Wells Fargo Plaza (Houston)
The Wells Fargo Plaza, formerly the Allied Bank Plaza and First Interstate Bank Plaza, is a skyscraper located at 1000 Louisiana Street in Downtown Houston, Texas in the United States. It is the tallest building named for Wells Fargo, from street level, the building is 302.4 meters tall and contains 71 floors. It extends four more stories below street level, Wells Fargo Plaza features a wide variety of fine amenities for its tenants including The Houstonian Lite Health Club located on the 14th floor. Sky lobbies on the 34/35th and 58/59th floors are not publicly accessible and these sky lobbies are served by double-decker elevators and primarily serve as transfer floors to local elevators. It was designed by Richard Keating, FAIA while a partner of Skidmore, in 1983 the building lost a large number of windows during Hurricane Alicia. Originally named the Allied Bank Plaza, it was renamed to the First Interstate Bank Plaza in 1988, First Interstate Bancorp was taken over in 1996 by Wells Fargo.
In 1993, the Consulate-General of the United Kingdom in Houston leased 9,707 square feet in the First Interstate Plaza, in 1995 Koll Real Estate lost the management contract for the First Interstate Plaza. In 1996 NGC Corp. leased 260,000 square feet in the First Interstate Plaza, the company moved over 700 jobs from a suburban office building along U. S. Route 290 to the Wells Fargo Plaza. In 2012, the company moved out of the building as part of downsizing initiatives while undergoing bankruptcy procedures, in 2006, Targa Resources signed an 11-year lease to occupy 101,600 square feet of space in the Wells Fargo Plaza. Targa expanded from its space and began to occupy floors 43 through 46. In 2007 CB Richard Ellis became the leasing agent for Wells Fargo Plaza. As of October of that year the building was 91% leased, the leased space consists mostly of large tenants, with some mid-sized tenants occupying space. In December 2014, PwC moved into the formerly occupied by Dynegy. The Houston office of PwC is primarily located in Suite 5800, Targa Resources is located in Suite 4300.
The Houstonian Lite club is located in a 12, 000-square-foot area on the 14th floor and it includes group exercise studio space, locker rooms, a private Pilates studio, and exercise equipment. The club, operated by The Redstone Cos. operators of The Houstonian Hotel, was the third Houstonian Lite club in Greater Houston and it had been under construction since December 2005. The owner of the Wells Fargo building, Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. and Metropolitan Tower Realty Company Inc. the Consulate-General of the United Kingdom in Houston is located in Suite 1900. At one point the Consulate-General of Japan in Houston was located in Suite 5300 and Suite 2300, at one point the Consulate-General of Switzerland in Houston resided in Suite 5670, the mission, which at a point moved to Two Allen Center, no longer exists
Ping An Finance Centre
Ping An International Finance Centre is a 115-storey megatall skyscraper in Shenzhen, Guangdong province, China. The building was commissioned by Ping An Insurance and designed by the American architectural firm Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates and it was completed in 2016, thus becoming the 4th tallest building in the world. The building is located within the Central Business District of Shenzhen in Futian and its 18,931 square metre lot was purchased by Ping An Group via auction at a price of 1.6568 billion RMB on November 6,2007. Its foundation stone was laid on August 29,2009 and construction started in November the same year, on March 15,2013, the construction process was temporarily halted, due to the suspected use of concrete made with unprocessed sea sand, which could corrode the steel structure. Construction resumed on the building after sample testing, the building topped out on April 30,2015 and became the second tallest skyscraper in China at a height of 600 metres. The original plan was to add a 60-metre antenna atop the building to surpass the Shanghai Tower, however, in February 2015, it was decided that the antenna would not top the tower due to the possibility that it might obstruct flight paths.
