Nanjing has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture, having served as the capitals of various Chinese dynasties, kingdoms and republican governments dating from the 3rd century CE to 1949. When being the capital of a state, for instance, the ROC, Nanjing is particularly known as Jinling or Ginling and the old name has been used since the Warring States period in Zhou Dynasty. Located in Yangtze River Delta area and the center of east China and it has also been awarded the title of 2008 Habitat Scroll of Honour of China, Special UN Habitat Scroll of Honour Award and National Civilized City. Nanjing boasts many high-quality universities and research institutes, with the number of universities listed in 100 National Key Universities ranking third, the ratio of college students to total population ranks No.1 among large cities nationwide. Nanjing is one of the three Chinese top research centers according to Nature Index, Key cultural facilities include Nanjing Library, Nanjing Museum and Art Museum. Archaeological discovery shows that Nanjing Man lived in more than 500 thousand years ago, zun, a kind of wine vessel, was found to exist in Beiyinyangying culture of Nanjing in about 5000 years ago. According to a legend quoted by an artist in Ming dynasty, Chen Yi, Fuchai, King of the State of Wu, later in 473 BCE, the State of Yue conquered Wu and constructed the fort of Yuecheng on the outskirts of the present-day Zhonghua Gate. In 333 BCE, after eliminating the State of Yue, the State of Chu built Jinling Yi in the part of present-day Nanjing. It was renamed Moling during reign of Qin Shi Huang, since then, the city experienced destruction and renewal many times. Nanjing was later the city of Danyang Prefecture, and had been the capital city of Yangzhou for about 400 years from late Han to early Tang. This city would soon play a role in the following centuries. Shortly after the unification of the region, the Western Jin dynasty collapsed, First the rebellions by eight Jin princes for the throne and later rebellions and invasion from Xiongnu and other nomadic peoples that destroyed the rule of the Jin dynasty in the north. Its the first time that the capital of the moved to southern part. During the period of North–South division, Nanjing remained the capital of the Southern dynasties for more than two and a half centuries, during this time, Nanjing was the international hub of East Asia. Based on historical documents, the city had 280,000 registered households, assuming an average Nanjing household had about 5.1 people at that time, the city had more than 1.4 million residents. As the old capital of China, many legendary stories happened here, residents in Nanjing all have the warmest affection for this city. Throughout glory and darkness in past centuries, Nanjing becomes a low-key city, GDP growth rate significantly exceeds the average rate in China for decades, which also maintain a fast developing model. Possibly the best preserved of them is the ensemble of the Tomb of Xiao Xiu, the period of division ended when the Sui Dynasty reunified China and almost destroyed the entire city, turning it into a small town
China, officially the Peoples Republic of China, is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the worlds most populous country, with a population of over 1.381 billion. The state is governed by the Communist Party of China and its capital is Beijing, the countrys major urban areas include Shanghai, Guangzhou, Beijing, Chongqing, Shenzhen, Tianjin and Hong Kong. China is a power and a major regional power within Asia. Chinas landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from forest steppes, the Himalaya, Karakoram, Pamir and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third and sixth longest in the world, respectively, Chinas coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometers long and is bounded by the Bohai, Yellow, East China and South China seas. China emerged as one of the worlds earliest civilizations in the basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, Chinas political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties, in 1912, the Republic of China replaced the last dynasty and ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949, when it was defeated by the communist Peoples Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War. The Communist Party established the Peoples Republic of China in Beijing on 1 October 1949, both the ROC and PRC continue to claim to be the legitimate government of all China, though the latter has more recognition in the world and controls more territory. China had the largest economy in the world for much of the last two years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. Since the introduction of reforms in 1978, China has become one of the worlds fastest-growing major economies. As of 2016, it is the worlds second-largest economy by nominal GDP, China is also the worlds largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a nuclear weapons state and has the worlds largest standing army. The PRC is a member of the United Nations, as it replaced the ROC as a permanent member of the U. N. Security Council in 1971. China is also a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the BCIM, the English name China is first attested in Richard Edens 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. The demonym, that is, the name for the people, Portuguese China is thought to derive from Persian Chīn, and perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit Cīna. Cīna was first used in early Hindu scripture, including the Mahābhārata, there are, however, other suggestions for the derivation of China. The official name of the state is the Peoples Republic of China. The shorter form is China Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó and it was then applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and then to Chinas Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing
