Shiva is one of the principal deities of Hinduism. He is the supreme God within Shaivism, one of the three most influential denominations in contemporary Hinduism, Shiva is the transformer within the Trimurti, the Hindu trinity that includes Brahma and Vishnu. In Shaivism tradition, Shiva is the Supreme being who creates, protects, in the goddess tradition of Hinduism called Shaktism, the goddess is described as supreme, yet Shiva is revered along with Vishnu and Brahma. A goddess is stated to be the energy and creative power of each and he is one of the five equivalent deities in Panchayatana puja of the Smarta tradition of Hinduism. At the highest level, Shiva is regarded as formless, limitless and unchanging absolute Brahman, Shiva has many benevolent and fearsome depictions. In benevolent aspects, he is depicted as an omniscient Yogi who lives a life on Mount Kailash as well as a householder with wife Parvati. In his fierce aspects, he is depicted slaying demons. Shiva is known as Adiyogi Shiva, regarded as the god of yoga, meditation.
Shiva is usually worshipped in the form of Lingam. Shiva is a deity, revered widely by Hindus, in India, Nepal. The Sanskrit word Śiva means, states Monier Williams, propitious, benign, benevolent, the roots of Śiva in folk etymology is śī which means in whom all things lie, pervasiveness and va which means embodiment of grace. The word Shiva is used as an adjective in the Rig Veda, as an epithet for several Rigvedic deities, the term Shiva connotes liberation, final emancipation and the auspicious one, this adjective sense of usage is addressed to many deities in Vedic layers of literature. The term evolved from the Vedic Rudra-Shiva to the noun Shiva in the Epics, Sharma presents another etymology with the Sanskrit root śarv-, which means to injure or to kill, interprets the name to connote one who can kill the forces of darkness. The Sanskrit word śaiva means relating to the god Shiva, and it is used as an adjective to characterize certain beliefs and practices, such as Shaivism. Some authors associate the name with the Tamil word śivappu meaning red, noting that Shiva is linked to the Sun, the Vishnu sahasranama interprets Shiva to have multiple meanings, The Pure One, and the One who is not affected by three Guṇas of Prakṛti.
Shiva is known by names such Viswanathan, Mahesha, Shankara, Rudra, Trilochana, Neelakanta, Trilokinatha. The highest reverence for Shiva in Shaivism is reflected in his epithets Mahādeva, Maheśvara, Sahasranama are medieval Indian texts that list a thousand names derived from aspects and epithets of a deity. There are at least eight different versions of the Shiva Sahasranama, the version appearing in Book 13 of the Mahabharata provides one such list
Buddhism is a religion and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to the Buddha. Buddhism originated in India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia, two major extant branches of Buddhism are generally recognized by scholars and Mahayana. Buddhism is the worlds fourth-largest religion, with over 500 million followers or 7% of the global population, Buddhist schools vary on the exact nature of the path to liberation, the importance and canonicity of various teachings and scriptures, and especially their respective practices. In Theravada the ultimate goal is the attainment of the state of Nirvana, achieved by practicing the Noble Eightfold Path, thus escaping what is seen as a cycle of suffering. Theravada has a following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. Mahayana, which includes the traditions of Pure Land, Nichiren Buddhism, rather than Nirvana, Mahayana instead aspires to Buddhahood via the bodhisattva path, a state wherein one remains in the cycle of rebirth to help other beings reach awakening.
Vajrayana, a body of teachings attributed to Indian siddhas, may be viewed as a branch or merely a part of Mahayana. Tibetan Buddhism, which preserves the Vajrayana teachings of eighth century India, is practiced in regions surrounding the Himalayas, Tibetan Buddhism aspires to Buddhahood or rainbow body. Buddhism is an Indian religion attributed to the teachings of Buddha, the details of Buddhas life are mentioned in many early Buddhist texts but are inconsistent, his social background and life details are difficult to prove, the precise dates uncertain. Some hagiographic legends state that his father was a king named Suddhodana, his mother queen Maya, and he was born in Lumbini gardens. Some of the stories about Buddha, his life, his teachings, Buddha was moved by the innate suffering of humanity. He meditated on this alone for a period of time, in various ways including asceticism, on the nature of suffering. He famously sat in meditation under a Ficus religiosa tree now called the Bodhi Tree in the town of Bodh Gaya in Gangetic plains region of South Asia.
