The Khmer Empire the Angkor Empire, the predecessor state to modern Cambodia, was a Hindu-Buddhist empire in Southeast Asia. The empire, which grew out of the former kingdoms of Funan and Chenla, at times ruled over and/or vassalised most of mainland Southeast Asia and parts of Southern China, stretching from the tip of the Indochinese Peninsula northward to modern Yunnan province and from Vietnam westward to Myanmar, its greatest legacy is Angkor, in present-day Cambodia, the site of the capital city during the empire's zenith. The majestic monuments of Angkor, such as Angkor Wat and Bayon, bear testimony to the Khmer Empire's immense power and wealth, impressive art and culture, architectural technique, aesthetics achievements, the variety of belief systems that it patronised over time. Satellite imaging has revealed that Angkor, during its peak in the 11th to 13th centuries, was the largest pre-industrial urban centre in the world; the beginning of the era of the Khmer Empire is conventionally dated to 802 CE when King Jayavarman II declared himself chakravartin on Phnom Kulen.
The empire ended with the fall of Angkor in the 15th century. The history of Angkor as the central area of settlement of the historical kingdom of Kambujadesa is the history of the Khmer kingdom from the 9th to the 13th centuries. From Kambuja itself — and so from the Angkor region — no written records have survived other than stone inscriptions. Therefore, the current knowledge of the historical Khmer civilisation is derived from: Archaeological excavation and investigation Stone inscriptions, which report on the political and religious deeds of the kings Reliefs in a series of temple walls with depictions of military marches, life in the palace, market scenes, the daily life of the population Reports and chronicles of Chinese diplomats and travellers. According to Sdok Kok Thom inscription, circa 781 Indrapura was the first capital of Jayavarman II, located in Banteay Prei Nokor, near today's Kompong Cham. After he returned to his home, the former kingdom of Chenla, he built up his influence, conquered a series of competing kings, in 790 became king of a kingdom called "Kambuja" by the Khmer.
He moved his court northwest to Mahendraparvata, far inland north from the great lake of Tonle Sap. Jayavarman II is regarded as a king who set the foundations of the Angkor period in Cambodian history, beginning with a grandiose consecration ritual that he conducted in 802 on the sacred Mount Mahendraparvata, now known as Phnom Kulen, to celebrate the independence of Kambuja from Javanese dominion. At that ceremony Prince Jayavarman II was proclaimed God King, he declared himself Chakravartin in a ritual taken from the Hindu tradition, thereby not only becoming the divinely appointed and therefore uncontested ruler, but simultaneously declaring the independence of his kingdom from Java. According to some sources, Jayavarman II had resided for some time in Java during the reign of Sailendras, or "The Lords of Mountains", hence the concept of Deva Raja or God King was ostensibly imported from Java. At that time, Sailendras ruled over Java, the Malay Peninsula and parts of Cambodia, around the Mekong delta.
The first pieces of information on Jayavarman II came from the K.235 stone inscription on a stele in Sdok Kok Thom temple, Isan region, dating to 1053. It recounts two and a half centuries of service that members of the temple's founding family provided for the Khmer court as chief chaplains of the Shaivite Hindu religion. According to an older established interpretation, Jayavarman II was a prince who lived at the court of Sailendra in Java and brought back to his home the art and culture of the Javanese Sailendran court to Cambodia; this classical theory was revisited by modern scholars such as Claude Jacques and Michael Vickery, who noted that Khmer used the term chvea to describe the Chams, their close neighbours. Moreover, Jayavarman's political career began at Vyadhapura in eastern Cambodia, which makes the scenario of longtime contacts with the Chams more probable than the scenario of a long stay in distant Java. Many early temples on Phnom Kulen show both Cham and Javanese influences if their asymmetric distribution seems Khmer.
