A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. It is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea: the conservation of'wild nature' for posterity and as a symbol of national pride. An international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, its World Commission on Protected Areas, has defined "National Park" as its Category II type of protected areas. While this type of national park had been proposed the United States established the first "public park or pleasuring-ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people", Yellowstone National Park, in 1872. Although Yellowstone was not termed a "national park" in its establishing law, it was always termed such in practice and is held to be the first and oldest national park in the world. However, the Tobago Main Ridge Forest Reserve, the area surrounding Bogd Khan Uul Mountain are seen as the oldest protected areas, predating Yellowstone by nearly a century.
The first area to use "national park" in its creation legislation was the U. S.'s Mackinac, in 1875. Australia's Royal National Park, established in 1879, was the world's third official national park. In 1895 ownership of Mackinac National Park was transferred to the State of Michigan as a state park and national park status was lost; as a result, Australia's Royal National Park is by some considerations the second oldest national park now in existence. Canada established Parks Canada in 1911, becoming the world's first national service dedicated to protecting and presenting natural and historical treasures; the largest national park in the world meeting the IUCN definition is the Northeast Greenland National Park, established in 1974. According to the IUCN, 6,555 national parks worldwide met its criteria in 2006. IUCN is still discussing the parameters of defining a national park. National parks are always open to visitors. Most national parks provide outdoor recreation and camping opportunities as well as classes designed to educate the public on the importance of conservation and the natural wonders of the land in which the national park is located.
In 1969, the IUCN declared a national park to be a large area with the following defining characteristics: One or several ecosystems not materially altered by human exploitation and occupation, where plant and animal species, geomorphological sites and habitats are of special scientific and recreational interest or which contain a natural landscape of great beauty. In 1971, these criteria were further expanded upon leading to more clear and defined benchmarks to evaluate a national park; these include: Minimum size of 1,000 hectares within zones in which protection of nature takes precedence Statutory legal protection Budget and staff sufficient to provide sufficient effective protection Prohibition of exploitation of natural resources qualified by such activities as sport, fishing, the need for management, etc. While the term national park is now defined by the IUCN, many protected areas in many countries are called national park when they correspond to other categories of the IUCN Protected Area Management Definition, for example: Swiss National Park, Switzerland: IUCN Ia - Strict Nature Reserve Everglades National Park, United States: IUCN Ib - Wilderness Area Victoria Falls National Park, Zimbabwe: IUCN III - National Monument Vitosha National Park, Bulgaria: IUCN IV - Habitat Management Area New Forest National Park, United Kingdom: IUCN V - Protected Landscape Etniko Ygrotopiko Parko Delta Evrou, Greece: IUCN VI - Managed Resource Protected AreaWhile national parks are understood to be administered by national governments, in Australia national parks are run by state governments and predate the Federation of Australia.
In Canada, there are both national parks operated by the federal government and provincial or territorial parks operated by the provincial and territorial governments, although nearly all are still national parks by the IUCN definition. In many countries, including Indonesia, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, national parks do not adhere to the IUCN definition, while some areas which adhere to the IUCN definition are not designated as national parks. In 1810, the English poet William Wordsworth described the Lake District as a sort of national property, in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive and a heart to enjoy; the painter George Catlin, in his travels through the American West, wrote during the 1830s that the Native Americans in the United States might be preserved...in a magnificent park... A nation's Park, containing man and beast, in all the wild and freshness of their nature's beauty! The first effort by the U. S. Federal government to set aside such protected lands was on 20 April 1832, when President Andrew Jackson signed legislation that the 22nd United States Congress had enacted to set aside four sections of land around what is now Hot Springs, Arkansas, to protect the natural, thermal springs and adjoining mountainsides for the futur
The peregrine falcon known as the peregrine, as the duck hawk in North America, is a widespread bird of prey in the family Falconidae. A large, crow-sized falcon, it has a blue-grey back, barred white underparts, a black head, it is believed to be the fastest bird in the world. According to a National Geographic TV programme, the highest measured speed of a peregrine falcon is 389 km/h; as is typical of bird-eating raptors, peregrine falcons are sexually dimorphic, with females being larger than males. The peregrine is renowned for its speed, reaching over 320 km/h during its characteristic hunting stoop, making it the fastest member of the animal kingdom; the peregrine's breeding range includes land regions from the Arctic tundra to the tropics. It can be found nearly everywhere on Earth, except extreme polar regions high mountains, most tropical rainforests; this makes it the world's most widespread raptor, one of the most found bird species. In fact, the only land-based bird species found over a larger geographic area is not always occurring, but one introduced by humans, the rock pigeon, which in turn now supports many peregrine populations as a prey species.