He reached enlightenment, discovering what Buddhists call the Middle Way, as an enlightened being, he attracted followers and founded a Sangha. Now, as the Buddha, he spent the rest of his teaching the Dharma he had discovered. Dukkha is a concept of Buddhism and part of its Four Noble Truths doctrine. It can be translated as incapable of satisfying, the unsatisfactory nature, the Four Truths express the basic orientation of Buddhism, we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, which is dukkha, incapable of satisfying and painful. This keeps us caught in saṃsāra, the cycle of repeated rebirth, dukkha
The Triratna is a Buddhist symbol, thought to visually represent the Three Jewels of Buddhism. The Triratna symbol is composed of, A lotus flower within a circle, a trident, or trisula, with three branches, representing the threefold jewels of Buddhism, the Dharma and the Sangha. On representations of the footprint of the Buddha, the Triratna is usually surmounted by the Dharma wheel. The triratna can be reinforced by being surmounted with three dharma wheels. The triratna symbol is called nandipada, or bulls hoof, a number of examples of the triratna symbol appear on historical coins of Buddhist kingdoms in the Indian sub-continent. For example, the Triratna appears on the 1st century BCE coins of the Kingdom of Kuninda in the northern Punjab, refuge, An Introduction to the Buddha, Dhamma, & Sangha. Thanissaro Bhikkhu, Third edition, revised,2001 ガンダーラ美術の見方, Yamada Kihito, ISBN 4-89806-106-0 Triratna on the footprints of the Buddha Buddhapada, cambodian Buddhist Chanting, Paying Respect to the Triple Gem on YouTube
Nandi is the name of the gate- guardian deity of Kailasa, the abode of Lord Shiva. He is usually depicted as a bull which serves as the mount to the god Shiva. The word nandi has come from Tamil root word Nandhu means to grow to flourish or to appear which was used to indicate growing fluorished white bulls as well as divine bull nandi. The Sanskrit word nandi (Sanskrit, नन्दि has the meaning of happy and satisfaction, almost all Shiva temples display stone images of a seated Nandi, generally facing the main shrine. However, it is documented that the application of the name Nandi to the bull is infact a development of recent syncretism of different regional beliefs within Saivism. The oldest Saivite texts in Sanskrit and other Indian languages, the worship of Shiva and Nandi can be trace to even Indus Valley Civilization time period. Nandi is described as the son of the sage Shilada, Shilada underwent severe penance to have a boon — a child with immortality towards Lord Shiva and got Nandi as his son.
It is said that Nandi was born from a Yajna performed by the Shilada, Nandi grew as an ardent devotee of Lord Shiva and he did penance to become the gate-keeper of the Lord Shiva as well as his mount. Nandi got the knowledge of Agamic and Tantric wisdom taught by Lord Shiva from goddess Parvati. These eight disciples are directed to eight directions of the world by Nandinatha to spread the wisdom he taught them, there are so many other puranic tales are available about nandi. One describes his conflict with Ravana, the anti-hero of Ramayana. andi who cursed Ravana that his kingdom would be burnt by a monkey, and Hanuman burnt Lanka when he went in search of Sita, who was kept prisoner by Ravana in Ashok Vatika. Tamil Thiruvilaiyadal puranam mentions another story in which nandi ] as a whale and it tells that Parvati lost her concentration while Shiva was explaining the meaning of Vedas to her. Parvati incarnated as a fisherwoman for the atone, to unite his master and his beloved wife, Nandi took the form of a whale and started to trouble the people.
Fisherwoman Parvatis father told that anyone who killed the whale will marry his daughter, Lord Shiva took the form of a fisherman, killed the whale and got Parvati in her previous form. Agamas describe him in a form with the head of bull and four hands with antelope, mace. In his mount form, nandi is depicted as a bull in all Shiva temples. This nandi form has been even in Southeast Asian countries including Cambodia. The white color of the bull symbolizes purity and justice, the seated Nandi towards sanctum in Siva temples, represents an individual ] and the message that the jiva should always be focused on the Parameshwara
A zebu, sometimes known as indicine cattle or humped cattle, is a species or subspecies of domestic cattle originating in South Asia. Zebu are characterised by a fatty hump on their shoulders, a large dewlap, zebu are used as draught oxen, dairy cattle, and beef cattle, as well as for byproducts such as hides and dung for fuel and manure. In 1999, researchers at Texas A&M University successfully cloned a zebu, taurine cattle are descended from the Eurasian aurochs, while zebu are descended from the Indian aurochs. Zebu may be singular or plural, but zebus is an acceptable plural form. The Spanish name, cebu or cebú, is present in a few English works. Bos indicus is believed to have first appeared in sub-Saharan Africa between 700 and 1500 and was introduced to the Horn of Africa around 1000, some 75 breeds of zebu are known, split about evenly between African breeds and South Asian ones. Kedah-Kelantan and LID originated from Malaysia, other breeds of zebu are quite local, like the Hariana of Haryana and eastern Punjab or the Rath of Alwar in eastern Rajasthan.
