Nadi is the third-largest conurbation in Fiji. It is located on the western side of the main island of Viti Levu, had a population of 42,284 at the most recent census, in 2007. A 2012 estimate showed that the population had grown to over 50,000. Nadi is multiracial with many of its inhabitants Indian or Fijian, along with a large transient population of foreign tourists. Along with sugar cane production, tourism is a mainstay of the local economy; the Nadi region has a higher concentration of motels than any other part of Fiji. With its large Indo-Fijian population, Nadi is a centre for Islam in Fiji, it has the largest Hindu temple in the Southern hemisphere, is a site for pilgrims called Sri Siva Subramaniya temple. Muslims worship at the Ahmadiyyahs worship at the Ahmadiya Mosque. Nadi International Airport located 9 kilometres from the town, is the largest airport in Fiji. Thus, Nadi is the principal port of entry for air travellers to Fiji though it is on the opposite side of the island of Viti Levu from the nation's capital and largest city, Suva.
Nadi Township was established in 1947. Around that time the colonial government of Fiji established offices on the higher grounds of Nadi. A few businesses were established around the government offices to service them, other business organisations from other parts of Fiji followed suit; some concerned citizens of Nadi attempted to move the town centre to Martintar because the existing centre was prone to flooding, but this did not eventuate because the move Nadi Township had developed strong roots in its existing location. Elective local government was introduced in 1967. Dr A. H. Sahu Khan was the first elected Chairman of the Nadi Township Board. With the introduction of the Local Government Act in 1972, the status of the Board was changed to a Town Council. H. M. Lodhia became the first Mayor of Nadi in 1972 and remained in office until December 1973; the most recent Mayor of Nadi was Councillor S. Sami. At present, elected municipal government in Nadi is suspended, government-appointed Administrators are carrying out the functions fulfilled by the City Council.
The Civil Aviation Authority of Fiji head office is at Nadi Airport in Nadi. Fiji Airways Air Pacific has its head office at the Air Pacific Maintenance & Administration Centre at Nadi International Airport in Nadi. Fiji Airlines Limited, operating as Pacific Sun, is headquartered in the Pacific Sun building in the Civil Aviation Authority of Fiji compound at Nadi International Airport. Nadi’s economy is driven by tourism and real estate sectors. Within these formal industries, the informal sector plays a small role consisting of tourism and agricultural businesses, including handicrafts. Nadi Town is governed by the Nadi Town Council; the council is headed by a Special Administrator, appointed by the central government, managed by a Chief Executive Officer. Both posts answer to the Ministry of Local Government, Urban Development and Environment; the performance of the Special Administrator is evaluated and the position has clear objectives such as improving rates collection and shifting from cash to accrual accounting in council operations.
Overlap between the CEO and the Special Administrator posts is leading to confusion, resulting in high staff turnover – there have been three CEOs appointed since 2008. Housing development in Nadi takes the form of either medium-density complexes or lower-density social housing. Of this latter, the Housing Authority is seeking to increase the supply of affordable housing; the number of housing estates in Nadi has grown especially on the town periphery, such that housing estates now comprise 20 per cent of the total housing stock in Nadi. Nadi has a tropical monsoon climate according to the Köppen climate classification, with hot temperatures year round; the city features a short dry season during the months of July and August, a lengthy wet season covering the remaining months of the year. Nadi Town Fiji Restaurant Indian Asian Denarau Nadi Fiji Restaurant Seafood Fiji Restaurant in Denarau, Nadi
Nandi Hills, India
Nandi Hills or Nandi betta is an ancient hill fortress in southern India, in the Chikkaballapur district of Karnataka state. It is 10 km from Chickballapur town and 60 km from the city of Bengaluru; the hills are nestled near the town of Nandi. In traditional belief, the hills are the origin of the Arkavathy river, Ponnaiyar River, Palar River and Penna River. There are many stories about the origin of the name Nandi Hills. During the Chola period, Nandi Hills was called Ananda Giri meaning The Hill of Happiness. Another story is that Yoga Nandeeshwara performed penance here, so it was named after him. Nandi is commonly called Nandidurga because of the fort built here by the ruler Tipu Sultan, it is perhaps called Nandi Hills because the hills resemble a sleeping bull. Another theory holds that the hill gets its name from an ancient, 1300-year-old Dravidian-style Nandi temple situated on this hill. An ancient Lord Shiva and Parvati temple adorns this hill; the Bhoga Nandeeshwara Temple in Nandi village is one of the oldest temples in Karnataka dating back to the ninth century.