In the following years, he extended his territory and in his reign, moved from Mahendraparvata and established his new capital of Hariharalaya near the modern Cambodian town of Rolous. He thereby laid the foundation of Angkor, to arise some 15 km to the northwest. Jayavarman II died in the year 835 and he was succeeded by his son Jayavarman III. Jayavarman III died in 877 and was succeeded by Indravarman I; the successors of Jayavarman II continually extended the territory of Kambuja. Indravarman I managed to expand the kingdom without wars and initiated extensive building projects, which were enabled by the wealth gained through trade and agriculture. Foremost were the temple of irrigation works. Indravarman I developed Hariharalaya further by constructing Bakong circa 881. Bakong in particular bears striking similarity to the Borobudur temple in Java, which suggests that it served as the prototype for Bakong. There must have bee
Naga or Nagi is a Sanskrit word which refers to a "serpent" or "snake" the King cobra. The term Naga in Hinduism and Jainism denotes divine, semi-divine deities, or a semi-divine race of half-human half-serpent beings that resides in the heavenly Patala and can take human form, they are principally depicted in three forms: wholly humans with snakes on the necks. A female naga is a "nagi", "nagin", or "nagini". Nagaraja is seen as the king of nāginis, they are common and hold cultural significance in the mythological traditions of many South Asian and Southeast Asian cultures. In Sanskrit, a nāgá is the Indian cobra. A synonym for nāgá is phaṇin. There are several words for "snake" in general, one of the commonly used ones is sarpá. Sometimes the word nāgá is used generically to mean "snake"; the word is cognate with English'snake', Germanic: *snēk-a-, Proto-IE: *nēg-o-. The mythological serpent race that took form as cobras can be found in Hindu iconography; the nāgas are described as the powerful, splendid and proud semidivine race that can assume their physical form either as human, partial human-serpent or the whole serpent.
Their domain is in the enchanted underworld, the underground realm filled with gems and other earthly treasures called Naga-loka or Patala-loka. They are often associated with bodies of waters — including rivers, lakes and wells — and are guardians of treasure, their power and venom made them dangerous to humans. However, they took beneficial protagonist role in Hindu mythology, such as in Samudra manthan mythology, Vasuki, a nāgarāja who abides on Shiva's neck, became the churning rope for churning of the Ocean of Milk, their eternal mortal enemies are the legendary semidivine birdlike-deity. Vishnu is portrayed in the form sheltered by Śeṣanāga or reclining on Śeṣa, but the iconography has been extended to other deities as well; the serpent is a common feature in Ganesha iconography and appears in many forms: around the neck, use as a sacred thread wrapped around the stomach as a belt, held in a hand, coiled at the ankles, or as a throne. Shiva is shown garlanded with a snake. Maehle states that "Patanjali is thought to be a manifestation of the serpent of eternity".
As in Hinduism, the Buddhist nāga has the form of a great cobra with a single head but sometimes with many. At least some of the nāgas are capable of using magic powers to transform themselves into a human semblance; the nāga is sometimes portrayed as a human being with a dragon extending over his head. One nāga, in human form, attempted to become a monk. In the "Devadatta" chapter of the Lotus Sutra, the daughter of the dragon king, an eight year old longnü, after listening to Mañjuśrī preach the Lotus Sutra, transforms into a male Bodhisattva and reaches full enlightenment; this tale appears to reinforce the viewpoint prevalent in Mahayana scriptures that a male body is required for Buddhahood if a being is so advanced in realization that they can magically transform their body at will and demonstrate the emptiness of the physical form itself. Nagas are believed to both live on Nagaloka, among the other minor deities, in various parts of the human-inhabited earth; some of them are water-dwellers, living in the ocean.
The nāgas are the followers of Virūpākṣa, one of the Four Heavenly Kings who guards the western direction. They act as a guard upon Mount Sumeru, protecting the dēvas of Trāyastriṃśa from attack by the asūras. Among the notable nāgas of Buddhist tradition is Nāgarāja and protector of the Buddha. In the Vinaya Sutra, shortly after his enlightenment, the Buddha is meditating in a forest when a great storm arises, but graciously, King Mucalinda gives shelter to the Buddha from the storm by covering the Buddha's head with his seven snake heads; the king takes the form of a young Brahmin and renders the Buddha homage. It is noteworthy that the two chief disciples of the Buddha and Moggallāna are both referred to as Mahānāga or "Great Nāga"; some of the most important figures in Buddhist history symbolize nagas in their names such as Dignāga, Nāgāsēna, although other etymons are assigned to his name, Nāgārjuna. In the Vajrayāna and Mahāsiddha traditions, nagas in their half-human form are depicted holding a naga-jewel, kumbhas of amrita, or a terma, elementally encoded by adepts.