Seating capacity is the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, in terms of both the physical space available, and limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats hundreds of thousands of people. The International Fire Code, portions of which have adopted by many jurisdictions, is directed more towards the use of a facility than the construction. It specifies, For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms and it also requires that every public venue submit a detailed site plan to the local fire code official, including details of the means of egress, seating capacity, arrangement of the seating. Once safety considerations have been satisfied, determinations of seating capacity turn on the size of the venue. For sports venues, the decision on maximum seating capacity is determined by several factors, chief among these are the primary sports program and the size of the market area. Seating capacity of venues also plays a role in what media they are able to provide, in contracting to permit performers to use a theatre or other performing space, the seating capacity of the performance facility must be disclosed. Seating capacity may influence the kind of contract to be used, the seating capacity must also be disclosed to the copyright owner in seeking a license for the copyrighted work to be performed in that venue. Venues that may be leased for private functions such as ballrooms and auditoriums generally advertise their seating capacity, seating capacity is also an important consideration in the construction and use of sports venues such as stadiums and arenas. The seating capacity for restaurants is reported as covers, a restaurant that can seat 99 is said to have 99 covers, seating capacity differs from total capacity, which describes the total number of people who can fit in a venue or in a vehicle either sitting or standing. Use of the term public capacity indicates that a venue is allowed to more people than it can actually seat. Again, the total number of people can refer to either the physical space available or limitations set by law
The renminbi /ˌrɛnmɪnˈbiː/ is the official currency of the Peoples Republic of China. The yuan is the unit of the renminbi, but is also used to refer to the Chinese currency in general. The distinction between the terms renminbi and yuan is similar to that between sterling and pound, which refer to the British currency and its primary unit. One yuan is subdivided into 10 jiao, and a jiao in turn is subdivided into 10 fen, the ISO code for renminbi is CNY, or also CNH when traded in off-shore markets such as Hong Kong. The currency is often abbreviated RMB, or indicated by the yuan sign ¥, in Chinese texts the currency may also be indicated with the Chinese character for the yuan, 圆. The renminbi is legal tender in mainland China, but not in Hong Kong or Macau, renminbi is sometimes accepted in Hong Kong and Macau, and are easily exchanged in the two territories, with banks in Hong Kong allowing people to maintain accounts in RMB. The currency is issued by the Peoples Bank of China, the authority of China. Until 2005, the value of the renminbi was pegged to the US dollar and it has previously been claimed that the renminbis official exchange rate was undervalued by as much as 37. 5% against its purchasing power parity. Since 2006, the exchange rate has been allowed to float in a narrow margin around a fixed base rate determined with reference to a basket of world currencies. The Chinese government has announced that it gradually increase the flexibility of the exchange rate. As a result of the rapid internationalization of the renminbi, it became the worlds 8th most traded currency in 2013, and 5th in 2015. On 1 October 2016, the RMB became the first emerging market currency to be included in the IMFs special drawing rights basket, a variety of currencies circulated in China during the Republic of China era, most of which were denominated in the unit yuán. Each was distinguished by a name, such as the fabi, the gold yuan. During the era of the economy, the value of the renminbi was set to unrealistic values in exchange with western currency. The unrealistic levels at which exchange rates were pegged led to a black market in currency transactions. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, China worked to make the RMB more convertible, through the use of swap centres, the exchange rate was brought to realistic levels and the dual track currency system was abolished. As of 2013, the renminbi is convertible on current accounts, the ultimate goal has been to make the RMB fully convertible. From 1949 until the late 1970s, the state fixed Chinas exchange rate at a highly overvalued level as part of the countrys import -substitution strategy
Populous is a global architectural firm specializing in the design of sports facilities, arenas and convention centers, as well as the planning of major special events. Populous formerly operated as HOK Sport Venue Event, which was part of the HOK Group, in January 2009, Populous was created through a management buyout, becoming independently owned and operated. It is reported to be one of the largest architecture firms in the world, in 1983, HOK under Jerry Sincoff created a sports group. The firm initially consisted of eight architects in Kansas City, on several projects, HOK Sport had teamed with international design practice LOBB Partnership, which maintained offices in London, England, and Brisbane, Australia. On HOK Sports 15th anniversary in November 1998, the merged with LOBB. The new practice retained headquarters in all three cities, the Kansas City, Missouri, office was first based in the citys Garment District in the Lucas Place office building. It was the first major company to relocate to the neighborhood in several decades, in March 2009, HOK Sport Venue Event changed its name to Populous after a managers’ buyout by HOK Group. In October 2015, Populous relocated to its new headquarters at the newly renovated Board of Trade building at 4800 Main street near the Country Club Plaza in Kansas City. Other firms with sports design presence in Kansas City that trace their roots to Kivett include Ellerbe Becket Inc. Populous is credited for spearheading a new era of baseball park design in the 1990s, beginning with Oriole Park at Camden Yards. Starting with the Great American Ball Park in Cincinnati in 2003, subsequent stadium exteriors featuring this motif opened in Washington and Minnesota. And because the stadiums were designed for baseball instead of several sports, Camden Yards was not only hugely popular with baseball fans. The success of a new ballpark in downtown Baltimore convinced many cities to invest public funds in their own new ballparks to help revitalize struggling urban neighborhoods, from 1992 to 2012, HOK Sport/Populous were the lead architects on 14 Major League Baseball stadiums and helped renovate four existing stadiums. One sportswriter said the attempt to emulate the old parks in this way is contrived. S, Louis, Missouri – St. Louis Cardinals Nationals Park, Washington, D. C. Sir Bobby Robson Stand at Portman Road – Ipswich, England, UK – Ipswich Town Football Club Estádio da Luz – Lisbon, benfica Estádio Algarve – Loulé, Portugal – S. C. Monterrey Stade des Lumières – Décines, France – Olympique Lyonnais City of Manchester Stadium expansion – Manchester, UK – Manchester City F. C. C. Petersburg, Florida (joint project with Lescher & Mahoney Sports & Criswell, Blizzard & Blouin Architects Ervin J. Paul, Minnesota, USA2015 – Final Four - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA Official website
Jiangsu Suning F.C.