The temple hewn out of rock consists of two complexes. While the first complex houses three deities, the second complex consists of a huge and majestic kalyani pond; the foundation of the temple was constructed by the Banas of ninth century. The Chola rulers of the 11th century constructed the roof of the temple; the marriage hall was built by the Hoysalas in the thirteenth century and a wall of the second complex was built by the Vijayanagar kings. Beautiful stone carvings are a popular tourist site and are a source of inspiration for students of art and architecture, it is 4,851 ft above sea level. It is located close to the Bangalore International Airport. In addition, the hills are located about 20 km from the National Highway just after Devanahalli Town. Due to its location, Nandi Hills is developing and numerous commercial and residential ventures are underway in the region; the Bangalore amateur ham radio operators have a repeater set up on the Nandi Hills, which increases the reach or transmission and reception, Nandidurga was traditionally held unimpregnable, its storming by the army of Cornwallis on 19 October 1791 was one of the most notable incidents of the first war against Tipu Sultan of Mysore.
A description of the siege is given in Browne's History of Scotland and the records of the 71st Highlanders. Nundydroog, a celebrated fortress and country of Hindostan, in the province of Mysore; the former is built on the summit of a rock, about 1700 feet high, three-fourths of its circumference being inaccessible. Our forces took it by storm after a three weeks' siege, it stands in long. 77° 53' E. and lat. 13° 22' N. It became a retreat for British Raj officials during the hot season. Francis Cunningham built the summer residence here for Sir Mark Cubbon....this droog, one now used as a hotel, built by General Cubbon, sometime British resident. Several species of plant were introduced into an experimental garden. Firminger's manual notes that several species of Anona were grown at this garden and notes the peculiarity of Hypericum mysorense: H. mysorense.—An ornamental bush indigenous to the Western Ghauts, but found in gardens. It is domesticated, or wild, in the Fort at Nandidroog, the latter being situated on the top of an isolated hill on the plateau of Mysore at an elevation of 4,850 feet.
This is mentioned, as curiously enough, one has to travel more than a hundred miles towards the Western Ghauts, before the plant is met with in the wild state again. Fertile seed has never been secured; the fine yellow flowers are three inches across. Only suitable for the shrubbery in hill gardens. Potato cultivation was introduced for the first time in the neighbourhood of Bangalore by a Colonel Cuppage and continued by the botanist Benjamin Heyne. Heyne brought seeds from St. Helena and these grew well enough that they were supplied in Madras and preferred to those obtained from Bengal. In 1860, tea plants were tried on Nandi Hills by Hugh Cleghorn. Nandi Hills are undergoing development, including a one-crore renovation of the Tipu Fort; the Department of Horticulture is setting up a one-crore food court. A 30-lakh music stage, located on a three-and-a-half acre grove, will be used to conduct cultural programmes. Furthermore, the Horticulture Department is developing 140 acres of land in the Nandi Hills region with the creation of a large-scale exotic botanical garden.