The building contains office and retail spaces, a conference centre, the two uppermost stories feature an observation deck. As its name suggests, it is the headquarters of Ping An Insurance, the building has a total gross floor area of 378,600 square metres, plus a basement area of 90,000 square metres. The Ping An International Finance Centre is equipped with 33 double deck elevators, in January 2015, daredevil Malaysian photographer Keow Wee Loong climbed the incomplete building and released video footage and a photo taken from a crane at the towers top. On October 30,2016, at 1 AM it was climbed by Vennphang, a second building of the project, a 290-metre, 47-storey skyscraper known as the south tower, is in its foundation stage. Construction started in April 2014 and is expected to be completed by 2018, the complex will include a planned retail bridge connecting the two skyscrapers from levels 3 through 6
Central Plaza (Hong Kong)
Central Plaza is a 78-storey,374 m skyscraper completed in August 1992 at 18 Harbour Road, in Wan Chai on Hong Kong Island in Hong Kong. It is the third tallest tower in the city after 2 International Finance Centre in Central and it was the tallest building in Asia from 1992 to 1996, until the Shun Hing Square in neighbouring Shenzhen was built. Central Plaza surpassed the Bank of China Tower as the tallest building in Hong Kong until the completion of 2 IFC, Central Plaza was the tallest reinforced concrete building in the world, until it was surpassed by CITIC Plaza, Guangzhou. The building uses a floor plan. On the top of the tower is a four-bar neon clock that indicates the time by displaying different colours for 15-minute periods, an anemometer is installed on the tip of the buildings mast, at 378 metres above sea level. The mast has a height of 102 m and it houses the worlds highest church inside a skyscraper, Sky City Church. Central Plaza is made up of two components, a free standing 368-metre-high office tower and a 30. 5-metre-high podium block attached to it.
The ground level public area along with the public sitting out area form an 8,400 m2 landscaped garden with fountain, trees, no commercial element is included in the podium. The first level is a thoroughfare for three pedestrian bridges linking the Mass Transit Railway, the Convention and Exhibition Centre and the China Resource Building. By turning these space to use, the building got 20% plot ratio more as bonus. The shape of the tower is not truly triangular but with its three corners cut off to provide better internal office spaces. The building was designed to be triangular in shape because it would allow 20% more of the area to enjoy the harbour view as compared with a square or rectangular shaped buildings. Nonetheless, the building plan causes the air handling unit room in the internal core to assume a triangular configuration. With only limited space, this makes the adoption of a standard AHU not feasible, all air-conditioning ducting, electrical trunking and piping gathered inside the core area has to be squeezed into a very narrow and congested corridor ceiling void.
As the building is situated opposite to the HKCEC, the way to get more sea view for the building. All these problems can increase the capital cost of the building systems, as a general practice, for achieving a clear height of 2.6 to 2.7 m, a floor-to-floor height of 3.9 to 4.0 m would be required. However, because of high windload in Hong Kong for such a super high-rise building, therefore, a comprehensive study was conducted and finally a floor height of 3.6 m was adopted. With this issue alone, a construction cost saving for a total of 58 office floors
85 Sky Tower
85 Sky Tower, formerly known as the T & C Tower or Tuntex Sky Tower, is an 85-story skyscraper located in Lingya District, Taiwan. The structure is 347.5 m high, an antenna increases the pinnacle height to 378 m. Constructed from 1994 to 1997, it is the tallest skyscraper in Kaohsiung, there is no 44th floor in the building, the 43rd floor connects directly to the 45th floor. The pyramid shaped crown is the equivalent of 3 stories high, there is no elevator access to floors above 80. The columns and foundation are made of steel since at 85th storey the 21MPa Ultimate compressive strength of concrete collapses, the building was designed by C. Y. Lee & Partners and Hellmuth, Obata & Kassabaum, and has an unusual design with two separate 39-floor sections, which merge into a single central tower rising to a spire. This unique design leaves a space below the central part of the tower. The design was inspired by the first Kanji and Chinese character of the citys name, john W. Milton was Project Director on behalf of Turner International Inc, a subsidiary of Turner Construction.
