Naneghat

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Naneghat
नाणेघाट
Naneghat(pass).jpg
The Naneghat pass
Elevation 750
Location Maharashtra, India
Range Western Ghats
Coordinates 19°18′23″N 73°40′48″E / 19.3064°N 73.6799°E / 19.3064; 73.6799
Naneghat is located in India
Naneghat

Naneghat, or Nanaghat, is a mountain pass in the Western Ghats range near Junnar in Pune district of Maharashtra, India. During the reign of the Satavahana (200 BCE–190 CE), the pass was extensively used as a trade route between Kalyan and Junnar. Literally, the name nane means "coin" and ghat means "pass", the name is given because this path was used as a tollbooth to collect toll from traders crossing the hills between Kalyan (Konkan coast) and the Junnar region.

Nanaghat inscriptions[edit]

The inscriptions in the caves indicate that they are the work of the consorts of the Satavahana ruler Satakarni, these inscriptions are dated between 60 and 70 BCE.[1] It is believed that Satakarni's wife Naganika commissioned the cave, the statues and the inscriptions. Brahmi inscriptions in the cave mention her and her family members.

One of the caves originally contained life-size relief sculptures of eight persons, these sculptures have now faded, but some of them can be identified using the Brahmi labels carved over their heads. The first name is that of Raya-si (illustrious king) Simuka Satavahana. Next appear Sirimato Devi (queen) Naganika/Nayanika and Rano (king) Satakarni, the fourth name is that of Kumara (prince) Bhayala. The fifth name is lost, while the sixth name is that of the Maharathi (great charioteer) Tranakayira, the last two names are of the princes Haku-shri and Satavahana.[2]

The Naneghat caves.
The Naneghat cave in which the inscriptions are found.

The walls of the same cave contain a long, partially-damaged inscription of a queen, whose name is unclear, the queen is believed to be Naganika, mentioned in the label described above. According to the inscription, the queen was the wife of Satakarni and mother of Vedashri; her father was a great warrior from the Angiya family of the Nagas. The inscription suggests that she was leading a life befitting a widow, and describes 18 sacrifices she had participated in, some of these sacrifices (including two ashvamedhas and one rajasuya) would have been performed when her husband was still alive. In the Pratima-nataka of Bhāsa, Bharata realizes that his father Dasharatha is dead when he sees his statue with that of his other ancestors in a pratima-griha (stone house). Based on this reference, some historians argue that Naneghat portrait gallery was created when the kings and the princes were dead. V V Mirashi suggests that the figures were carved in instalments: the first six during the reign of Satakarni, and the last two after the death of the princes Haku-shri and Satavahana.[2]

The Naneghat records have proved very important in establishing the history of the region. Vedic Gods like Yama (Hinduism) Indra, Chandra and Surya are mentioned here. The mention of Samkarsana and Vasudeva indicate the prevalence of Bhagavata form of Hinduism in the Satavahana dynasty. There is a big stone cut "Pot" meant for collection of the toll from the traders. There are many rock cut water cisterns along the pass, the entire path of the Nane Ghat has stone pavement from top of the hill to the bottom. The inscriptions are preserved by the Archaeological Survey of India. Very beautiful temple of lord Ganesha in cave is found here.

Back-wall inscriptions[edit]

The following six inscriptions are incised on the back-wall of the Naneghat Cave, above the positions of the heads of what were relief figures now entirely destroyed, these labels seem to relate to three generations of rulers.[3]

Naneghat inscription (Back wall)[4]
Back wall with deleted images of Satavahana rulers.

Raya Simuka - Satavahano sirimato

King Simuka Satavahana, the illustrious one.

Devi-Nayanikaya rano cha / Siri-Satakanino
(The images) of the Queen, Naganika, and the King, the illustrious Satakarni.

Kumaro Bhaya ........
The Royal prince Bhaya .....

Maharathi Tranakayiro.
The Maharathi (feudal baron) Tranakayira.

Kumaro Hakusiri
The Royal prince Hakusiri.

Kumaro Satavahano.
The Royal prince Satavahana.

Left wall[edit]

Naneghat inscription (Left wall)
Naneghat inscription

1. [Om adoration] to Dharma [the Lord of created beings], adoration to Indra, adoration to Samkarshana and Yasudeva, the descendants of the Moon (who are) endowed with majesty, and to the four guardians of the world, Yama, Varuna, Kubera and Yasava; praise to Yedisri, the best of royal princes! Of the king.
2. .... of the brave hero, whose rule is unopposed, (of the lord of) the Dekhan......
3. By ..... the daughter of the Maharathi, the increaser of the Amgiya race, the first hero of the earth that is girdled by the ocean and the best of mountains.... 4. (who is the) wife of . . . Sri, he lord who gives sons, boons, (the fulfillment of) desires and wealth, (who is the) mother of Yedisri and the mother of the illustrious Sakti.....
5. Who gave a . . . most excellent (image of) a snake (deity), who fasted during a whole month, who (even) in her house (lived like) an ascetic, who remained chaste, who is well acquainted with initiatory ceremonies, vows and offerings, sacrifices, odoriferous with incense, were offered......
6.O the king ........ sacrifices were offered. Description - An Agnyadheya sacrifice (was offered), a sacrificial fee was offered (consisting of) twelve, 12, cows and 1 horse; - an Anvarambhaniya sacrifice (was offered), the sacrificial fee (consisted of) , milch-cows.....
7. ...... sacrificial fees were given consisting of 1700 cows, 10 elephants,
8. .... (289?).....17 silver waterpots.....
9..... a rika-sacrifice, sacrificial fees were given (consisting of) 11,000 cows, 1000 horses
10. ......12 . . 1 excellent village, a sacrificial fee (consisted of) 24,400 Karshapanas, (the gifts to) the spectators and menials [consisted of) 6,001 Karshapanas; a Raja [suya-sacrifice]........ the cart