Jiangsu Suning Football Club is a professional football club that participates in the Chinese Super League under licence from the Chinese Football Association. The team is based in Nanjing, Jiangsu and their stadium is the Nanjing Olympic Sports Centre which has a seating capacity of 61,443. Their current owners are Suning Appliance Group, a company of Suning Commerce Group. The team was founded in 1958 as Jiangsu Provincial Team while the current professional football club was established in March 1994. They were one of the members of the first fully professional top tier league in China. They have since gone on to win promotion back into the top tier at the end of the 2008 league season and achieved their best ever league finish when they ended up being runners-up in the 2012 season. According to Forbes, Jiangsu are the fourth wealthiest football team in China, with a value of $144 million. The club was founded in April 1958 as Jiangsu Provincial Team by the local government and they joined the top tier of the gradually expanding Chinese football league system in 1960, where they came nineteenth out of a possible twenty-five. By 1963, the league had expanded to thirty-nine teams and the Chinese Football Association were looking to only have twenty teams for next seasons league system, Jiangsu finished seventh within the group stages, which relegated them from the league system. In 1964, they did not take part in any of the divisions, the Chinese Cultural Revolution halted the league for several seasons. When it returned in 1973, Jiangsu entered the back into the top tier where they finished the league in eleventh. Jiangsus time in the top tier did not last very long, for the next several years, Jiangsu remained a second tier club except for a brief period in 1988. However, in 1992 they won the second title and guaranteed promotion to the first fully professional first-tier league. In March 1994, the club gained sponsorship and changed their name to Jiangsu Maint to comply with the requirements to take part in the 1994 Chinese Jia-A League season. They struggled with professionalism on and off the field, on the field they were relegated at the end of the season, the stricter operational costs of the league caused the club to struggle financially, which was exasperated when they also lost their sponsorship. The club changed their name to Jiangsu Jiajia to represent this, even though Jiangsu were able to gain some financial stability, they were still relegated to the third tier at the end of the 1996 season. They spent one season there after they won the league title in 1997. On 7 January 2000, the manufacturing company Jiangsu Sainty International Group decided to take over the club and changed the clubs name to Jiangsu Sainty
Simplified Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, it is one of the two character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the Peoples Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s in an attempt to increase literacy and they are officially used in the Peoples Republic of China and Singapore. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Hong Kong, Macau. Overseas Chinese communities generally tend to use traditional characters, Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name above or colloquially. Strictly, the latter refers to simplifications of character structure or body, character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, Simplified character forms were created by decreasing the number of strokes and simplifying the forms of a sizable proportion of traditional Chinese characters. Some simplifications were based on popular cursive forms embodying graphic or phonetic simplifications of the traditional forms, some characters were simplified by applying regular rules, for example, by replacing all occurrences of a certain component with a simplified version of the component. Variant characters with the pronunciation and identical meaning were reduced to a single standardized character. Finally, many characters were left untouched by simplification, and are identical between the traditional and simplified Chinese orthographies. Some simplified characters are very dissimilar to and unpredictably different from traditional characters and this often leads opponents not well-versed in the method of simplification to conclude that the overall process of character simplification is also arbitrary. In reality, the methods and rules of simplification are few, on the other hand, proponents of simplification often flaunt a few choice simplified characters as ingenious inventions, when in fact these have existed for hundreds of years as ancient variants. However, the Chinese government never officially dropped its goal of further simplification in the future, in August 2009, the PRC began collecting public comments for a modified list of simplified characters. The new Table of General Standard Chinese Characters consisting of 8,105 characters was promulgated by the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China on June 5,2013, cursive written text almost always includes character simplification. Simplified forms used in print have always existed, they date back to as early as the Qin dynasty, One of the earliest proponents of character simplification was Lubi Kui, who proposed in 1909 that simplified characters should be used in education. In the years following the May Fourth Movement in 1919, many anti-imperialist Chinese intellectuals sought ways to modernise China, Traditional culture and values such as Confucianism were challenged. Soon, people in the Movement started to cite the traditional Chinese writing system as an obstacle in modernising China and it was suggested that the Chinese writing system should be either simplified or completely abolished. Fu Sinian, a leader of the May Fourth Movement, called Chinese characters the writing of ox-demons, lu Xun, a renowned Chinese author in the 20th century, stated that, If Chinese characters are not destroyed, then China will die. Recent commentators have claimed that Chinese characters were blamed for the problems in China during that time
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
2014 Summer Youth Olympics
The International Olympic Committee established the Youth Olympic Games in July 2007. The 2014 host city was elected on 10 February 2010, during the 2010 IOC Session in Vancouver and this was the first election of a Youth Olympic Games host city held in an IOC Session. The elections for the host cities of the 2010 Summer Youth Olympics and 2012 Winter Youth Olympics were done through postal votes by IOC members, April 2009 – NOCs to inform the IOC of the name of a YOG Candidate City. The logo consists of three parts, the colorful NANJING reflects the image of the gate of Nanjing and the features of some Jiangnan houses. The various colors symbolize youths energetic spirit, All of the venues are located in four zones within Nanjing. All venues with the exception of the road, sailing. The Nanjing Olympic Sports Center hosted the opening and closing ceremonies, the Youth Olympic torch was designed by the Vatti Corporation Ltd. The torch is known as the Gate of Happiness, a structure resembling a city gate is found on the top part of the torch and the blue color of the torch represents the peaceful tranquility of Nanjing. The Yangtze which flows next to Nanjing is presented as found on the handle of the torch. It is said that the torch is capable of resisting wind speeds of 11 m/s, rainfall of 50mm/h, altitude of up to 4500m and a temperature range of -15˚C to 45˚C. Following Olympic tradition the torch lighting ceremony was held on 30 April 2014 in Athens, four young athletes from Greece and China competed in a mini-relay. The torch relay was