The building was owned by the now defunct Tuntex Group, and is mainly offices, but includes residential space, a department store, office space and studio apartment occupy each side of the lower floors. There is an Atrium that extends from Level 45s Shimmer Ballroom to 83, List of tallest buildings in Taiwan List of tallest buildings in the world Tuntex Sky Tower on CTBUH Skyscraper Center Emporis Tuntex & Chien-Tai Tower at Structurae
Bank of America Tower (Manhattan)
The Bank of America Tower at One Bryant Park is a 1,200 ft skyscraper in the Midtown area of Manhattan in New York City. It is located on Avenue of the Americas, between 42nd and 43rd Streets, opposite Bryant Park, the US$1 billion project was designed by COOKFOX Architects, and advertised to be one of the most efficient and ecologically friendly buildings in the world. It is the fourth tallest building in New York City, after One World Trade Center,432 Park Avenue, and the Empire State Building, the buildings Urban Garden Room at 43rd Street and 6th Avenue is open to the public. The towers architectural spire is 255.5 ft tall and was placed on December 15,2007, several buildings were demolished to make way for the tower. Among them was the Hotel Diplomat, a 13-story structure which occupied the site at 108 West 43rd Street since 1911, and Henry Millers Theatre, the Bank of America Tower is considered a worldwide model for green architecture in skyscrapers. The tower features a system, which captures rainwater for reuse.
Bank of America states that the building is largely of recycled. Air entering the building is filtered, as is common, Bank of America Tower is the first skyscraper designed to attain a Platinum LEED Certification. The Bank of America Tower is constructed using a concrete manufactured with slag, the mixture used in the tower concrete is 55% cement and 45% slag. Each ton of cement produced creates about one ton of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Temperature control and the production of some of its energy are accomplished in a friendly manner for the tower. Insulated glazing reduces thermal loss, lowering energy consumption and increasing transparency, carbon dioxide sensors signal increased fresh air ventilation when elevated levels of carbon dioxide are detected in the building. Conditioned air for the occupants is provided by multiple air column units located in the tenant space that deliver 50 °F air into a raised access floor plenum and this underfloor air system provides users with the ability to control their own space temperature as well as improving the ventilation effectiveness.
When building churn occurs, workstation moves can be performed easily with lower cost. Ice batteries have been used since absorption chillers first made ice commercially available 150 years ago, before the invention of the electric light bulb. Water conservation features in the tower include waterless urinals, which are estimated to save 8,000,000 US gal of water per year, the tower has a 4. 6-megawatt cogeneration plant, which provides part of the base-load energy requirements. In summer 2013, the Durst Organization employed Brooklyn Grange Rooftop Farm to install, when comparing building height, only the structural height is used according to rules and regulations of the World Council on Tall Buildings. Currently, the New York Times Building and the Chrysler Building are tied for the position of the third tallest buildings in New York City
U.S. Bank Tower (Los Angeles)
US Bank Tower, formerly Library Tower and First Interstate Bank World Center, is a 1, 018-foot skyscraper at 633 West Fifth Street in downtown Los Angeles, California. It is the third tallest building in an active seismic region. It consists of 73 stories above ground and two parking levels below ground, construction began in 1987 with completion in 1989. The building was designed by Henry N. Cobb of the architectural firm Pei Cobb Freed & Partners and it is one of the most recognizable buildings in Los Angeles, often used in establishing shots for the city in films and television programs. US Bank Tower in Los Angeles was sold to Overseas Union Enterprise Ltd, OUE, a Singapore-based hotel and property company run by Indonesian billionaire Stephen Riady, acquired the tower and other related assets for $367.5 million. OUE acquired the 72-floor office building, the adjacent Maguire Gardens park, the City of Los Angeles sold air rights to the developers of the tower to help pay for the reconstruction of the library.
The building was known for a time as First Interstate Bank World Center. In March 2003, the property was leased by U. S. Bancorp, however, generally continue to refer to it as Library Tower. The tower has a large crown at its top that is illuminated at night. S. First Interstate Banks “I” logo on the crown was in the 1993 Guinness Book of World Records for highest placed logo, in July 2014, Overseas Union Enterprise Ltd. the new owners of the skyscraper, announced construction of an observation deck named OUE Skyspace. On the 69th and 70th floors and a restaurant named 71Above on the 71st floor, access to the observation deck costs $25 per person. For an additional $8 visitors can take a trip down a transparent glass slide affixed to the outside of the building between the 70th and 69th floors. On June 16,2004, the 9/11 Commission reported that the plan for the September 11 attacks called for the hijacking of ten planes. On October 6,2005, House officials stated that the government had foiled a previously undisclosed second plot to crash a plane into the building in mid-2002, in his televised 2006 State of the Union Address, President George W.