— Nanaghat inscription, Left Wall. 70-60 BCE[5]

Right wall[edit]

Naneghat inscription (Right wall)
Naneghat inscription detail.

1. Used for conveying a mountain of grain, 1 excellent dress, 1 horse, 1 horse-chariot, 100 kine. A second horse-sacrifice was offered; sacrificial fees were given (consisting of) 1 horse with silver trappings, 12 golden...... an(other) sacrificial fee was given (consisting of) 14,000 (?) Karshapanas, 1 village . . elephant, a sacrificial fee was given
2. . . . cows, the cart used for conveying a mountain of grain..... an..... Ovaya sacrifice.......... 17 milch cows (?)....
3 ........ 17 ....... presents to the spectators were given.... a sacrificial fee was given (consisting of) 12..... 1 (set of) silver ornaments for them, an(other) sacrificial fee was given consisting of 10,000 Karshapanas............
4 ..... 20,000(?) cows ; a Bhagala-Dasaratra sacrifice was offered, a sacrificial fee was given (consisting of) 10,001 cows; a Gargatriratra sacrifice was offered ...... the presents to the spectators and menials (consisted of) 301 dresses; a Gavamayana was offered, a sacrificial fee was given (consisting of) 1,101 cows, a .... sacrifice, the sacrificial fee (consisted of) 1,100 (?) cows, the presents to the spectators and menials (consisted of) . . Karshapanas, 100 dresses; an Aptoryama sacrifice (was offered).....
5 ..... ;a Gavamayana sacrifice was offered, a sacrificial fee was given (consisting of) 1,101 cows; an Angirasamayana sacrifice was offered, a sacrificial fee was given (of) 1,101 cows; (a sacrificial fee) was given (consisting of) 1,101 cows; a Satatirata sacrifice ...... 100 ......... ; ......sacrifice was offered, the sacrificial fee (consisted of) 1,100 cows; an Angirasatriratra sacrifice was offered; the sacrificial fee (consisted of) .... cows ....
6 ........ 1,002 cows; a Chhandomapavamanatriratra sacrifice was offered, the sacrificial fee .... ; a ....... ratra sacrifice was offered, a sacrificial fee was given; a ...... tra sacrifice was offered, a sacrificial fee ... ; a ..... sacrifice was offered, a sacrificial fee was given (consisting of) 1,001 cows
7. .......... ; a sacrificial fee was given (consisting of) ..... cows ........; an Angirasamayana, of six years (duration) ....... , a sacrificial fee was given, (consisting of) 1,000 cows ..... (a sacrificial fee) was given (consisting of) 1,001 cows, thirteen ........
8. ........... a Trayoclasaratra ......... a sacrificial fee was given, (consisting of) .... cows ......... a Dasaratra .... a ...... sacrifice, a sacrificial fee was given (consisting of) 1001 cows....
9-10

— Nanaghat inscription, Right Wall. 70-60 BCE[6]

How to reach[edit]

A stone vessel for collecting fees at Naneghat.

Nane Ghat is situated at about 55 km from Kalyan. One can reach the base village Vaishakare by boarding the state transport bus passing through Malshej Ghat, from Vaishakare it is about 1/2 an hour walk along the road to Malshej Ghat to reach the divergence for Nane Ghat. There is a board indicating the divergence so finding the divergence is not difficult. Naneghat offers different beauty in different seasons; in summer and winter, when there are no clouds, views of Jivdhan and Dhakoba are awesome. It can easily be reached by motorable road from Junnar and Malshej

References[edit]

  1. ^ Charles Higham (2009). Encyclopedia of Ancient Asian Civilizations. Infobase Publishing. p. 299. ISBN 9781438109961. 
  2. ^ a b Upinder Singh (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Education India. p. 382. ISBN 978-81-317-1120-0. 
  3. ^ Report On The Elura Cave Temples And The Brahmanical And Jaina Caves In Western India by Burgess [1]
  4. ^ Report On The Elura Cave Temples And The Brahmanical And Jaina Caves In Western India by Burgess [2]
  5. ^ Report On The Elura Cave Temples And The Brahmanical And Jaina Caves In Western India by Burgess [3]
  6. ^ Report On The Elura Cave Temples And The Brahmanical And Jaina Caves In Western India by Burgess [4]

Coordinates: 19°18′23″N 73°40′48″E / 19.3064°N 73.6799°E / 19.3064; 73.6799