Sanga cattle can be distinguished from pure zebu by having smaller humps located farther forward on the animals, zebu were imported to Africa over many hundreds of years, and interbred with taurine cattle there. Partial resistance to rinderpest led to increase in the frequency of zebu in Africa. Zebu, which can tolerate heat, were imported into Brazil in the early 20th century and crossbred with Charolais cattle. The resulting breed, 63% Charolais and 37% zebu, is called the Canchim and it has a better meat quality than the zebu and better heat resistance than European cattle. The zebu breeds used were primarily Indo-Brazilian with some Nelore and Guzerat, many breeds are complex mixtures of the zebu and various taurine types, and some have yak, gaur, or banteng genes. While zebu are the cattle in much of Asia, the cattle of Japan, Korea. Other species of cattle domesticated in parts of Asia include yak, banteng, han-u is a traditional Korean taurine–zebu hybrid breed. Zebu have humps on the shoulders, large dewlaps, and droopy ears and they are adapted to the harsh environment of the tropics.
Adaptations include resistance to disease and tolerance of heat, sun. Zebu are generally enough to begin reproducing around 44 months old. This is based on the development of their bodies to withstand the strain of carrying, early reproduction can place too much stress on the body and possibly shorten lifespans
Vima Kadphises was a Kushan emperor from approximately 90–100 CE. According to the Rabatak inscription, he was the son of Vima Takto, emperor Vima Kadphises expanded the Kushan territory in Afghanistan and north-west India. He was the Kushan emperor to first introduce gold coinage, in addition to the copper and silver coinage. Most of the gold seems to have obtained through trade with the Roman Empire. The gold weight standard of eight grams corresponds to that of Roman coins of the 1st century. Gold bullion from Rome would be melted and used for the Kushan mints, the Kushan were able to maintain and protect the Silk road, allowing silk, textiles or medicine to move between China and the West. In particular, many goods were sent by ship to the Roman empire, creating a flow of gold coins, Greek wine. Works of arts were imported from all directions, as indicated by the variety and quality of the artefacts found in the Kushan summer capital of Bagram in Afghanistan. A strong artistic syncretism was stimulated, as indicated by the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara, Roman history relates the visit of ambassadors from the Indian kings to the court of Trajan, bearing presents and letters in Greek, which were sent either by Vima Kadphises or his son Kanishka.
Most of Vimas coins feature the Buddhist symbol of the Triratana on the reverse, together with Hindu representations of Shiva, often time, a Trishul is depicted along with Shiva. The connection of Vima Kadphises with other Kushan rulers is described in the Rabatak inscription, through the Jade Gate to Rome, A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, 1st to 2nd Centuries CE. The Greeks in Bactria and India, ISBN 0-89005-524-6 Coins of Vima Kadphises Catalogue of coins of Vima Kadphises
Zeionises was an Indo-Scythian satrap of the area of southern Chach for king Azes II. He became king, and ruled in parts of the Indian subcontinent around 10 BCE –10 CE and his coins bear the Buddhist Triratna symbol on the obverse, and adopt representations of Greek divinities such as the city goddess Tyche. A silver jug found at Taxila indicates that Zeionises was satrap of Chuksa, son of Manigula, brother of the great king, yuezhi Greco-Bactrian Kingdom Indo-Greek Kingdom Indo-Parthian Kingdom Kushan Empire The Shape of Ancient Thought. Comparative studies in Greek and Indian Philosophies by Thomas McEvilley ISBN 1-58115-203-5 The Greeks in Bactria and India, W. W
Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, paper money, and related objects. Early money used by people is referred to as Odd and Curious, the Kyrgyz people used horses as the principal currency unit and gave small change in lambskins, the lambskins may be suitable for numismatic study, but the horse is not. Many objects have been used for centuries, such as shells, precious metals, cocoa beans, large stones. Today, most transactions take place by a form of payment with either inherent, Numismatic value may be used to refer to the value in excess of the monetary value conferred by law, which is known as the collector value. Economic and historical studies of use and development are an integral part of the numismatists study of moneys physical embodiment. First attested in English 1829, the word comes from the adjective numismatic. It was borrowed in 1792 from French numismatiques, itself a derivation from Late Latin numismatis, genitive of numisma, throughout its history, money itself has been made to be a scarce good, although it does not have to be.