A planetarium with an initial one-crore investment is being constructed. A gondola lift system will connect the peak of the Nandi Hill with the nearby Muddenahalli. Other projects including Prestige Golfshire and QVC Nandi Hills are coming up near Nandi Hills. There are plans to construct Cable cars at the cost of 15 to 20 crore which will reduce the number of vehicles going to the hills there by protecting the nature The vegetation of the hills is typical of high hills. Inside the fort at the summit, many of the large trees are planted exotics such as Eucalyptus and the undergrowth consists of Coffea arabica along with some native species; the forest acts as a substrate for cloud condensation and every morning the trees are covered in water. This allows for many moist forest species of animals; the hills are rich in birdlife making it a popular location for birdwatchers and bird photographers. The evergreen forest patch on t
Nandi is the gate-guardian deity of Kailasa, the abode of Lord Shiva. He is depicted as a bull, which serves as the mount to Shiva. According to Saivite siddhantic tradition, he is considered as the chief guru of eight disciples of Nandinatha Sampradaya, Sanaka, Sanandana, Tirumular, Vyagrapada and Sivayoga Muni, who were sent in eight different directions, to spread the wisdom of Shaivism; the word Nandi has come from Tamil root word, which means to grow, to flourish, or to appear, used to indicate growing or flourishing of white bulls, as well as divine bull nandi. The Sanskrit word nandi has the meaning of happy and satisfaction, the properties of divine guardian of Shiva- Nandi. All Shiva temples display stone-images of a seated Nandi facing the main shrine, it is documented, that the application of the name Nandi to the bull, is in fact a development of recent syncretism of different regional beliefs within Saivism. The name Nandi was used instead for an anthropomorphic door-keeper of Kailasha, rather than his mount, in the oldest Saivite texts in Sanskrit and other Indian languages.
Siddhantic texts distinct Nandi from Vṛṣabha. According to them, Chandesha, Mahakala, Vṛṣabha, Ganesha and Murugan, are the eight Ganeshwaras of Shiva; the worship of Shiva and Nandi can be traced back to the Indus Valley Civilization time-period. The famous'Pasupati Seal' depicts a seated figure, identified as Shiva, there were many bull-seals found in Mohenjo daro and Harappa, which led to conclusion of the researchers, that it might be the origin of Bull-cum-Nandi worship. Nandi is described as the son of the sage Shilada. Shilada underwent severe penance to have a boon– a child with immortality and blessings of Lord Shiva, received Nandi as his son, it is said that Nandi was born from a Yajna performed by the Shilada, his body was clad in armour made out of diamonds, when he was born. Nandi grew as an ardent devotee of Lord Shiva and he did penance to become his gate-keeper, as well as his mount, on the banks of river Narmada, near Tripur Tirth Kshetra in present-day Nandikeshwar Temple, in Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh.
Nandi got the divine-knowledge of Agamic and Tantric wisdom taught from goddess Parvati. He could teach that divine-knowledge to his eight disciples, who are identified as the progenitors of Nandinatha Sampradaya, Sanaka, Sanandana, Tirumular, Vyagrapada and Sivayoga Muni; these eight disciples were sent in eight different directions of the world by Nandi, to spread this knowledge. Many other puranic tales are available about Nandi. One describes his conflict with the anti-hero of Ramayana. Nandi cursed Ravana. Hanuman burned Lanka when he went in search of Sita, imprisoned by Ravana in Ashok Vatika. Tamil Thiruvilaiyadal Puranam mentions another story, it says. Parvati incarnated as a fisher-woman to atone. To unite his master and his beloved-wife, Nandi took the form of a whale and started to trouble the people. Fisher-woman Parvati's father told. Shiva took the form of a fisherman and killed the whale, received Parvati in her previous form. Agamas describe him in a zoo-anthropomorphic form, with the head of bull and four hands, with antelope, axe and abhayamudra.
In his mount form, Nandi is depicted as a seated bull in all Shiva temples, all over the world. This form has been found in Southeast Asian countries including Cambodia; the white color of the bull symbolizes justice. Symbolically, the seated Nandi towards sanctum in Shiva temples, represents an individual jiva and the message that the jiva should always be focused on the Parameshwara. From the yogic perspective, Nandi is the mind dedicated to the absolute. In other words, to understand and absorb light, the experience and the wisdom is Nandi, the guru within. Nandi flag or Vrshabha flag, a flag with the emblem of seated bull is recognized as the flag of Saivism among Tamil community all over the world. Nandi was the emblem of historical Tamil Saivite monarchs, such as Pallava dynasty and Jaffna Kingdom. Several campaigns to aware the Saivites about their Nandi flag is carried out continuously during the Shivaratri session among Tamil community of Sri Lanka, Tamil Nadu, diaspora; the nandi flag used nowadays was designed by Ravindra Sastri of Madurai, Tamil Nadu, according to the request and guidance of S. Danapala, a Sri Lankan Saivite personage, in the 1990s.