The peregrine is a successful example of urban wildlife in much of its range, taking advantage of tall buildings as nest sites and an abundance of prey such as pigeons and ducks. Both the English and scientific names of this species mean "wandering falcon," referring to the migratory habits of many northern populations. Experts recognize 17 to 19 subspecies, which vary in range; the two species' divergence is recent, during the time of the last ice age, therefore the genetic differential between them is tiny. They are only about 0.6–0.8% genetically differentiated. While its diet consists exclusively of medium-sized birds, the peregrine will hunt small mammals, small reptiles, or insects. Reaching sexual maturity at one year, it mates for life and nests in a scrape on cliff edges or, in recent times, on tall human-made structures; the peregrine falcon became an endangered species in many areas because of the widespread use of certain pesticides DDT. Since the ban on DDT from the early 1970s, populations have recovered, supported by large-scale protection of nesting places and releases to the wild.
The peregrine falcon is a well respected falconry bird due to its strong hunting ability, high trainability, – in recent years – availability via captive breeding. It is effective on most game bird species, from small to large; the peregrine falcon has a wingspan from 74 to 120 cm. The male and female have similar markings and plumage, but as in many birds of prey the peregrine falcon displays marked sexual dimorphism in size, with the female measuring up to 30% larger than the male. Males weigh the noticeably larger females weigh 700 to 1,500 g. In most subspecies, males weigh less than 700 g and females weigh more than 800 g, with cases of females weighing about 50% more than their male breeding mates not uncommon; the standard linear measurements of peregrines are: the wing chord measures 26.5 to 39 cm, the tail measures 13 to 19 cm and the tarsus measures 4.5 to 5.6 cm. The back and the long pointed wings of the adult are bluish black to slate grey with indistinct darker barring; the white to rusty underparts are barred with thin clean bands of dark brown or black.
The tail, coloured like the back but with thin clean bars, is long and rounded at the end with a black tip and a white band at the end. The top of the head and a "moustache" along the cheeks are black, contrasting with the pale sides of the neck and white throat; the cere is yellow, as are the feet, the beak and claws are black. The upper beak is notched near the tip, an adaptation which enables falcons to kill prey by severing the spinal column at the neck; the immature bird is much browner with streaked, rather than barred and has a pale bluish cere and orbital ring. Falco peregrinus was first described under its current binomial name by English ornithologist Marmaduke Tunstall in his 1771 work Ornithologia Britannica; the scientific name Falco peregrinus is a Medieval Latin phrase, used by Albertus Magnus in 1225. The specific name is taken from the fact that juvenile birds were taken while journeying to their breeding location rather than from the nest, as falcon nests were difficult to get at.
The Latin term for falcon, falco, is related to falx, meaning "sickle", in reference to the silhouette of the falcon's long, pointed wings in flight. The peregrine falcon belongs to a genus whose lineage includes the hierofalcons and the prairie falcon; this lineage diverged from other falcons towards the end of the Late Miocene or in the Early Pliocene, about 5–8 million years ago. As the peregrine-hierofalcon group includes both Old World and North American species, it is that the lineage originated in western Eurasia or Africa, its relationship to other falcons is not clear, as the issue is complicated by widespread hybridization confounding mtDNA sequence analyses. For example, a genetic lineage of the saker falcon is known which origina
Dooragan National Park
The Dooragan National Park is a national park on the Mid North Coast of New South Wales, Australia. The national park is situated near Laurieton, is 365 kilometres northeast of Sydney; the local aboriginal people tell a dreamtime story of three brothers of the Birpai tribe who were killed by a witch called Widjirriejuggi and were buried where the mountains stand. The youngest of the three was Dooragan. By amazing coincidence, when Captain James Cook passed the area on 12 May 1770 he named the mountains Three Brothers, since "these Hills bore some resemblance to each other". Cook had earlier written of the Three Brothers hills west of Cape St Diego, so he was inspired by them too. North Brother Mountain supports a wide range of vegetation communities – including some of the best examples of old growth blackbutt forest in the area and pockets of sub-tropical rainforest – that provide habitat for gliders and koalas; the park has a weed problem with the spreading of lantana. The mountain was made a timber reserve in 1892 and called the Camden Haven State Forest.
Portions of the mountain were logged but large sections were untouched due to the terrain. It was opened to the public in 1970; the steep windy road has now been sealed. Viewing platforms, which have wheelchair access, offer good views down the coast. Picnic and toilet facilities are available. There are walks of difficulty. Protected areas of New South Wales Dooragan National Park page at the National Parks and Wildlife Service website
Booti Booti National Park
Booti Booti National Park is a national park in New South Wales, Australia, 282 kilometres, by road, north-north-east of Sydney. The holiday town of Forster-Tuncurry lies to the north; the first European to inhabit the area was a Captain J. Gogerly who sailed from Forster to Sydney with loads of timber, he and some of his family are buried in the park. Mining for mineral sands took place at Seven Mile Beach from 1969 to 1975, at Elizabeth Beach from 1969 to 1970; the park was declared a state recreation area from 30 September 1977 a national park in 1992. Geographically, the National Park is made up of three hill complexes – the 224 m high Cape Hawke to the north, 169 m high Booti Hill and 96 m high Charlotte Head in the southern end; the three areas are connected by low -- lying aeolian sands. The stretch of land between Cape Hawke and Booti Hill is around 10 km long and ranges between 400 m and 3.25 km wide. It separates Wallis Lake from the ocean. Cape Hawke and Charlotte Head were once islands, which became joined to the mainland by built-up sand deposits.