Many materials have been used to form money, from naturally scarce precious metals and cowry shells through cigarettes to entirely artificial money, called fiat money, many complementary currencies use time as a unit of measure, using mutual credit accounting that keeps the balance of money intact. Modern money is essentially a token – an abstraction, paper currency is perhaps the most common type of physical money today. However, goods such as gold or silver retain many of the properties of money, such as volatility. However, these goods are not controlled by one single authority, coin collecting may have existed in ancient times. Caesar Augustus gave coins of every device, including old pieces of the kings, who wrote in a letter that he was often approached by vinediggers with old coins asking him to buy or to identify the ruler, is credited as the first Renaissance collector. Petrarch presented a collection of Roman coins to Emperor Charles IV in 1355, the first book on coins was De Asse et Partibus by Guillaume Budé.
During the early Renaissance ancient coins were collected by European royalty and nobility, Numismatics is called the Hobby of Kings, due to its most esteemed founders. Professional societies organized in the 19th century, the Royal Numismatic Society was founded in 1836 and immediately began publishing the journal that became the Numismatic Chronicle. The American Numismatic Society was founded in 1858 and began publishing the American Journal of Numismatics in 1866, in 1931 the British Academy launched the Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum publishing collections of Ancient Greek coinage. The first volume of Sylloge of Coins of the British Isles was published in 1958, after World War II in Germany a project, Fundmünzen der Antike was launched, to register every coin found within Germany. This idea found successors in many countries, in the United States, the US mint established a coin Cabinet in 1838 when chief coiner Adam Eckfeldt donated his personal collection
Taurine cattle, called European cattle, are a subspecies of domesticated cattle originating in the Near East. Both taurine cattle and indicine cattle are descended from the aurochs, taurine cattle were originally considered a distinct species, but are now typically grouped with zebus and aurochs into one species, Bos taurus. Most modern breeds of cattle are taurine cattle, the genome sequence of the Hereford breed of taurine cattle was published by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium in 2009
Hinduism is a religion, or a way of life, found most notably in India and Nepal. Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, and some practitioners and scholars refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder. This Hindu synthesis started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE following the Vedic period, although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, shared textual resources, and pilgrimage to sacred sites. Hindu texts are classified into Shruti and Smriti and these texts discuss theology, mythology, Vedic yajna, agamic rituals, and temple building, among other topics. Major scriptures include the Vedas and Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, prominent themes in Hindu beliefs include the four Puruṣārthas, the proper goals or aims of human life, namely Dharma, Artha and Moksha, karma and the various Yogas. Hindu practices include such as puja and recitations, family-oriented rites of passage, annual festivals.
Some Hindus leave their world and material possessions, engage in lifelong Sannyasa to achieve Moksha. Hinduism prescribes the eternal duties, such as honesty, refraining from injuring living beings, forbearance, self-restraint, Hinduism is the worlds third largest religion, with over one billion followers or 15% of the global population, known as Hindus. The majority of Hindus reside in India, Mauritius, the Caribbean, the word Hindu is derived from the Indo-Aryan/Sanskrit word Sindhu, the Indo-Aryan name for the Indus River in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. The term Hindu in these ancient records is a geographical term, the Arabic term al-Hind referred to the people who live across the River Indus. This Arabic term was taken from the pre-Islamic Persian term Hindū. By the 13th century, Hindustan emerged as an alternative name of India. It was only towards the end of the 18th century that European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus.