According to President Bush, Al-Qaeda leader Khaled Sheikh Mohammeds plan was to use Asian confederates from Jemaah Islamiyah recruited by Islamic militant Hambali for the hijacking, President Bush asserted the hijackers were going to use shoe bombs to breach the planes cockpit door. Some counter-terrorism experts have expressed doubt that the plot was ever developed or likely to occur. Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld Cornerstone Research Gordon & Rees LLP Hinshaw & Culbertson LLP Jenner & Block Thomson West U. S, in the 2000 movie Disneys The Kid, Bruce Willis character, an image consultant, works in the building. In the 2001 movie Swordfish, the bus is deposited on top of the building by the Skyhook helicopter
The KK100, formerly known as Kingkey 100 and Kingkey Finance Tower, is a supertall skyscraper in Shenzhen, Guangdong province, China. It is located on Shennan East Road and within Caiwuwei, an area described as the financial district of Shenzhen. It belongs to Shenzhens Luohu District and is situated east of Lizhi Park, the mixed-use building rises 441.8 metres and contains 100 floors for office space and a hotel. Adjacent to KK100 is the KK Mall, which opened its doors November 26,2010, and contains luxury brand stores, the KK Mall hosts Shenzhens first IMAX cinema. The St. Regis Hotel occupies floors 75 to 98 of the main tower and it is currently the second tallest building in Shenzhen as well as being the 14th tallest building in the world. It is the tallest building designed by a British architect. There is a fountain in front of the building. In December 2011, the Emporis Skyscraper Award awarded the building a fourth place, the building has a height-width ratio of 9.5,1, thus becoming one of Chinas slimmest buildings.
List of tallest buildings in Shenzhen List of tallest buildings in the Peoples Republic of China List of buildings with 100 floors or more Kingkey 100 on CTBUH Skyscraper Center
China International Trust and Investment Plaza is an 80-storey,391 m skyscraper in the Tianhe District of Guangzhou, Peoples Republic of China. Its structural height includes two antenna-like spires on the top, completed in 1997, it is the tallest concrete building in the world. Currently, it ranks as the eighth tallest building in China, 11th in Asia, located in the growing and expanding Tianhe District, it is part of a complex of the same name which consists of two 38-story residential buildings. Its proximity includes a new station which serves the extremely busy Guangzhou-Shenzhen. A new metro station, and the Tianhe Sports Center, where the 6th National Games and it is on the same Axis as two new building developments in Guangzhou, the first being the East and West Towers in Zhujiang New City and the Pearl Observation tower. It is surrounded by tall buildings and is a symbol of Guangzhous growing wealth. All Nippon Airways operated its Guangzhou Office in 2605 CITIC Plaza until May 2,2011, on May 3,2011 and since then, it has been in Tower A of Victory Plaza.
The building is accessible from Linhe West Station of Guangzhou Metro, CITIC Plaza elevator service floor list No. 35, B1,1, 6-27, 27A,28, 30-47, 47A,48, 50-66, 67A, 67B,68, 71-75 No
Franklin Center (Chicago)
The Franklin Center is a 60-story supertall skyscraper completed in 1989 as the AT&T Corporate Center to consolidate the central region headquarters of the American Telephone & Telegraph Company. It stands at a height of 1,007 ft and contains 1,700,000 sq ft in the Loop neighborhood of downtown Chicago. It is located two blocks east of the Chicago River and northeast of the Willis Tower with an address of 227 West Monroe Street. In the Loop community area of downtown Chicago, the supertall building is the tallest constructed in Chicago in the last quarter of the 20th century. It is the 5th tallest building in Chicago and the 13th tallest in the United States and it contains office and retail space and a 350-space garage. Tishman Speyer acquired the property in 2004 and renamed the adjacent USG Building as Franklin Center in 2007 after USG relocated its offices, the name was applied to the entire complex. A1982 consent decree split the American Telephone & Telegraph Company monopoly into several entities with local service providers becoming part of a Regional Bell Operating Company, in the decade that followed, AT&T erected new buildings across the country including the AT&T Building in New York City.