According to tradition, Prajñapāramita sutras had been given by the Buddha to a great Naga who guarded them in the sea, were conferred upon Nāgārjuna later. In Thailand and Java, the nāga is a wealthy underworld deity. For Malay sailors, nāgas are a type of dragon with many heads. In Laos they are beaked water serpents; the seven-headed nagas depicted as guardian statues, carved as balustrades on causeways leading to main Cambodian temples, such as those found in Angkor Wat. They represent the seven races within naga society, which has a mythological, or symbolic, association with "the seven colors of the rainbow". Furthermore, Cambodian naga possess numerological symbolism in the number of their heads. Odd-headed naga symbolise the Male Energy, Infinity and Immortality; this is because, all odd numbers come from One. Even
The broad definition of regicide is the deliberate killing of a monarch, or the person responsible for the killing of a person of royalty. In the British tradition, it refers to the judicial execution of a king after a trial, reflecting the historical precedent of the trial and execution of Charles I of England. More broadly, it can refer to the killing of an emperor or any other reigning sovereign. Before the Tudor period, English kings had been murdered while imprisoned or killed in battle by their subjects, but none of these deaths are referred to as regicide; the word regicide seems to have come into popular use among foreign Catholics when Pope Sixtus V renewed the papal bull of excommunication against the "crowned regicide" Queen Elizabeth I, for—among other things—executing Mary, Queen of Scots, in 1587. Elizabeth had been excommunicated by Pope Pius V, in Regnans in Excelsis, for converting England to Protestantism after the reign of Mary I of England; the defeat of the Spanish Armada and the "Protestant Wind" convinced most English people that God approved of Elizabeth's action.
After the First English Civil War, King Charles I was a prisoner of the Parliamentarians. They tried to negotiate a compromise with him, but he stuck steadfastly to his view that he was King by Divine Right and attempted in secret to raise an army to fight against them, it became obvious to the leaders of the Parliamentarians that they could not negotiate a settlement with him and they could not trust him to refrain from raising an army against them. On 13 December 1648, the House of Commons broke off negotiations with the King. Two days the Council of Officers of the New Model Army voted that the King be moved from the Isle of Wight, where he was prisoner, to Windsor "in order to the bringing of him speedily to justice". In the middle of December, the King was moved from Windsor to London; the House of Commons of the Rump Parliament passed a Bill setting up a High Court of Justice in order to try Charles I for high treason in the name of the people of England. From a Royalist and post-restoration perspective this Bill was not lawful, since the House of Lords refused to pass it and it failed to receive Royal Assent.
However, the Parliamentary leaders and the Army pressed on with the trial anyway. At his trial in front of The High Court of Justice on Saturday 20 January 1649 in Westminster Hall, Charles asked "I would know by what power I am called hither. I would know by what authority, I mean lawful". In view of the historic issues involved, both sides based themselves on technical legal grounds. Charles did not dispute that Parliament as a whole did have some judicial powers, but he maintained that the House of Commons on its own could not try anybody, so he refused to plead. At that time under English law if a prisoner refused to plead this was treated as a plea of guilty, he was found guilty on Saturday 27 January 1649, his death warrant was signed by 59 Commissioners. To show their agreement with the sentence of death, all of the Commissioners who were present rose to their feet. On the day of his execution, 30 January 1649, Charles dressed in two shirts so that he would not shiver from the cold, lest it be said that he was shivering from fear.