The first Nandi flag was hoisted at Colombo Hindu College at Ratmalana, Sri Lanka. Following years, It was declared as the official Saivite flag in fourth International Saiva Siddhanta Conference, held in Zurich in 2008. Nowadays, Tamil Saivites in Sri Lanka, Australia, UK, South Africa, Switzerland, hoist the flag in all religious and cultural festivals. Nandi flag was declared as the official Hindu flag of Sri Lanka. Kamadhenu Cattle in religion Gavaevodata, the primordial cow in Zoroastrianism Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend 2004 by Anna Dallapiccola
The Nandi are part of the Kalenjin ethnic group found in East Africa. They traditionally have lived and still form the majority in the highland areas of the former Rift Valley Province of Kenya, in what is today Nandi County, they speak the Nandi dialect of the Kalenjin language. Prior to the mid-19th century, the Nandi referred to themselves as Chemwalindet or Chemwal while other Kalenjin speaking communities referred to the Nandi as Chemngal, it is unclear where the terms originated from though in early writings the latter term was associated with ngaal which means camel in Turkana and suggestions made that the name could be an "...allusion to the borrowing, direct or indirect of the rite of circumcision from camel riding Muslims". Sources do not make similar suggestions or references to this position; the name Nandi came into use after the mid-19th century and more so after the defeat of the Maasai and the routing of the Swahili and Arab traders. The name is thought to derive from the similarity of the rapaciousness of the warriors of the mid-1800's to the habits of the voracious cormorant, known as Mnandi in Kiswahili.
Main Article: Kalenjin History According to the Kalenjin narrative of origin, the Nandi section was formed from the separation of what had been a combined group of Kipsigis and Nandi. They had been living at Rongai near Nakuru as a united group for about a century before they were forced to separate due to antagonistic environmental factors, notably droughts and invasion of the Maasai from Uasin Gishu; the Kipsigis moved southwards, settling around Kericho while the Nandi continued west and settled at Aldai. Radiocarbon dating of archaeological excavations done in Rongai have ranged in date from around 985 to 1300 A. D and have been associated with the early development phase of the Sirikwa culture. From here the culture radiated outwards toward the western highlands, the Mt. Elgon region and into Uganda; the existence of the Nandi as a tribe dates from about the beginning of the seventeenth century. Within Nandi tradition it is understood as a distinct process through which various Kalenjin clans came to occupy the present day Nandi county.
The traditional Nandi account is that the first settlers in their country came from Elgon during the time of the Maina and formed the Kipoiis clan. They were led by a man named Kakipoch, founder of the Nandi section of the Kalenjin and are said to have settled in the emet of Aldai in south-western Nandi. One of the earliest Bororiet was named after Kakipoch and the site of his grave, still shown on Chepilat hill in Aldai was marked by the stump of an ancient olive tree; the account of his burial is that his body was laid on ox-hide, together with his possessions, left for the hyenas. The system of social organisation was broadly similar to that of other Kalenjin communities; the Nandi territory was divided into six counties known as emet. These were Wareng, located to the north, Mosop in the North East,Tindiret in the East, Soiin & Pelkut in the South, Aldai & Chesumei in the west and Emgwen in the center; the emotinwek were divided into districts known as bororiet and these were divided into villages known as kokwet.
