutelage or paramountcy, called the princely states. The whole was informally called the Indian Empire; as India, it was a founding member of the League of Nations, a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, 1936, a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945. This system of governance was instituted on 28 June 1858, after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the rule of the British East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person of Queen Victoria, it lasted until 1947, when it was partitioned into two sovereign dominion states: the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan.
At the inception of the Raj in 1858, Lower Burma was a part of British India. The British Raj extended over all present-day India and Bangladesh, except for small holdings by other European nations such as Goa and Pondicherry; this area is diverse, containing the Himalayan mountains, fertile floodplains, the Indo-Gangetic Plain, a long coastline, tropical dry forests, arid uplands, the Thar Desert. In addition, at various times, it included Aden, Lower Burma, Upper Burma, British Somaliland, Singapore. Burma was separated from India and directly administered by the British Crown from 1937 until its independence in 1948; the Trucial States of the Persian Gulf and the states under the Persian Gulf Residency were theoretically princely states as well as presidencies and provinces of British India until 1947 and used the rupee as their unit of currency. Among other countries in the region, Ceylon was ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens. Ceylon was part of Madras Presidency between 1793 and 1798.
The kingdoms of Nepal and Bhutan, having fought wars with the British, subsequently signed treaties with them and were recognised by the British as independent states. The Kingdom of Sikkim was established as a princely state after the Anglo-Sikkimese Treaty of 1861; the Maldive Islands were a British protectorate from 1887 to 1965, but not part of British India. India during the British Raj was made up of two types of territory: British India and the Native States. In its Interpretation Act 1889, the British Parliament adopted the following definitions in Section 18: The expression "British India" shall mean all territories and places within Her Majesty's dominions which are for the time being governed by Her Majesty through the Governor-General of India or through any governor or other officer subordinates to the Governor-General of India; the expression "India" shall mean British India together with any territories of any native prince or chief under the suzerainty of Her Majesty exercised through the Governor-General of India, or through any governor or other officer subordinates to the Governor-General of India.
In general, the term "British India" had been used to refer to the regions under the rule of the British East India Company in India from 1600 to 1858. The term has been used to refer to the "British in India"; the terms "Indian Empire" and "Empire of India" were not used in legislation. The monarch was known as Empress or Emperor of India and the term was used in Queen Victoria's Queen's Speeches and Prorogation Speeches; the passports issued by the British Indian government had the words "Indian Empire" on the cover and "Empire of India" on the inside. In addition, an order of knighthood, the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, was set up in 1878. Suzerainty over 175 princely states, some of the largest and most important, was exercised by the central government of British India under the Viceroy. A clear distinction between "dominion" and "suzerainty" was supplied by the jurisdiction of the courts of law: the law of British India rested upon the laws passed by the British Parliament and the legislative powers those laws vested in the various governments of British India, both central and local.
At the turn of the 20th century, British India consisted of eight provinces that were administered either by a governor or a lieutenant-governor. During the partition of Bengal, the new provinces of Assam and East Bengal were created as a Lieutenant-Governorship. In 1911, East Bengal was reunited with Bengal, the new provinces in the east becam
Sikar is a city located midway between Agra and Bikaner on the National Highway 52 in the state of Rajasthan in India. It is the administrative headquarters of the Sikar District. Sikar contains many old havelis, it is located 114 km from Jaipur, 320 km from Jodhpur 215 km from Bikaner, 280 km from Delhi. Sikar had been the biggest Thikana of the Jaipur state. Sikar was known as Nehrawati, it was the capital town of Thikana Sikar. Sikar is surrounded by the fortified walls consisting of seven “Pols”; these historic gates are named as Bawari gate, Fatehpuri Gate, Nani Gate, Surajpole Gate, Dujod Gate Old, Dujod Gate New and Chandpole Gate. The primitive name of Sikar was “Beer BhanKa Bass”. Sikar is a fascinating and attractive spot for the tourist; the fresco Paintings on the ancient havelies and forts captivate the tourist from across the globe. Sikar was the dynasty of royal. One of the greatest Shekhawat, Mr Bhairon Singh Shekhawat, former Vice President of India belongs to Sikar. Three most prominent business families of the country viz. Bajajs, Goenkas and Moonds belong to the district.