April 5,1985, AT&T issued a request for proposals that produced eleven respondents, Stein and Co. the winning realtor, sought Skidmore and Merrill as designers for the purpose of distinguishing a proposal from the nearby Willis Tower. AT&T employees began to occupy the office space April 3,1989, the building was built under a self-imposed comprehensive minority contracting and affirmative action package that met the citys 1985 30% hiring rule for public sector projects. Chicago mayor Harold Washingtons administration had passed an edict that 30% of the work for public sector projects be set aside for minority, in a show of support for this rule, Stein & Co. and AT&T adopted the rule for their private development. Designed by Adrian D. Smith of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, the buildings form features setbacks at the 15th, 30th and 45th floors. Designed in the architectural style, it is a granite-clad steel-framed building resting on pile foundations. The structure is characterized by vertical lines, spiked roof pinnacles, granite cladding.
The granite is a red color at the base. Above the 5th floor, the lighter rose-beige granite is protected by silk-screened aluminum panels, the building relies on Gothic detailing to showcase verticality. The buildings verticality evokes images of 1920s buildings, and the sturdiness of the structure is reminiscent of the Chicago Board of Trade Building, in addition to its design, the building relies on its location at the farthest corner from the Willis Tower to set it apart. The Otis elevators are spanned by a series of neo-deco light bands extending wall to wall, the building boasts two public lobbies and a mezzanine-level lobby. The lobbies are among the most lavish in Chicago, and they are all decorated with patterned marble floors and walls, gold-leaf oak trim, and stylized lighting fixtures
Salesforce Tower, formerly known as the Transbay Tower, is a 1, 070-foot supertall office skyscraper under construction in the South of Market district of downtown San Francisco. When completed, the tower will be the tallest in San Francisco, with a top roof height of 970 feet and an overall height of 1,070 feet, it will be the second-tallest building west of the Mississippi River after the Wilshire Grand Center in Los Angeles. Developer Hines, with a proposal by architect César Pelli, was selected as the winner of a competition in 2007 to entitle. In 2012, Boston Properties acquired a 50% stake in the project, the site of the tower was in a dilapidated area, formerly used as a ground-level entrance to the San Francisco Transbay Terminal, which was demolished in 2011. The TJPA sold the parcel to Boston Properties and Hines for US$192 million, actual below-grade construction work started in late 2013. The project is a joint venture between general contractors Clark Construction and Hathaway Dinwiddie Construction, the development was originally contracted on spec, meaning the developer-owner did not have a major tenant lease secured beforehand.
On April 11,2014, Salesforce. com announced that it signed a lease for 714,000 square feet on floors 1, 3–30, previously known as the Transbay Tower, the building was renamed Salesforce Tower. The lease was valued at US$560 million over 15 and a half starting in 2017. The tower is expected to be completed in 2018 and will have 61 floors, the original proposal called for a 1, 200-foot tower, but the height was reduced. It will be the tallest building in San Francisco, surpassing the Transamerica Pyramid by more than 200 feet, the tower is expected to become the second-tallest building in the Western United States. A facebook group critical of the design gained over 700 likes. Despite the tower not being completed, San Francisco Curbed readers rated Salesforce Tower as one of the 20 ugliest buildings in the city. Many noted their disappointment that the tower, built on formerly state-owned land and claiming the highest elevation point in San Francisco, satirical blogs have ridiculed the tower for its provocative shape
A skyscraper is a tall, continuously habitable building having multiple floors. When the term was used in the 1880s it described a building of 10 to 20 floors. Mostly designed for office and residential uses, a skyscraper can be called a high-rise, for buildings above a height of 300 m, the term supertall can be used, while skyscrapers reaching beyond 600 m are classified as megatall. One common feature of skyscrapers is having a steel framework that supports curtain walls and these curtain walls either bear on the framework below or are suspended from the framework above, rather than resting on load-bearing walls of conventional construction. Some early skyscrapers have a frame that enables the construction of load-bearing walls taller than of those made of reinforced concrete. Modern skyscrapers walls are not load-bearing, and most skyscrapers are characterized by surface areas of windows made possible by steel frames. However, skyscrapers can have curtain walls that mimic conventional walls with a surface area of windows.