divided into two parts, the first part was a digital relay where people who downloaded an app were able to participate in the relay through an interactive option called Give Me Fire. When using this feature users were able to pass the Youth Olympic flame to their friends by touching their devices together, the relay visited 258 different online locations from the 204 participating NOCs over a 98-day period. After the digital relay the relay began its physical portion in Nanjing where a 10-day relay was held,104 torch bearers carried the torch singularly or in pairs over 100 legs. Torch bearers were primarily focused on youth and included individuals from sport, culture, media, volunteers, notable torch bearers included two time badminton Olympian gold medalist Lin Dan,2008 Olympic fencing gold medalist Zhong Man, director Chen Weiya and composer Bian Liunian. This is a tentative list of the sports program taken from the presentation of the 2nd Summer Youth Olympic Games in 2014. Golf and Rugby sevens will be contested for the first time, beach volleyball will replace indoor volleyball and other format changes to sports like field hockey which introduced a five a side format. New events have also introduced in some of the sports including a shooting mixed gender event among others
Chinese Super League
The Chinese Super League was created by the rebranding of the former top division Chinese Football Association Jia-A League in 2004. As in most countries with low temperatures in winter time, the starts in March. Chinese Super League consists of sixteen clubs, originally contested by 12 teams in the inaugural year, the league has been expanding. There are 16 teams in the current season, the title has been won by six teams, Shenzhen Jianlibao, Dalian Shide, Shandong Luneng, Changchun Yatai, Beijing Guoan, and Guangzhou Evergrande. Unlike in many top European leagues, the Chinese Super League starts in February or March, in each season, each club plays each of the other clubs twice, once at home and another away. The current system, with 16 clubs in the Super League, the two lowest placed teams by the end of the season are relegated to the China League One and the top two teams from the League One are promoted, taking their places. The top three of the league, as well as the winner of the Chinese FA Cup, qualify for the AFC Champions League of the next year. If the FA Cup finalists finish the league 3rd or higher, for the history of Chinese Professional football before the inception of the Chinese Super league, see Chinese Jia-A League. In 1994, As part of the sports system reform，the Chinese Jia-A League became the countrys first professional football league, the Chinese Football Association then decided to reform the League system, that leads to the creation of the Chinese Super League. On October 29,2000, Yan Shiduo, vice-president of the Chinese Football Association, in 2002, the CFA made a decision to establish the Chinese Super League, which started in 2004. Compared to the Jia-A, the CSL is a lot more demanding on teams, the CFA and CSL committee imposed a range of minimum criteria to ensure professional management and administration, financial probity, and a youth development program at every club. The second division, China League One, was also re-established under a new system, besides the regular professional league, the CSL also has a reserve league, U-19 league, U-17 league and an U-15 league. The first CSL season began in 2004, with 12 teams in the league, the inaugural season was plagued with controversy, which continued from the former league, Jia-A. After 1998, scandals such as match fixing and gambling were uncovered and this resulted in loss of interest in the domestic game, low attendances and great financial losses. The original plan was to have one relegated team and two promoted teams for the 2004 season and 2005 season, thus increasing the number of teams in 2006 to 14, but the CFAs decisions caused the relegations to be cancelled for these 2 years. For the 2005 season, the league expanded to 14 teams after Wuhan Huanghelou, the Zhuhai team, formerly Zhuhai Anping, had been bought by the Shanghai Zhongbang real estate company and relocated to Shanghai for the 2005 season, and subsequently renamed to Shanghai Zobon. In 2006, the league was planned to expand to 16 teams with the newly promoted Xiamen Lanshi, however, Sichuan Guancheng withdrew before the start of the season, leaving only 15 teams when the season started on March 11. Shanghai Liancheng Zobon, after another change of ownership, was renamed Shanghai United, in 2007, the league was again planned to be expanded to 16 teams, but once again it found itself one team short
Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao F.C.
Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao Football Club is a professional Chinese football club that participates in the Chinese Super League under the license of the Chinese Football Association. The team is based in Guangzhou, Guangdong, and their stadium is the Tianhe Stadium which has a seating capacity of 58,500. Their majority shareholders are the Evergrande Real Estate Group and the e-commerce company Alibaba Group and they were founded in 1954, and won several second tier titles before they became professional in 1993. Their results improved, leading to a spot in Chinas top tier. Unable to improve upon these results the club went through a period of stagnation, in 2009 the club were embroiled in a match-fixing scandal and they were punished with relegation. The Evergrande Real Estate Group decided to purchase the club and pumped significant funds into the team and they immediately won promotion and gained their first top tier title in the 2011 season. The club is the only Chinese football club to win AFC Champions League twice, the club is also the first Chinese club to participate in the FIFA Club World Cup, making its first appearance in 2013. According to Forbes, Guangzhou Evergrande is the most valuable team in China, with a team value of US$282 million. However, the figures were total assets CN¥2.009 billion, net assets CN¥524.9 million, revenue CN¥380.6 million. In June 1954, the local Guangzhou sports body founded Guangzhou FC to take part in the recently formed Chinese national football league and they entered the club in the 1955 league season and named Luo Dizhi as their first manager. He guided them to an eighth spot finish in their debut campaign, the league had grown to incorporate a second tier and their debut season performance final standing relegated them to the second division. Guangzhou won the championship, however the Chinese Football Association decided to restructure the league at the beginning of the 1957 season. Despite this, Luo Rongman managed the team to win the 1958 second division title, however and they were not re-established until April 1961 and were allowed to take part in the top tier. Back within the top division Guangzhou often struggled within the league and were relegated to the second tier at the end of the 1963 league season. They remained there until 1966 when the Cultural Revolution halted football in China, the team played within the National Youth League until 1980 when it was decided that they were mature enough to play in the football league pyramid. They started in the recently created third division, the clubs youth team development immediately paid off and players such as Mai Chao, Zhao Dayu and later Wu Qunli all rapidly rose into Chinese international footballers. Guangzhou gained successive promotions until they reached the top tier, at the end of the 1982 league season Guangzhou were relegated again. They returned to the top division at the end of the 1984 season via the Chinese FA Cup
Shandong Luneng Taishan F.C.