654 species of native plants have been recorded from Booti Booti National Park. This formed 46 distinct plant communities within the park boundaries. 17% of the park is classified as rainforest. Seven distinct wet sclerophyll forest and ten dry sclerophyll forest communities have been recorded. Five species recognised as threatened by the New South Wales Government occur within the park – these are Allocasuarina defungens, A. simulans, Chamaesyce psammogeton, Cynanchum elegans and Senna acclinis.104 exotic species have been recorded from the park. Bitou bush has infested sand dunes and cliff areas. Lantana camara infests the rainforest at Cape Hawke disturbed habitat. Madeira vine and coast morning glory are vines that grow over and smother native vegetation in the park. Booti Booti National Park has had 210 species of bird recorded within its limits. Activities at Booti Booti National Park include hiking, birdwatching, mooning and, during winter, whale watching. Camping sites are located in the Booti Hill area at the park's southern end.
A lookout is located on top of Cape Hawke. List of reduplicated Australian place names Protected areas of New South Wales
Coorabakh National Park
Coorabakh is a national park located near Hannam Vale in New South Wales, Australia, 272 kilometres northeast of Sydney. Three volcanic outcrops known as Big Nellie, Flat Nellie and Little Nellie dominate the park; the park is covered in tall eucalypt forest and shrubs on the exposed Lansdowne escarpment, while warm temperate and subtropical rainforest can be found in more protected areas. Endangered species such as the spotted-tailed quoll, powerful owl and stuttering frog can be found in the area. Newbys Cave is can be reached by following Newbys Creek from the carpark, while Newbys Lookout offers picnic facilities and panoramic views of the Manning River valley. Flat Rock Lookout overlooks the upper Lansdowne Comboyne Plateau escarpment. Starrs Creek picnic area has a rainforest viewing platform; the park borders the Lansdowne State Forest. Protected areas of New South Wales Coopernook, New South Wales Coorabakh National Park
Mid North Coast
The Mid North Coast is a country region in the north-east of the state of New South Wales, Australia. The region covers the mid to north coast of the state, beginning at Seal Rocks, 275 km north of Sydney, extending as far north as Woolgoolga, 562 km north of Sydney, a distance of 400 km. From south to north, the region's main towns include the twin towns of Forster and Tuncurry, Port Macquarie, South West Rocks, Nambucca Heads and Coffs Harbour. Of these Taree, Port Macquarie and Coffs Harbour are the major commercial centres, all with large shopping centres, public facilities and attractions. Kempsey and Forster-Tuncurry are considered semi-major commercial centres. Smaller towns that are popular tourist spots are North Haven, South West Rocks and Pacific Palms; the region is known for its beaches. Major industries are farming and tourism; the following local government areas are contained within the region: The Coffs Coast extends from the village of Broom's Head in the north and as far south as the small seaside town of Scotts Head.
It includes the Sandon, Bellinger and Nambucca River catchments/drainage basins. The Coffs Coast services a regional catchment of over 200,000 people, with about 68,000 living in the City of Coffs Harbour, 13,000 in the Bellingen Shire, 19,000 in the Nambucca Shire; the area has younger population, with the average age being 33 years of age. The area is becoming known for Internet Start ups - with companies like Google and Design Crowd opening up small offices in the area. Three bus services run throughout the region. Sawtell Coaches run various services throughout Coffs Harbour city and to the suburbs of Boambee and Sawtell. Busways run services throughout Coffs Harbour city down south as far as Scotts Head and west into Bellingen. Ryans Bus services run North to Woolgoolga on a regular basis. Busways operate services in the Port Macquarie region. There are several railway stations on the Coffs Coast serviced by 3 trains; each run south once a day. Stations include Coffs Harbour, Urunga, Nambucca Heads, Macksville.
Further south are Kempsey, Wauchope and Taree. There is no station for Forster-Tuncurry. Rail is the fastest and cheapest way to get to either Sydney, the Gold Coast and Brisbane. Regions of New South Wales Local Government Directory
Goulburn River National Park
The Goulburn River National Park is a national park located in New South Wales, Australia, 213 kilometres northwest of Sydney and it is 35 kilometres south-west of Merriwa. The Goulburn River National Park is located in the Hunter Valley region and covers 90 kilometres of the Goulburn River, it is near the towns of Sandy Hollow, Denman and Mudgee. The park is a sanctuary for kangaroos, emus, platypus, a wide variety of birds, it lies within the Mudgee-Wollar Important Bird Area, so identified by BirdLife International because of its importance for the endangered regent honeyeater. The park contains some 300 or more aboriginal site. Protected areas of New South Wales