Modern skyscrapers often have a structure, and are designed to act like a hollow cylinder to resist wind, seismic. To appear more slender, allow less wind exposure, and transmit more daylight to the ground, many skyscrapers have a design with setbacks, a relatively big building may be considered a skyscraper if it protrudes well above its built environment and changes the overall skyline. The maximum height of structures has progressed historically with building methods and technologies, the Burj Khalifa is currently the tallest building in the world. High-rise buildings are considered shorter than skyscrapers, the first steel-frame skyscraper was the Home Insurance Building in Chicago, Illinois in 1885. Even the scholars making the argument find it to be purely academic and this definition was based on the steel skeleton—as opposed to constructions of load-bearing masonry, which passed their practical limit in 1891 with Chicagos Monadnock Building. What is the characteristic of the tall office building.
The force and power of altitude must be in it, the glory and it must be every inch a proud and soaring thing, rising in sheer exaltation that from bottom to top it is a unit without a single dissenting line. Some structural engineers define a highrise as any vertical construction for which wind is a significant load factor than earthquake or weight. Note that this criterion fits not only high-rises but some other tall structures, the word skyscraper often carries a connotation of pride and achievement. A loose convention of some in the United States and Europe draws the limit of a skyscraper at 150 m or 490 ft. The tallest building in ancient times was the 146 m Great Pyramid of Giza in ancient Egypt and it was not surpassed in height for thousands of years, the 14th century AD Lincoln Cathedral being conjectured by many to have exceeded it
Wilshire Grand Center
Wilshire Grand Center is a 1, 100-foot skyscraper under construction in the Financial District of Downtown Los Angeles, California. It is the tallest building in Los Angeles and the tallest building in California, the building will be part of a mixed-use hotel, observation decks, shopping malls and office complex, expected to revitalize downtown Los Angeles and the area surrounding the building. The development of the complex is estimated to cost $1.2 billion, the plans include 67,000 square feet of retail,677,000 square feet of Class A office space and 900 hotel rooms. InterContinental is the hotel component, comprising 900 rooms and suites occupying the 38th to the 70th floors. Floors basement to 2, Podium building with retail and InterContinental Los Angeles Downtown meeting rooms, the original Wilshire Grand Hotel opened in 1952 as the Hotel Statler, on the site of the new Wilshire Grand. In 1950, the City of Los Angeles issued the largest single building permit at the time for the construction of the hotel, which cost over $15 million.
The hotel quickly became a landmark of downtown Los Angeles, and over its 59-year lifespan attracted famous guests including President John F. Kennedy, in 1954, two years after its opening, Hilton Hotels & Resorts purchased the Statler Hotels chain, renaming the hotel the Statler Hilton. In 1968 Hilton completed a $2.5 million renovation of the hotel, Reliance Group purchased the hotel in 1983 and invested $30 million in renovations. Korean Air purchased the Los Angeles Hilton from Reliance in 1989 and they changed the hotels management and it became the Omni Los Angeles Hotel in 1995 and later the Wilshire Grand Hotel in 1999. It is part of a development effort to revitalize the Figueroa Street corridor of downtown Los Angeles as a vibrant light-and-sign district. The Los Angeles-based architectural firm, A. C. Martin Partners is overseeing the project and they took over from Thomas Properties, who managed the early proposals, but the owners became dissatisfied with their approach. A distinctive feature of the building is its sail-shaped crown which will be illuminated with LED lighting at night, the tower will spearhead part of a new planned light and sign district that will extend along the Figueroa Corridor down to L. A.
Live. According to recent renderings, it is however to what extent LED lighting and advertising will be applied. Lead designer David C. Martin said that the spire and the exterior skin of the tower will be filled with programmable LED lighting. The spire weighs 200,000 pounds and adds 294 foot in height to the building, land use entitlements and construction staking services were provided by Psomas. The foundation is set on bedrock known as the Fernando Formation, on March 8,2016, the topping out ceremony was held. On March 17,2016, a worker died by suicide after jumping from the 53rd floor. On September 3,2016, the Wilshire Grand became the tallest building in Los Angeles at 1,100 feet, the supertall building set to open Late April/ early May 2017