Shandong Luneng Taishan is a professional football club that currently participates in the Chinese Super League under licence from the Chinese Football Association. The team is based in Jinan, Shandong and their stadium is the Jinan Olympic Sports Center Stadium that has a seating capacity of 56,808. The clubs predecessor was called Shandong Provincial team who were founded in April 10,1956 while the current professional football team was established in December 2,1993 and they were one of the founding members of the first fully professional top tier league in China. Since then they have gone on to win their first ever title in the 1999 league season. They have continued to win domestic silverware with the 2006,2008,2010 league titles, according to Forbes, Shandong are the 5th most valuable football team in China, with a team value of $126 million, and an estimated revenue of $24 million in 2015. They took part in the 1957 league season where they started within the second tier, participating within the 1965 Chinese National Games the club ultimately came ninth within the tournament. The following season any attempt to return to the league was halted for several seasons due to the Chinese Cultural Revolution, when the league started again in 1973 Shandong were allowed to be included in the top tier and finished ninth at the end of the campaign. The success of that tournament acted as a springboard for the team, the momentum they showed at the start of the decade quickly faded and by the end of it they experienced their first ever relegation at the end of the 1989 league season. Unfortunately for Shandong they experienced their second relegation the season and were sent down to the third tier after experiencing a double relegation. The clubs time within the division did not last very long and they immediately won the division title. On December 2,1993, Shandong football club became professional, gathered sponsorship. On January 29,1994, Jinan City, the city government sponsored and participated in the clubs management, the club changed its name to Shandong Jinan Taishan Football Club to accommodate this. The lack of funds saw the club unable to sign any foreign imports. To add to the clubs problems several veterans who established the club within the league such as Wang Dongning and Leng Bo left the team at the end of the season. After the victory Shandong General Tobacco Co. Ltd. became interested in the club and on March 2,1996 took control of the team and invested 6.5 million Yuan into the club. Kim came into Shandong with a reputation of having led South Korea into the 1986 FIFA World Cup for the first time in over 32 years. He dramatically changed the style of play and emphasized attacking football and his new signing from Beijing Guoan Deng Lejun thrived on this. Kims style, however didnt bring him many wins and he resigned later in the season while Yin Tiesheng returned to manage the team away from relegation
Shanghai Greenland Shenhua
Shanghai Greenland Shenhua Football Club, is a professional Chinese football club that currently participates in the Chinese Super League under licence from the Chinese Football Association. The term shen hua literally translates as the Flower of Shanghai in English – shen is one of the names of Shanghai. The team is based in Kangqiao, Shanghai and their stadium is the Hongkou Football Stadium. The clubs predecessor was called Shanghai F. C. and they played in the top tier. Since then, they have won the 1995 league title and 1998 Chinese FA Cup, according to Forbes, Shenhua are the 6th most valuable football team in China, with a team value of $106 million, and an estimated revenue of $29 million in 2015. Shanghai Shenhuas predecessor was originally called East China, a name used as far back as 1910 for the football in the multi-sport event Chinese National Games. The football league gradually expanded and the team were allowed to name themselves after their own province of Shanghai in 1957, soon afterwards by 1961, Shanghai started to establish themselves as a major football team within China when they won their first league title. This was then followed by their second league title in 1962, however in 1966 because of the Chinese Cultural Revolution, football in China was halted. When football returned in China, Shanghai were able to return to the top tier, however they were unable to regain any of the dominance that they had shown and were even relegated in 1980. This then saw Shanghai hire their first professional manager in Xu Genbao, the move would quickly see Shanghai win the second professional football league title by the end of the 1995 league season. By the end of 2001, the Shenhua group ended their sponsorship of the club and were replaced with SVA, the club changed its name to Shanghai Shenhua SVA SMEG Football Club. The team however remained unique as it still retains Shenhua in its name, despite this indiscretion, however, the club was spared any disciplinary action. In 2007, the owner of inner-city rival of Shanghai United, Zhu Jun and his company The9 Limited bought a majority share of Shanghai Shenhua and his first act was to replace the previously successful existing head coach Wu Jingui with Shanghai Uniteds Osvaldo Giménez. The appointment was to prove highly disruptive and Wu Jingui was quickly brought back as the coach after only a few months. Jia Xiuquan took over his position on the same day, one day later, former PSV Eindhoven technical director Stan Valckx joined Shenhua in the same position. Tigana was fired after a string of results and was replaced by former Argentina national team coach Sergio Batista to lead the team. After a successful playing for Chelsea and winning the 2011–12 UEFA Champions League. This was soon followed by the signing of Colombian international footballer Giovanni Moreno from Argentinian club Racing Club, the Zhu Jun era ended on 31 January 2014 when the club was purchased by Greenland Holding Group Company Limited
Hangzhou Greentown F.C.
Hangzhou Greentown Football Club is a professional Chinese football club that currently participates in the China League One division under licence from the Chinese Football Association. The team is based in Hangzhou, Zhejiang and their stadium is the Hangzhou Huanglong Stadium that has a seating capacity of 52,672. The clubs main investor is the Zhejiang-based Greentown China Holdings Limited company, Greentown became the first sports club from Hangzhou with 1 million followers on Weibo. The club was founded on January 14,1998 and they made their debut in the tier of Chinas football league pyramid in the 1999 league season. On November 23,2000 the club bought the first team of Jilin Aodong as well as their position in the division for 25 million Yuan. Zhejiang Greentown Football Club Co. Ltd. was officially established on January 14,1998 with a capital of 16,000,000 Yuan and Zeng Leming was appointed as their general manager. The company would go on to form a team before finally creating a senior team on January 22,1999 to take part in the third tier with Bao Yingfu as their first head coach. They wouldnt wait long to show their ambition when they would make the play-offs in 2000 before losing to Tianjin Lifei. Under Wang Zheng as their Head coach the team would start to push for promotion. Surprisingly the club were allowed to stay within the 2010 Chinese Super League after it was discovered that Chengdu Blades, after gaining a reprieve from relegation the club went on a spending spree by signing several established Chinese internationals such as Du Wei, Li Yan and Wang Song. However in 2016 they were relegated to the China League One, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. As of 5 January 2016 As of End of 2015 Chinese league season China League One,2006 U-15 Team Nike Cup Winners,2008 All-time League rankings As of the end of 2016 season. ^2 Buy the first team of Jilin Aodong as well as their position in second tier, ^3 Two Super League clubs were involved in match-fixing scandal and relegated to League One, so Hangzhou could stay at top level
Changchun Yatai F.C.
Changchun Yatai Football Club is a professional Chinese football club that currently participates in the Chinese Super League under licence from the Chinese Football Association. The team is based in Changchun, Jilin and their stadium is the Development Area Stadium that has a seating capacity of 25,000. The clubs founder and main investor is the private Chinese conglomerate Jilin Yatai Group, the club was formed on June 6,1996 before making their debut in the third tier of Chinas football league pyramid in the 1997 league season. In 2000 they bought a position into the division after they merged with Bayi Chaoneng. In 2001 they finished runners-up within their division, however they were denied promotion after they were embroiled in a match-fixing scandal, the club would reform and re-apply for a CFA playing license before they eventually gained promotion to Chinas top flight at the end of the 2005 league campaign. In the 2007 Chinese Super League they won the league title and they have since gone on to come second within 2009 Chinese Super League and also participated in the 2010 AFC Champions League. This saw the club denied promotion, had all offending participants banned for a year while the club had three months to reform and re-apply for a CFA playing license. These players in 2003 would go on to win the Jia B title, yin Tiesheng would leave the club in 2004 to take the Chinese U20 head coach position and Chen Jingang was brought in as the new manager. Within his reign Chen Jingang guided the club to a spot in the China League One division in 2005. In 2007 Gao Hongbo was brought as the new manager and in his season he won the Chinese Super League title with them. On August 3,2014, the Chinese super league 18th round, Changchun Yatai 2–1 Guangzhou Evergrande, as of 2 March 2017 Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality, Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality, Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality, Chinese Super League Winners,2007 Chinese Jia B Winners,2003 All-time League rankings As of the end of 2016 season. Did not enter in 1998 campaign, ^2 Promotion to Jia-A league was cancelled due to match fixing
Liaoning Whowin F.C.