The Nandi administrative system was unique among the Kalenjin in having the bororiosiek administrative layer. Within the wider Kalenjin administrative system, the Kokwet was the most significant political and judicial unit in terms of day to day issues; the kokwet elders were the local authority for allocating land for cultivation, they were the body to whom the ordinary member of the tribe would look for a decision in a dispute or problem which defied solution by direct agreement between the parties. Membership of the kokwet council was acquired by seniority and personality and within it decisions were taken by a small number of elders whose authority derived from their natural powers of leadership. Among the Nandi however, the Bororiet was the most significant institution and the political system revolved around it; the Nandi social system divided the male sex into boys and elders. The female sex is divided into married women; the first stage continued till initiation. All boys who were circumcised together were said to belong to the same Ibinda and once the young men of a particular ibinda came of age, they were tasked with protecting the tribal lands and the society, the period when they were in charge of protection of the society was known as the age of that ibinda.
The Nandi had eight cyclical age-sets or ibinwek, however they dropped one the korongoro to settle for a total of seven. Legend has it; this was because they were told not to go for that war but they could not listen. It is said they, that ibinda, the korongoro put on their ears some septook to avoid listening to the wise words of the Orkoiyot. During the war they were unsuccessful. For fear of a recurrence, the community decided to retire the age-set; the order of Nandi ibinwek is given below. Maina Chumo Sawe Kipkoimet Korongoro -no longer used Kaplelach Kipnyigei Nyongi The earliest recorded mention of Arab caravans in Nandi oral tradition date to the 1850s during the time when the Sawe ibinda were warriors; the contact was antagonistic with raids on the caravans carried out by Nandi warriors. By 1854, the name Mararma had been conveyed upon a sub-set of the Sawe as a result of the successful raiding of Arab caravans or as a result of the major defeat at Kipsoboi; these were good years for the Nandi.
The Nandi warriors had never encountered a foe armed with firearms before and they had to devel
Nandi Hills, Kenya
Nandi Hills is an urban settlement in Nandi County and forms a constituency by itself. Towns in Nandi county Kenya are Mosoriot and Nandi Hills; the name refers to the general area of Nandi County, where the urban settlement is located. Nandi Hills is located in a highland area of lush green rolling hills at the edge of the Great Rift Valley in the southwestern part of Kenya, it is located 303 kilometres, by road, northwest of Nairobi, the capital and largest city in that country. The coordinates of Nandi Hills, Kenya are:0°06'01.0"N, 35°10'35.0"E. Nandi Hills lies an elevation of 2,047 metres, above sea level; the small town named Nandi Hills, is referred to as the "cradle land of Kenyan running". The area is home to many world-renowned athletes, including Kipchoge Keino, Wilson Kipketer, Janeth Jepkosgei, Augustine Choge, Wilfred Bungei, Henry Rono and Mike Boit; the area is inhabited by the Nandi people. Nandi Hills has a wet climate with two rain seasons during the equinoxes. Temperatures vary between 18 °C and 24 °C which coupled with the rich volcanic soils make the area ideal for growing tea.
The scenic area is known for its many tea estates. There is a golf course, Nandi Bears Club, where several annual tournaments are held annually such as the Gill Trophy, the Kenya Ladies' Golf Union and the prestigious Kenya Breweries Festival of Golf besides rally and cross countries, it is a significant area of Rift Valley province and the Kalenjin community. It was a battleground against the Luo and Luhya communities and the burial site of the renowned Nandi seer Koitalel Arap Samoei, he is buried under a symbolic tree. On top of Nandi Hills sits Samoei with its red earth; when Koitalel was killed by British officer Richard Meinertzhagen, some believe the ground turned red on the spot of his death. The economy of Nandi Hills relies on surrounding tea estates. Many people work on tea farms as pluckers, field maintenance, factory service works, official duties and business. Nandi Hills town has a tarmac street despite a lot of taxes accrued from tea farms; the transport system in Nandi Hills is land-based via tarmac.
The Nandi Hills road network connects it to major Kenyan cities including Eldoret, Kericho and Nairobi and Mombasa. Nakumatt Atul Shah Nandi Bears Golf Club The Kenyan Camper: Nandi Hills – Much More Than Tea