His execution was delayed by several hours so that the House of Commons could pass an emergency bill to make it an offence to proclaim a new King, to declare the representatives of the people, the House of Commons, as the source of all just power. Charles was escorted through the Banqueting House in the Palace of Whitehall to a scaffold where he would be beheaded, he forgave those who had passed sentence on him and gave instructions to his enemies that they should learn to "know their duty to God, the King - that is, my successors - and the people". He gave a brief speech outlining his unchanged views of the relationship between the monarchy and the monarch's subjects, ending with the words "I am the martyr of the people", his head was severed from his body with one blow. One week the Rump, sitting in the House of Commons, passed a bill abolishing the monarchy. Ardent Royalists refused to accept it on the basis. Others refused because, as the bill had not passed the House of Lords and did not have Royal Assent, it could not become an Act of Parliament.
The Declaration of Breda 11 years paved the way for the restoration of the monarchy in 1660. At the restoration, thirty-one of the fifty-nine Commissioners who had signed the death warrant were living. A general pardon was given by Charles II and Parliament to his opponents, but the regicides were excluded. A number fled the country. Some, such as Daniel Blagrave, fled to continental Europe, while others like John Dixwell, Edward Whalley, William Goffe fled to New Haven, Connecticut; those who were still available were put on trial. Six regicides were found guilty and suffered the fate of being hanged and quartered: Thomas Harrison, John Jones, Adrian Scrope, John Carew, Thomas Scot, Gregory Clement; the captain of the guard at the trial, Daniel Axtell who encouraged his men to barrack the King when he tried to speak in his own defence, an influential preacher Hugh Peters, the leading prosecutor at the trial John Cook were executed in a similar manner. Colonel Francis Hacker who signed the order to the executioner of the king and commanded the guard around the scaffold and at the trial was hanged.
Concern amongst the royal ministers over the negative impact on popular sen
In Hinduism, Mahadevi or "Great Goddess" is the goddess or Devi, the sum of all other devis – an all-encompassing female deity as the consort or complement to an all-encompassing male deity or the Ultimate Reality in Shaktism. Mahadevi is the wife of Mahadeva, Lord Shiva. Since Parvati is the wife of Lord Shiva, Mahadevi is Parvati, she is identified with a specific goddess, the most common being Parvati, Adi Parashakti, Kali or Mahakali. Adi Parashakti or Mahadevi, the Supreme power, is called Durga Shakti as per Devi Mahatmya. Mahadevi is the supreme force that creates and destroys the universe, she is the highest intelligence referred as Brahmavidya. Mahadevi is the soul of the universe and the universe itself, she is the source of wealth, forgiveness, faith, fame and mercy. The purans mention her as Nirguna Maheshwari Devi Mahamaya, meaning "the absolute truth", mother of all. Along with Nirguna form Mahadevi is mentioned as Sarguna and Vagdevi. Devi Mahatmya Great Mother Shakti Tridevi Seeking Mahadevi: Constructing the Identities of the Hindu Great Goddess Edited by Tracy Pintchman Encountering The Goddess: A Translation of the Devi-Mahatmya and a Study of Its Interpretation by Thomas B.
Coburn In Praise of The Goddess: The Devimahatmyam and Its Meaning by Devadatta Kali The Triumph of the Goddess: The Canonical Models and Theological Visions of the Devi-Bhagavata Purana by C. MacKenzie Brown The Srimad Devi Bhagavatam translated by Swami Vijnanananda
The Ayutthaya Kingdom was a Siamese kingdom that existed from 1350 to 1767. Ayutthaya was friendly towards foreign traders, including the Chinese, Portuguese, Japanese, Koreans and Spaniards, Dutch and French, permitting them to set up villages outside the walls of the capital called Ayutthaya. In the 16th century, it was described by foreign traders as one of the biggest and wealthiest cities in the East; the court of King Narai had strong links with that of King Louis XIV of France, whose ambassadors compared the city in size and wealth to Paris. By 1550, the kingdom's vassals included some city-states in the Malay Peninsula, Lan Na and parts of Burma and Cambodia; this part of the kingdom's history is sometimes referred to as the "Ayutthayan Empire". In foreign accounts, Ayutthaya was called Siam, but many sources say the people of Ayutthaya called themselves Tai, their kingdom Krung Tai meaning'Tai country', it was referred to as Iudea in a painting, requested by the Dutch East India Company According to the most accepted version of its origin, the Thai state based at Ayutthaya in the valley of the Chao Phraya River rose from the earlier, nearby Lavo Kingdom and Suvarnabhumi.