The team is based in Shenyang, Liaoning Province and their home stadium is the Shenyang Olympic Sports Center Stadium that has a seating capacity of 60,000. Their current majority shareholders are the Liaoning Sport Technology College and the Huludao Hongyun Group Co, ltd, which is part of the real estate and financial conglomerate the Hongyun Group. The club can predate their formation to 1953 when the local Shenyang government sports body joined existing club Northeast China to play in the Chinese national football league. By 1956 the league was expanding and regional sports institutes were allowed their own representatives. According to Forbes, Liaoning are the 10th most valuable team in China, with a team value of $67 million. In 1954 Guo Hongbin was appointed as their Head coach and as part of the Northeast China team he would achieve success by winning the league title. The club would continue to be a competitor within the football league until 1956 when the team would split after the league allowed regional sports institutes their own representatives. The Shenyang sports body would take over the team and rename themselves Shenyang Sports Institute until 1959 when they named themselves Liaoning Football Team after their own province. While they came close to winning the title on several occasions under Guo Hongbin when football was halted because of the revolution he left the team. When football returned to the country the club hired Gu Mingchang in 1975 and took part in the multi-sport event 1975 Chinese National Games, after that achievement Gu Mingchang was unable to replicate the same success despite coming runners-up twice under his reign before he left in 1980. In 1984 Mi Jide was appointed as the new manager of the team, the first was the inclusion of the Liaoning Youth team now competing within the Chinese football pyramid as well as the organization of semi-professionalism already established 1982. Under his reign he utilized these factors to make Liaoning the dominant team within the football league and his first success came when he won the 1984 Chinese FA Cup, which was then used as a springboard to win the 1985 league title. After that victory Li Yingfa was permanently promoted to the Head coach position, yang Yumin was brought in at the start of the 1992 championship and continued the work of his predecessor and deliver another league title at the end of the season. The club would take part in the 1994 Chinese Jia-A League season, at the end of the season they finished the league in fourth and for the first time in ten seasons they were unable to achieve any silverware. With this investment the club hired former Chinese national team manager Su Yongshun in the hopes of an immediate promotion, Su Yongshun would not be the person to achieve this as the club finished fourth within the division. His faith within his young players would be successful and Liaoning became genuine title contenders. Qu would go on to successfully sue Zhang 2.34 million yuan for compensation on November 22,2004. Zhang would also go on to make an apology to Qu
Henan Jianye F.C.
Henan Jianye Football Club is a professional football club that currently participates in the Chinese Super League under licence from the Chinese Football Association. The team is based in Zhengzhou, in the province of Henan and their owners are the Jianye Residential Group Co. Ltd. which is part of the Central China Real Estate Limited. The clubs predecessor was the Henan Provincial Team who were founded in 1958 while the current professional football team was established on August 27,1994. The club have never won the title and the highest position they have ever achieved was when they came third in the 2009 Chinese Super League season. The team often spent much of its time in the second tier except for a period during the late 1970s when the league was expanded to accommodate more teams. It wasnt long until they won promotion to the top once more in the 1985 league season where they would remain until the 1988 league season when they were relegated at the end of the season. Ltd. and renaming themselves Henan Jianye, henans transition toward professionalism was difficult and they were once more relegated at the end of the 1994 league season to the third tier. Once again they would have to win promotion from the third tier when they came runners-up in the table at the 1995 league season. For several season they were a second tier club fighting against relegation until Henan Jianye Real Estate Development Co. Ltd. decided to take control of the club on January 15,1999. With this sure financial footing the club would go on to win the division title, the club won promotion to the Chinese Super League at the end of the 2006 league season after winning the division title. His appointment was to prove successful and throughout the 2009 league season he would lead them to a third-place finish. The third-place finish led to the clubs first and only appearance in the AFC Champions League in 2010, Henan finished the championship with 3 draws and 3 losses in the group stage. From then on, the performance dropped from year to year. In 2011, they finished the season in 13th position, after an even more chaotic and unsatisfying season in 2012, the club was relegated to the second division. Henan appointed Tang Yaodong again in 2013, who helped the return to the Chinese Super League after the season. However, Tang was once again dismissed halfway through the 2014 season due to the disastrous performance. The team fought hard against Beijing Guoan in the last game of the season and this goalless game helped the club stay in the Chinese Super League narrowly by 1 point. As of 2 March 2017 Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality
The Float @ Marina Bay
The Float at Marina Bay, stylised as The Float@Marina Bay and also known as the Marina Bay Floating Platform, is the worlds largest floating stage. It is located on the waters of the Marina Reservoir, in Marina Bay, made entirely of steel, the floating platform on Marina Bay measures 120 by 83 metres, which is 5% larger than the soccer field at the National Stadium. The platform can bear up to 1,070 tonnes, equivalent to the weight of 9,000 people,200 tonnes of stage props. The gallery at the stadium has a capacity of 30,000 people. The floating stadium will be a venue for events on the waters of Marina Bay for five years from 2007 and these events may include sports, concerts, exhibitions, and the arts and cultural performances. This stadium is part of the Marina Bay Street Circuit Turns 17 and 18, more famously, it was where Nelson Piquet, Jr. crashed his car which led to the Renault Formula One crash controversy. The idea of a platform was conceived by the organising committee of the National Day Parade,2007. Teo had considered Jalan Besar Stadium, the Singapore Turf Club and Marina South before settling on Marina Bay, the Singapore Government evaluated that the temporary stadium is a cost effective solution in lieu of the closure of the National Stadium that is under renovation for 8 years. In 2005, Teos committee worked with the Urban Redevelopment Authority and the Singapore Sports Council on the design of the floating platform, after the design was finalised, the contractor, SembCorp Marine, started construction of the floating platform in March 2006. The stage took 13 months to build, and by April 2007, many considerations were taken into account during the design phase for the construction of the floating platform. As a result, the platform is made of smaller platforms of pontoons,200 pontoons were envisioned, but a unique system of connectors allowed this number to be reduced to 15, which interlock like a jigsaw puzzle. These took one month to assemble, the connectors were designed to be light but robust. Six pylons fixed into the act as the structures foundation. Heavy-duty rubber rollers were used to guide the stage vertically to keep it from being rocked by tides. Three linkways, which connect the platform to the land, have special integrated joints to keep them steady. The floating platform also had to be pleasing to fit the scenic backdrop of the belt of hotels in Marina Centre. This limited the height of the seating gallery, the existing structures and the areas development plans capped the number of seats at 30,000. The platform has been equipped with innovative features, like an internal drainage system, cabling structures