The term Hinduism, spelled Hindooism, was introduced into the English language in the 18th-century to denote the religious, because of the wide range of traditions and ideas covered by the term Hinduism, arriving at a comprehensive definition is difficult. The religion defies our desire to define and categorize it, Hinduism has been variously defined as a religion, a religious tradition, a set of religious beliefs, and a way of life. From a Western lexical standpoint, Hinduism like other faiths is appropriately referred to as a religion, in India the term dharma is preferred, which is broader than the western term religion. Hindu traditionalists prefer to call it Sanatana Dharma, the study of India and its cultures and religions, and the definition of Hinduism, has been shaped by the interests of colonialism and by Western notions of religion. Since the 1990s, those influences and its outcomes have been the topic of debate among scholars of Hinduism, Hinduism as it is commonly known can be subdivided into a number of major currents
Apollodotus was not the first to strike bilingual coins outside Bactria, but he was the first king who ruled in India only, and therefore the founder of the proper Indo-Greek kingdom. According to W. W. Tarn, Apollodotus I was one of the generals of Demetrius I of Bactria, Tarn was uncertain whether he was a member of the royal house. Later authors largely agree with Tarns analysis, though with even more uncertainty regarding who the king was. Apollodotus was either succeeded in India by Antimachus II, or the two kings were contemporary, Antimachus II ruling the more western territories closer to Bactria, eventually Apollodotus I was succeeded by Menander I, and the two kings are mentioned by Pompejus Trogus as important Indo-Greek rulers. The coinage of Apollodotus is, together with that of Menander and it is found mainly in the provinces of Punjab and Gujarat, indicating the southern limit of the Indo-Greek expansion in India. This is suggested by the Periplus, a 1st-century CE document on trade in the Indian Ocean, strabo describes the occupation of Patalene.
While Sindh may have come under his possession, it is not known as to whether Apollodotus advanced to Gujarat, Apollodotus issued a great number of bilingual Indian-standard square coins. Beside the usual title, the exact significance of the animals depicted on the coins is unclear. Similarly, the bull on the reverse may be a symbol of a city, or a depiction of Shiva, making it a symbol of Hinduism. The bull is often represented in an erectile state, which reinforces its interpretation as a representation of Shiva. Conversely, this reinforces the interpretation of the elephant as a religious symbol. The enlightenment and passing of the Buddha occurred during the Taurus full moon, the nandipada and the zebu bull are generally associated with Nandi, Shiva s humped bull in Hinduism. The same association was on coins of Zeionises or Vima Kadphises. He issued a number of bronzes with Apollo /tripod, that were repeated for centuries, Apollodotus issued a small series of monolingual Attic tetradrachms, intended for export into Bactria.
On these coins, he used no epithet, Greco-Bactrian Kingdom Seleucid Empire Greco-Buddhism Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthian Kingdom Kushan Empire Tarn, William Woodthorpe. The Greeks in Bactria and India, coins of Apollodotus More coins of Apollodotus
A hoof, plural hooves or hoofs /ˈhʊfs/, is the tip of a toe of an ungulate mammal, strengthened by a thick, keratin covering. Artiodactyls are even-toed ungulates, meaning that species have an even number of digits on each foot. Ruminants, with two digits, are the largest group. Examples include deer, cattle and sheep, perissodactyls have an odd number of toes. Examples of perissodactyl mammals are horses and tapirs, hooves are generally cited as limb structures restricted to placental mammals, which unlike other mammal groups undergo prolonged pregnancies. However, the marsupial Chaeropus had hooves, the hoof surrounds the distal end of the second phalanx, the distal phalanx, and the navicular bone. The hoof consists of the wall, the bars of the hoof. The weight of the animal is normally borne by both the sole and the edge of the hoof wall, numerous factors can affect hoof structure and health, including genetics, hoof conformation, environmental influences, and athletic performance of the animal.
The ideal hoof has a parallel hoof-pastern axis, a hoof wall, adequate sole depth. There are four layers within the wall of the hoof. From the outside, a hoof is made up of the stratum externum, the medium, the stratum internum. The stratum externum and the medium are difficult to distinguish, the stratum externum is thin. Inside the hoof wall is a junction, a soft tissue structure that allows the hoof to withstand the demands of force transmission it undergoes. This tissue structure binds the surface of the hoof wall, the dermis parietis. Most even-toed ungulates have two main hooves on each foot, together called a cloven hoof, in the mountain goat, the dewclaw serves to provide extra traction when descending rocky slopes as well as additional drag on loose or slippery surfaces made of ice, dirt, or snow. Other cloven-hooved animals have no dewclaws, some odd-toed ungulates have one hoof on each foot, others have three distinct hooved or heavily nailed toes, or one hoof and two dewclaws. The tapir is a case, having three toes on each hind foot and four toes on each front foot.
In nature, wild animals are capable of wearing down the hoof as it continuously grows, proper care improves biomechanical efficiency and prevents lameness