One source says that in the mid-14th century, due to the threat of an epidemic, King Uthong moved his court south into the rich floodplain of the Chao Phraya River onto an island surrounded by rivers. The name of the city indicates the influence of Hinduism in the region, it is believed that this city is associated with the Thai national epic, the Ramakien, the Thai version of the Ramayana. Ayutthaya began its hegemony by conquering northern kingdoms and city-states like Sukhothai, Kamphaeng Phet and Phitsanulok. Before the end of the 15th century, Ayutthaya launched attacks on Angkor, the classical great power of the region. Angkor's influence faded from the Chao Phraya River Plain while Ayutthaya became a new great power; the emerging Kingdom of Ayutthaya was growing powerful. Relations between the Ayutthaya and Lan Na had worsened since the Ayutthayan support of Thau Choi's rebellion In 1451, Yuttitthira, a noble of the Kingdom of Sukhothai who had conflicts with Borommatrailokkanat of Ayutthaya, gave himself to Tilokaraj.
Yuttitthira urged Borommatrailokkanat to invade Phitsanulok, igniting the Ayutthaya-Lan Na War over the Upper Chao Phraya valley. In 1460, the governor of Chaliang surrendered to Tilokaraj. Borommatrailokkanat used a new strategy and concentrated on the wars with Lan Na by moving the capital to Phitsanulok. Lan Na suffered setbacks and Tilokaraj sued for peace in 1475. However, the Kingdom of Ayutthaya was not a unified state but rather a patchwork of self-governing principalities and tributary provinces owing allegiance to the king of Ayutthaya under The Circle of Power, or the mandala system, as some scholars suggested; these principalities might be ruled by members of the royal family of Ayutthaya, or by local rulers who had their own independent armies, having a duty to assist the capital when war or invasion occurred. However, it was evident that from time to time local revolts, led by local princes or kings, took place. Ayutthaya had to suppress them. Due to the lack of succession law and a strong concept of meritocracy, whenever the succession was in dispute, princely governors or powerful dignitaries claiming their merit gathered their forces and moved on the capital to press their claims, culminating in several bloody coups.
At the start of the 15th century, Ayutthaya showed an interest in the Malay Peninsula, but the great trading ports of the Malacca Sultanate contested its claims to sovereignty. Ayutthaya launched several abortive conquests against Malacca, diplomatically and economically fortified by the military support of Ming China. In the early-15th century the Ming admiral Zheng He had established a base of operation in the port city, making it a strategic position the Chinese could not afford to lose to the Siamese. Under this protection, Malacca flourished, becoming one of Ayutthaya's great foes until the capture of Malacca by the Portuguese. Starting in the middle of the 16th century, the kingdom came under repeated attacks by the Taungoo Dynasty of Burma; the Burmese–Siamese War began with a Burmese invasion and a failed siege of Ayutthaya. A second siege led by King Bayinnaung forced King Maha Chakkraphat to surrender in 1564; the royal family was taken to Bago, with the king's second son Mahinthrathirat installed as the vassal king.
In 1568, Mahinthrathirat revolted. The ensuing third siege captured Ayutthaya in 1569 and Bayinnaung made Mahathammarachathirat his vassal king. After Bayinnaung's death in 1581, Uparaja Naresuan proclaimed Ayutthaya's independence in 1584; the Thai fought off repeated Burmese invasions, capped by an elephant duel between King Naresuan and Burmese heir-apparent Mingyi Swa in 1593 during the fourth siege of Ayutthaya in which Naresuan famously slew Mingyi Swa. The Burmese–Siamese War was a Thai attack on Burma, resulting in the capture of the Tanintharyi Region as far as Mottama in 1595 and Lan Na in 1602. Naresuan invaded mainland Burma as far as Taungoo in 1600, but was driven back. After Naresuan's death in 1605, northern Tanintharyi and Lan Na returned to Burmese control in 1614; the Ayutthaya Kingdom's attempt to take over Lan Na and northern Tanintharyi in 1662–1664 failed. Foreign trade brought Ayutthaya not only luxury items