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, sometimes referred to as the Lion City or the Little Red Dot, is a sovereign city-state in Southeast Asia. It lies one degree north of the equator, at the tip of peninsular Malaysia. Singapores territory consists of one island along with 62 other islets. Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its size by 23%. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan, after early years of turbulence, and despite lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation developed rapidly as an Asian Tiger economy, based on external trade and its workforce. Singapore is a global commerce, finance and transport hub, the country has also been identified as a tax haven. Singapore ranks 5th internationally and first in Asia on the UN Human Development Index and it is ranked highly in education, healthcare, life expectancy, quality of life, personal safety, and housing, but does not fare well on the Democracy index. Although income inequality is high, 90% of homes are owner-occupied, 38% of Singapores 5.6 million residents are permanent residents and other foreign nationals. There are four languages on the island, Malay, Mandarin, Tamil. English is its language, most Singaporeans are bilingual. Singapore is a multiparty parliamentary republic, with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government. The Peoples Action Party has won every election since self-government in 1959, however, it is unlikely that lions ever lived on the island, Sang Nila Utama, the Srivijayan prince said to have founded and named the island Singapura, perhaps saw a Malayan tiger. There are however other suggestions for the origin of the name, the central island has also been called Pulau Ujong as far back as the third century CE, literally island at the end in Malay. In 1299, according to the Malay Annals, the Kingdom of Singapura was founded on the island by Sang Nila Utama and these Indianized Kingdoms, a term coined by George Cœdès were characterized by surprising resilience, political integrity and administrative stability. In 1613, Portuguese raiders burned down the settlement, which by then was part of the Johor Sultanate. The wider maritime region and much trade was under Dutch control for the following period, in 1824 the entire island, as well as the Temenggong, became a British possession after a further treaty with the Sultan. In 1826, Singapore became part of the Straits Settlements, under the jurisdiction of British India, prior to Raffles arrival, there were only about a thousand people living on the island, mostly indigenous Malays along with a handful of Chinese. By 1860 the population had swelled to over 80,000, many of these early immigrants came to work on the pepper and gambier plantations
Youth Olympic Games
The Youth Olympic Games is an international multi-sport event organized by the International Olympic Committee. The games are held four years in staggered summer and winter events consistent with the current Olympic Games format. The first summer version was held in Singapore from 14 to 26 August 2010 while the first winter version was held in Innsbruck, the age limitation of the athletes is 14 to 18. The idea of such an event was introduced by Johann Rosenzopf from Austria in 1998 and these Games will also feature cultural exchange programs and opportunities for participants to meet Olympic athletes. The Youth Games are modelled after these sporting events, the YOG are also a successor to the discontinued World Youth Games. Even though this exceeded initial estimates, the YOG are still smaller in size as well as shorter than their senior equivalents. The next Summer YOG to take place will be the 2018 Summer Youth Olympic Games of Buenos Aires, the next Winter YOG to take place will be the 2020 Winter Youth Olympic Games of Lausanne. The concept of the Youth Olympic Games came from Austrian industrial manager Johann Rosenzopf in 1998 and this was in response to growing global concerns about childhood obesity and the dropping participation of youth in sport activities, especially amongst youth in developed nations. It was further recognized that a version of the Olympic Games would help foster participations in the Olympic Games. Despite these reasons for having an Olympic event for young people, Jacques Rogge, IOC President, formally announced plans for the Youth Olympic Games at the 119th IOC session in Guatemala City on 6 July 2007. The city of Singapore was announced as the host of the inaugural Summer Youth Olympics on 21 February 2008, on 12 December 2008 the IOC announced that Innsbruck, host of the 1964 and 1976 Winter Olympics, would be the host of the inaugural Winter Youth Olympics in 2012. The scale of the Youth Olympic Games is smaller than that of the Olympics, potential host cities are required to keep all events within the same city and no new sports venues should be built. Exceptions to this building include a media center, amphitheater facilities for classes and workshops. This village is to be the heart of the Games for the athletes, no new or unique transportation systems are required as all athletes and coaches will be transported by shuttles. According to bid procedures, the track and field stadium for the opening and closing ceremonies must hold 10,000 people, the IOC has stipulated that costs for infrastructure and venues is to be paid by the host city. The IOC will pay travel costs to the host city and room and board for the athletes and judges, the funding will come from IOC funds and not revenues. The budgets for the two bids for the inaugural Summer Games came in at $90 million, much higher than the estimated costs. The cost of the first games in Singapore escalated to an estimated S$387 million, sponsors have been slow to sign on for the YOG, due to the fact that it is a new initiative and corporations are not sure what level of exposure they will get
Estadio Monumental Antonio Vespucio Liberti