Sikar Garh Laxmangarh Fort Devgarh Fort Raghunath Fort Danta Fort Ramgarh Fort Raiwasa Fort Badal Mahal, Patan Roopgarh Shyamgarh Ajeetgarh Khachariyawas Fort Chota Pana Fort, Khandela Fatehpur Fort Khandela Bada Fort Mundru Fort Dansroli Fort, Dantaramgarh Ranoli Garh Piprali Hameerpura Fort Harshnath Temple Sikar is the district headquarters of Rajasthan's Sikar district, situated in the eastern part of Rajasthan. It is located at27.62°N 75.15°E / 27.62. It has an average elevation of 427 meters. Sikar has a semi-arid climate and rain occur in the monsoon months, between June and September; the summer months of April to July have an average daily temperature of around 30 °C. The maximum temperature during the May & June can reach close to 50 °C with little to no humidity. During the monsoon, there are frequent, heavy rains and thunderstorms, but flooding is not persistent; the winter months of November to February are harsh, with average temperature ranging from 5–15 °C with little or no humidity.
There are, several cold fronts that lead to temperatures below freezing −3–0 °C. Sikar City has a population of about 237,579 people according to the census of 2011; as per provisional reports of Census India, the population of Sikar in 2011 is 237,579. The sex ratio of Sikar City is 929 females per 1000 males. Regarding education, total literates in Sikar city are 158,413 of which 91,403 are males while 67,010 are females; the average literacy rate of Sikar City is 77.13, male and female literacy status is 86.29 and 67.37 respectively. The total population of children in Sikar City is about 32,189, consisting of 17,236 boys and 14,953 girls; the child sex ratio of girls is 868 per 1000 boys. Rajkumar Hardyal Singh Government Museum Sikar Sikar Fort Sai Dham Sri Digamber Jain Bada Mandir, Bawari Gate Madho Niwas Kothi Radha Damodar Mandir Bolta Balaji mandir Rani Mahal Devi Pura Balaji Santoshi Mata Mandir Maroo Park Nehru Park Ganesh Mandir, Fatehpuri Gate Temple of Gopinathji, Subhash Chowk Temple of Raghunathji, Bawari Gate Diwan Ji Ki Nashiya, Jatiya Bazar Diwan Ji ki Haveli Shobhagyavati mandir Shri Ram Hanuman mandir Mata Mansa Devi Temple, Hasampur Shakambhari Mata Mandir Dungari Ke Balaji Temple Puranbadi sikar Shyam Mandir Khatu Samolai balaji Temple Deeppura Rajaji Fort Maa Durga Mandir Bhairupura Jagir Harshnath Mountain and temple Sikar city is governed by a Municipal Corporation, which comes under the Sikar Urban Agglomeration.
Sikar city is divided into 45 wards. Although Sikar city has a population of 237,579, its urban/metropolitan population is 244,563; the Sikar metropolitan area includes Chandrapura, Samarthpura and Sikar city. The current Member of Parliament from Sikar is Swami Sumedhanand Sarsawati elected in May 2014. Sikar Junction railway station comes within the territory of the North Western Railway. Sikar City is connected through a broad gauge line to Jhunjhunu, Rewari and Churu. Sikar - Jaipur track is under construction. A section of 106 km has been completed up to jaipur. Railway Minister Suresh Prabhu on September the 1st, 2015 flagged off two trains to mark the completion of Rs. 260 crore gauge conversion of the 122 km Loharu-Sikar railway line in Rajasthan. Both trains were flagged off by Prabhu through remote control by an organizing video conferencing between Rail Bhawan, in New Delhi and Sikar. Prabhu pointed out that sufficient funds have been provided in 2015-16 to complete this project, i.e. Jaipur-Ringas-Churu by March, 2017.
The bi-weekly rail service between Sikar and Delhi started on September 2, 2015, as Sikar - Delhi Sarai Rohilla Express was inaugurated by Suresh Prabhu. Sikar is well connected by roads from all the major cities of nearby states. A four-lane national highway NH-11 passes through the centre of the city. NH-11 connects Sikar with Bikaner; the western freight corridor will pass through Sikar, as a main project of the central government. Kotputali Kuchaman Mega Highway passes through Sikar; the nearest airport to Sikar City is Jaipur International Airport, which operates daily flights to Delhi, Hyderabad, Pune, Ahmedabad, Guwahati, Udaipur, Sharjah, Muscat. A new airport is proposed at Shahpura