It was opened on 25 May 1938 and named after former club president Antonio Vespucio Liberti. It is the largest stadium in Argentina with a capacity of 62.000 and it was the main venue in the 1951 Pan American Games and in the 1978 FIFA World Cup which hosted the final between Argentina and the Netherlands. Additionally, it hosted four finals of the Copa América, most recently in 2011 for the 2011 Copa América, in 2018, the stadium will host the Opening and Closing ceremonies of 2018 Summer Youth Olympics in Buenos Aires. The Club Atlético River Plate was founded in 1901 and by 1934, at the time, the club was nicknamed Los Millonarios because of the purchase of forward Carlos Peucelle for whom River had paid a huge amount of money. On October 31,1934, River Plate purchased the land where the club was to build the new stadium in the neighborhood of Belgrano, El Monumental was built on land reclaimed from the marshy coast of Río de la Plata. On May 25,1935, the cornerstone was laid on the Centennial, on December 1 of that year, the Steering Committee presented the approved project in detail to its members at an assembly. They obtained a loan of $2,500,000 from the government and on September 27,1936, construction began under the direction of architects José Aslan, the foundation of the stadium was to be six or eight feet deep. This required open pit excavation to ensure the stability of the ground, the construction of the three stands was completed in two years. There are 50 km of steps, with 26,000 square meters of reinforced concrete, the stadium was inaugurated on Wednesday 25 May, amidst a crowd of approximately 65,000 people. They witnessed the handing over of an Argentine flag, one from the club, paid for by a group of associates, and then sang the national anthem, the next day, nearly 68,000 spectators were present. After various activities the evening ended with a match between River Plate and Uruguay team Peñarol, with a 3–1 victory for the home squad, when the Monumental project was originally designed, it consisted of four double decker stands. As the bank loan was not enough to carry out the entire project, the horseshoe was partially enclosed in 1958, under the club presidency of Enrique Pardo. The new construction, the first tier Colonia stand, was financed by proceeds from the 10M pesos transfer of Omar Sivori to Juventus of Italy, with the new construction the stadiums capacity reached 90,000. The stadium was remodelled and finally completed to meet the project after Argentina was awarded the right to host the 1978 World Cup. Monumental was the headquarters for the 1978 World Cup, the venue was opened on June 1 for the match between West Germany and Poland. They hosted seven games, including the final between Argentina and the Netherlands. San Lorenzo earned the record for highest number of attending a match for a visiting team in 1982. In their second match against Tigre, San Lorenzo, brought more than 70,000 people to Rivers stadium
Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina. The city is located on the shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata. The city of Buenos Aires is neither part of Buenos Aires Province nor the Provinces capital, rather, in 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires Province. The city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Belgrano and Flores, the 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city autonomy, hence its formal name, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. Its citizens first elected a chief of government in 1996, previously, Buenos Aires is considered an alpha city by the study GaWC5. Buenos Aires quality of life was ranked 81st in the world and one of the best in Latin America in 2012 and it is the most visited city in South America, and the second-most visited city of Latin America. Buenos Aires is a top tourist destination, and is known for its preserved Spanish/European-style architecture, Buenos Aires held the 1st Pan American Games in 1951 as well as hosting two venues in the 1978 FIFA World Cup. Buenos Aires will host the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics and the 2018 G20 summit, Buenos Aires is a multicultural city, being home to multiple ethnic and religious groups. Several languages are spoken in the city in addition to Spanish, contributing to its culture, the hill was known to them as Buen Ayre, as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city, which is adjacent to swampland. During the siege of Cagliari, the Aragonese built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary on top of the hill, in 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the Mercedarians, who built an abbey that stands to this day. In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea, the statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors, especially Andalusians, venerated this image and frequently invoked the Fair Winds to aid them in their navigation, a sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be later erected in Seville. Pedro de Mendoza called the city Holy Mary of the Fair Winds, mendoza’s settlement soon came under attack by indigenous people, and was abandoned in 1541. For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, a second settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción. Garay preserved the name chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire. The short form Buenos Aires became the common usage during the 17th century, the usual abbreviation for Buenos Aires in Spanish is Bs. As. It is common as well to refer to it as B. A. or BA /ˌbiːˈeɪ/ bee-AY), while BA is used more by expats residing in the city, the locals more often use the abbreviation Baires, in one word. Seaman Juan Díaz de Solís, navigating in the name of Spain, was the first European to reach the Río de la Plata in 1516 and his expedition was cut short when he was killed during an attack by the native Charrúa tribe in what is now Uruguay
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation, to specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection. The invention of a coordinate system is generally credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene. Ptolemy credited him with the adoption of longitude and latitude. Ptolemys 2nd-century Geography used the prime meridian but measured latitude from the equator instead. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes recovery of Ptolemys text a little before 1300, in 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while France and Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911, the latitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the equator, the north pole is 90° N, the south pole is 90° S. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the equator, the plane of all geographic coordinate systems. The equator divides the globe into Northern and Southern Hemispheres, the longitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle east or west of a reference meridian to another meridian that passes through that point. All meridians are halves of great ellipses, which converge at the north and south poles, the prime meridian determines the proper Eastern and Western Hemispheres, although maps often divide these hemispheres further west in order to keep the Old World on a single side. The antipodal meridian of Greenwich is both 180°W and 180°E, the combination of these two components specifies the position of any location on the surface of Earth, without consideration of altitude or depth. The grid formed by lines of latitude and longitude is known as a graticule, the origin/zero point of this system is located in the Gulf of Guinea about 625 km south of Tema, Ghana. To completely specify a location of a feature on, in, or above Earth. Earth is not a sphere, but a shape approximating a biaxial ellipsoid. It is nearly spherical, but has an equatorial bulge making the radius at the equator about 0. 3% larger than the radius measured through the poles, the shorter axis approximately coincides with the axis of rotation